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P 155

by: Kole Corwin

P 155 PSY

Kole Corwin
GPA 3.52

Cynthia Hoffman

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Cynthia Hoffman
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Indiana University taught by Cynthia Hoffman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/233467/psy-indiana-university in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Know EXACT DEFINITIONS for the following terms theorya set of ideas used to explain how and why certain events are related to one another theoretical perspectives diverse explanations of human behavior psychodynamic inner workings of personality traits emotions motives defense mechanisms forces within repression early childhood experiences Freud behavioral external environment human reactoradaptor to environment learning is key to understanding how experience molds behavior punishments amp rewards techniques aimed at decreasing problem behaviors amp increasing positive behaviors by manipulating environmental factors behavior modification study observable behavior Watson Skinner humanistic selfactualization positive psychology free will personal growth seeking meaning in one s existence free agents personal choice amp responsibility Maslow Rogers cognitive thinking nature of mind amp mental processes like attention reasoning anticipation decisionmaking problem solving memory and how they in uence behavior structuralism amp functionalism sociocultural social environment and cultural learning in uence our behavior thoughts and feelings roles culture norms socialization individualismcollectivism biologicalbrain processes and other bodily functions and how they regulate behavior behavioral neuroscience behavior genetics evolutionary psychology functionalism James hypothesis a specific prediction about some phenomenon that often takes the form of an if then statement variable any characteristic we can measure that can vary operational definition describes the specific procedures or operations used to produce manipulate or measure a variable research methods descriptiverecording events an investigator observes a situation and records what happens typically in natural settings case study an indepth analysis of an individual group or event naturalistic observation observe behavior as it occurs in a natural setting and attempts to avoid in uencing behavior survey research information about a topic obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to many people correlational looks for associations between naturally occurring events or variables researcher measures one variable X then measures a second variable Y then calculates a descriptive statistic which is a correlation coefficient to determine whether X and Y are related experimentalthe investigator manipulates one variable and measures whether this manipulation affects another variable to determine whether there is a causeandeffect relationship between variables controlling extraneous factors that might in uence outcomes of the experiment representative sampleexhibits the important characteristics and diversity of the target population random sample every individual in the population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate in the sample likely to be representative though not guaranteed bidirectionality problem the possibility that X caused Y or Y caused X or X and Y caused Y and X mysterious third variable problem X and Y are correlated but Z is actually what directly effects them both in such a way as to appear causally related positive correlation higher scores in one variable are associated with higher scores on a second negative correlation higher scores in one variable are associated with lower scores on a second strength of correlation the stronger the relationship between two variables the more confidently we can predict one given that we know the other experiment an experiment is a research method in which the investigator mampulates one variable and measures whether this mampulation affects another variable to determine whether there is a causeandeffect relationship between variables while controlling extraneous factors that might in uence outcomes of the experiment independent variable manipulated may cause a difference in the dependent variable between the group given the special treatment and the group that is not dependent variable measured result may be effected by the independent variable experimental group gets the special treatment control group does not receive special treatment internal validity represents the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions can mampulating the independent variable cause the dependent variable to change or not random assignment of subjects to groups controlled conditions the experimental and control groups should be treated exactly alike in all respects except for the variable that is of particular interest the independent variable extraneous variable a variable other than the independent variable that differed for the experimental and control groups and might cause a difference in the dependent variable between groups in a study placebo a fake ineffectual treatment placebo effect when people receiving a treatment show a real change in physiology sensory experience thoughts emotions or behavior because of their expectations not because of treatment itself experimenter expectancy effects subtle and unintentional ways researchers in uence their participants to respond in a manner consistent with their hypothesis doubleblind research design both the subject and the researcherexperimenter are kept blind as to which group the participant is in design minimizes participant placebo effects and experimenter expectancy effects replication process of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated with a similar methodology external validity degree to which results of a study can be generalized to other populations settings and conditions inferential statistics allows us to make inferences about a larger group of individuals population on the basis of data collected about a much smaller group sample statistically significant the probability is low that the observed findings for our sample is due to chance Questions for thought Define operational definition and explain why is it important to give exact operational definitions of variables An operational de nition is the definition given by the experimenter in order to provide a way to produce manipulate and measure a variable This is important because an experiment must be carried out with similar methodology with the same relative terms in order to prevent dissimilar results caused by di ering de nitions of the same terms Which 3 research goals can be satisfied by correlational research and goal which cannot Why not Correlational research can predict the amount of a variable if it is correlated with another variable with a known amount assess external validity and we can study phenomena that we cannot practically or ethically study in an experiment Correlational research cannot discover cause and effect Ifl discovered a positive correlation between the amount of sugar someone eats and their likelihood of having symptoms of depression what are 3 possible explanations for this correlation that differ in terms of the causal relationship between X and Y Give two explanations that re ect the bidirectionality problem and one explanation that re ects the mysterious third variable problem Two examples of bidirectionality problems are as follows A Sugar could be the cause of the depression that is eating sugar causes a person to feel depressed B Depression could be the cause of sugar consumption that is eating sugar is a result of feeling depressed The mysterious third variable problem is one in which a third variable Z is the actual cause of the direct e ect between them both in such a way so as to make them appear causally related An example of such is that how much a person weighs Z eyfects their intake of sugar X and causes their depression Y Would we generally expect the correlation between amount of sleep the night before the exam and exam grade to be positive or negative Would we generally expect the correlation between number of exams in a week and grade on exam taken that week to be positive or negative Positive negative If there is a correlation between the personality trait of sensation seeking and enjoyment of a new amusement park ride such that r 045 describe the direction and strength of relationship between these two variables This is a negative correlation of moderate strength This means that where one variable increases the other one decreases Give the complete formal definition of an experiment Explain what it means to run an experiment under controlled conditions An experiment is a research method in which the investigator manipulates one variable and measures whether this manipulation affects another variable to determine whether there is a causeande ect relationship between the variables while controlling extraneous factors that might in uence outcomes of the experiment Controlled conditions means that the experimental and control groups in the experiment should be given the exact same treatment besides the special conditions of the experimental group in order to limit or remove biases and confounding variables Explain the difference between random sampling and random assignment of subjects to groups in terms or procedure what they are and purpose why we do them What does random assignment of subjects to group have to do with internal validity Random sampling is the random picking of individuals in a population wherein every individual in that population has an equally likely chance of being chosen to participate in the sample This is done in order to make the sample likely representative Random assignment of subjects to groups is the random choosing of individuals in a random sample to be put into the experimental and control groups in order to allow for diversity The use of random sampling and random assignment to groups both help internal validity in that both allow the dependent variable to be shown as diyferent due to manipulation of the independent variable instead of a di erence between the experimental and control groups Define placebo effect How do we know if a placebo effect is happening in an experiment A placebo eyfect is a fake or false treatment If a control group is given a placebo and an experimental group is given an actual treatment and the results for both groups score similarly then the placebo e ect is clearly occurring Define experimenterexpectancy effect Why would the presence of a placebo or an experimenter expectancy effect be a problem in an experiment Define doubleblind experimental design why would we use one The experimenterexpectancy e ect is one in which the experimenter anticipates a certain result and this actually eyfects the participants of the study in such a fashion so as to respond in a manner consistent with the hypothesis given The presence of a placebo or experimenterexpectancy e ect is a problem because it confounds the experiment in such a way so as to skew the data of the dependent variable thereby nulli ing the validity of the experiment A doubleblind experimental design is one in which both the experimenter and the participants in an experiment do not know if the participants are assigned to the experimental or control group This minimizes participant placebo e ects and experimenter expectancy effects Define inferential statistics If the results of an experiment show that the experimental and control groups are statistically significantly different what exactly does this mean Define representative sample Why is it important that the samples we test are representative Inferential statistics is statistics that are used to make inferences about a population based on data collected on representative samples If the results of an experimental group and control group are statistically significantly different then the probabilities of each group being due to chance is different A representative sample is one in which the sample is a proportionate and diverse miniature of the target population This is important because otherwise the findings and conclusions reached about the population based on that population are not likely to be valid What are the purposes of replication Define external validity Replication is the process by which an experiment may be done again through similar methodology to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated External validity is the generalizability of the findingsconclusions in an experiment to other populations conditions and settings Receptors are on dendrites are around soma is by axon hillock is on axon which has ion channels followed by terminal buttons and a synapse between it and the postsynaptic neuron


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