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Date Created: 11/01/15
P102 Stress Health and Coping 2010 Vlachos Weber What is Stress A De nitions 1 stressipsychological and physical response to a stimulus stressor that alters your equilibrium balance a equilibriumihomeostasisimaintaining a stead state in which your body functions best b types 1 Distressidistractingifocus on effects of stress high a Example taking an exam b So much distraction that one cannot focus 2 Eustressiusefullifocus on task at hand low a Example study to get a good score b Gets the adrenaline owing c The stress of failing motivates studying c stress responseibody s attempt to restore balance 2 how do you know you re stressed a psychological symptoms lack of concentration worry swear moremore easily frustrated irritable hard to remember things ruminate depressive sad cry overwhelmed b physical symptoms appetite 23 eat more 13 eat less headaches muscle achestightening increased heart rate and sweat loss of sleep nauseastomach hurtIBS breaking out breathe quickly decrease in sex drive 3 stressors a def the stimulus that throws off your equilibrium 1 length of stressor a acute short term the body response is GREAT for emergency a for zebra running away from a lion b for human exampaper tomorrow b chronic long term a for zebra droughtfamine b for human 4 years or more of college 2 type of stressor a physical b psychologicalsocial a separates humans from other animals b humans generate stressful events in their HEADS b what stresses you Thoughts turns on your stress response just as if you were in a realtime life death situation the zebra running away from a lion relationships friends school money family grades future etc B General Adaptation Syndrome GAS l Selye a research with rats b ndings 1 ulcers 2 enlarged adrenal glands stress hormones 3 shrunken immune tissues c common variable Traumatic injections d follow up studies subjected rats to trauma e 2 important findings 1 similar set ofresponse to all types of stressors GAS a why surprising b why same response 9 you need energy 9 emergency 9 immediately 2 stress can make you sick 2 3 stages a Phase I alarmibody mobilizes its resources fight or ight I activates sympathetic nervous system NS 2 hormones released to deliver mgy from storage sites a epinephrine adrenaline norepinephrine noradrenaline 1 work within seconds C 2 transport nutrients oxygen quickly 9 increased heart rate breathing blood pressure b glucocorticoids steroid hormones l adrenal glands 2 work within minutes hours 3 cortisol increases energy from glucose antiin ammatory 3 perception of pain decreases 4 senses and memory improve short term Phase II resistance 1 inhibits parasympathetic NS body at rest and growth 2 inhibition of energy storage a decrease digestion b decrease growth takes energy that isn t available c decrease sex drive reproduction is energy intensive d decrease immunity immune system defends against infection and disease Phase III exhaustion l prolonged stress 9 stress related diseases emerge 2 takes too much energy from rest of the body 9 stressresponse itself becomes damaging a Selye claimed that the body runs out of hormones studies showed this claim to be false 3 response is good for emergency had over time s V increased fatigue b reproductive disorders messed up cycles decreased sperm production 0 V immune suppression harder to resist disease Sources of Stress Appraisal judging a perception of stressor determines if it stresses you b subjective 9 depends what one person considers stressful another person considers routine ex ying c 2 stages 1 prima appraisal likelihood of danger Are you in danger 2 seconda appraisal view your coping options resources if you answered yes to the first question Predictability amp Control if you think you can predictcontrol a situation your stress will decrease a perception is important 9 if considered unpredictable or uncontrollable stress will increase c predictability 9 provides warning when event will happen you can prepare Q When it won t you can relax example planned vs pop quizzes 2 IT WILL NOT WORK IF 39 stressor is very rare i stressor is very frequent ii39 info right before stressor I m gonna kick your assiBAM iv info too far in advanced I m gonna kick your ass in three months c control 9 believing that you have control is important a learned helplessness after having bad experience you can t control give up trying to change the situationescape even when you can i Example Patients that have a nurse administer their morphine vs a pump they control 9 both get the same amount of medicine but people in control claimed to be in less pain b IT WILL NOT WORK IF i Think you have control in situations that you don t Internal con ict making choices a approachapproach both alternatives are positive ice cream or cake b avoidance avoidance both alternatives are negative study or clean c approachavoidance alternative has and aspects Life Events amp Daily Hassles a major life events and b daily hassles better predictor of psych and physical symptoms 11 Stress and Health A Effects of stress on health 1 coronary heart disease blood vessels supplying heart muscles are narrowed or closed by buildup of plaque this blocks ow of oxygen nutrients to heart REVIEW during emergency Sympathetic Nervous System SNS activated increases heart rate blood pressure REMEMBER Great for emergencies Bad over time a emergency happens sympathetic nervous system is activated 1 Glucocorticoids are activated increasing blood ow 2 blood moves faster amp with more force amp blood pressure increases b leads to disease 1 Heart is a simple mechanical pump blood vessels are hoses 9 ifthey work harder they will wear out 2 How the force of blood surging through the blood Bessel leads the smooth inner lining to tei 9 fatty acids and glucose are mobilized during stress and stick under lining of the vessel c sudden cardiac death can hit during stressor tragedy or joy SNS has similar effects on cardiovascular system d Type A personality increased mortality related to heart disease 3 characteristics angry view others as incompetent like to be in control very competitiveachievementorientated sense of emergency difficult to relax impatient 2 crucial variable hostility mistrust expect others to harm factor of heart disease 3 why See life as menacing stressors and they cope by being hostile a Stressed 9 elevated heart rates blood pressure cortisol production b SNS is over aroused and hyper responsive to stressful situations 4 modify 9 cognitivebehavioral therapy 9 teach new responses 2 immune system a primary role defend the body against infection 9 does this with white blood cells lymphocytes and monocytes white blood cells WBC l B Cells stay in the bone marrow and produce antibodies hero 2 T Cells migrate to the thymus and have a variety of functions including killer cells killer b glucocorticoids l suppress immune system immunosuppression a Cause thymus glands to shrink 9 smaller thymus the more glucocorticoids in circulation b Affects Tcells a Stop formation of new tcells most of thymus tissue is new cells ready to be secreted into blood stream b Takes existing cells out of circulation Can kill cells 0 2 why is immunity suppressed during stress 9 immune response changes over time a At the onset of stressor within the first 30 minutes 1 Glucocorticoids enhance activate immunity 2 Helpful to activate parts of your immune system that will help you right now 3 More immune cells rushed into circulation b Moderate prolonged stresser by the 1hour mark 1 More sustained glucocorticoid and SNS activation has the opposite effect begins to suppress immunity 2 Why 9 to bring your immune function back to where it started back to baseline c Chronic stress major stressors of longer duration 1 Problem develops 9 major exposure to glucocorticoids 2 Don t just return to baseline but overshoot it 3 Immunosuppression occurs can go down to 4070 below the basline Healthrelated behaviors a today 9 chronic lifestyle disorders not like Oregon Trail disease dysentery b which behaviors T susceptibility 0 Smoking lung cancer emphysema heart disease 0 High fat and deep fried diet cancer heart disease 0 Sedentary lifestyle heart disease 0 Sleep deprivation illness accidents 0 Drinking excessive 9 liver failure heart disease 0 Unsafe Sex AIDS STDs perception unhealthyimakes feel more stressed c problem when stressed 9 do behavior decrease positive behaviors increase negative behaviors d change cognitivebehavioral example lose weight 1 Selfmonitoring recor target behavior change our behavior just as a function as becoming more aware B 2 Stimulus control remove stimuli that trigger behavior 9 remove problem food 3 Change selfreinforcement reward pattern that maintain habit daily rewards shaping Mediators promote positive health personal factors contribute to better health 1 optimism v pessimism somewhat inborn increase level a optimism expect good outcomes 1 Increase stress resistance 2 Use problemsolving social system find b pessimism expect poor outcomes 1 Anxiety depression poor health 2 Use denial avoidance give up social support tangible service or thing amp emotional loved valued help provided by social network a Lower mortality increase health physically amp psych b important perception of support 9 belief support is available if needed versus enacted support 9 what network actually provides perception is more important