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P 140

by: Mercedes Reinger
Mercedes Reinger
GPA 3.68

Michael Rings

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Michael Rings
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mercedes Reinger on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL at Indiana University taught by Michael Rings in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/233480/phil-indiana-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
HOW TO KNOW WHEN AN Euthyphro s inconsistent set of claims ARGUMENTS GOOD 1 what is holy loved by all gods 1 if fallacy is found not good 2 something is loved by gods bc gods love it not vice versa 2 check validity 3 all gods love X because X is holy 3 if valid if any premises are false argument unsound 0 Why isn t Socrates satis ed with it 0 Euthyphro gives him an Mamplcofwhat is holy prosecuting wrongdoerswhen What Socrates wanted was a definition a single character that all holy things have and all unholy things lack 6d7 6e Rachel s 3 negative or absurd consequences 1 We could no longer say that the customs of other societies are morally inferior or superior to our own 2 We could decide whether actions are right or wrong simply just by consulting the standards of our own society 3 The whole idea of moral progress is called into doubt Charity 7 no consequence if we don t do it Duty 7 penalized for not completing tasllt OBJECTlVlSM VS RELATlVlSM Objectivism in ethics The view that there is at least some moral statement X e g One ought to show people basic respect and some moral statement Y eg One ought to torture babies such that X is true period Ofor everyone at all times whether or not they believe it to be true Y is false period Ofor everyone at all times whether or not they believeit to b e false Relativism in ethics with respect to morality is the view that right never truly means right in itself but rather only right for some group some society etc And good never means good in itself but only good for some group some society etc Virtue ethics is incomplete Rachels because it offers no account ofmorallyngbt action It doesn 1 tell us What to DO An act performed out of or from virtue must fulfill 3 conditions 1 l t must be performed with the knoWledge that it is the virtuous thing to do 2 l t must be freely chosen chosen for its own sake ie the sake of its being virtuous 3 It must proceed from a firm and unchangeable character ie it must come from a reliable disposition to act this way in short liabij Do that Which brings about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people Bentham Can calculate ultility via intensity duration certainty propinquity 7 sooner pleasure occurs more valuable fecundity 7 pleasure that generate more pleasures purity extent If an action maximizes happiness then it is morally good the motive behind that action has nothing to do with its morality mill I I l morally rlght means commanded by God morally wrong means forbidden by God made up of 22 propositions i r 1 statement that expresses complete thou ht proposition that provides reasons for conclusion in 39 r I statement supported by propositions og h o e hasn t beenroven false same ro ositions wattack opponents character rather than argue something s true bc it ll descriptive factual prescriptive what ought to be 7 level at which by giving more we cause as much suffering to self as one would relieve by giving Cultural Relativism CR the view that there are no objective rights or wrongs or goods or bads in morality rather ethical judgments are only true or false for a particular culture m l happiness is both final 65 self sufficient Final desired for its own sake excess 65 deficiency regarding an action or passion relative to abilities skills capacities ital ifunction self sufficient makes life desirable 65 lacking no thing u maximize happiness producing lquot r i instrumental to securing another en Ql something desirable because it is I Hi 7 evaluates set of rules and lets rules determine what right or wrong action would be PROBLEM OF jUSTICE even if those means break some rules We desire to punish unjust acts because they threaten our sense of security So utilitarianism can explain the importance of rules of justice observing such rules is important because this maintains asense of security that is essential to social harmony order and the general happiness of a community The act utilitarian will judge actions case by case and is more likely to say that the ends justify the means


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