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R 153

by: Laurence Glover DVM
Laurence Glover DVM
GPA 3.94

David Haberman

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David Haberman
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laurence Glover DVM on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL at Indiana University taught by David Haberman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/233483/rel-indiana-university in Religious Studies at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
l The earliest periods of Hinduism we have studied eg Vedas and Upanishads seek two con icting goals enjoyment within the world and liberation from the world Describe how later Hinduism tried to synthesize these goals paying special attention to the Bhagavaal Gita Enjoyment in the world is found through work work helps maintain the world restrains your senses and keeps you on the path to liberation You should devote all your energy to your work for Krishna 7 you work for sacri ce alone Let not your motive be the fruit of work Liberation from the world is found in yoga When you reach Samadhi then you have reached integration A man in enstasy puts away anything that distracts and clutters your mind 7 pleasant things don t make you rejoice and unpleasant things don t make you shrink Once you realize Brahman you are uni ed with everything around you 2 Predicament Cause Religious Goal Path Karma Stuck in we are separated from to become Actionless action yoga samsara Brahman integrated with Through selfless action we human bondage brahman to can eradicate the ego that to the outcome obtain the divine conceals the Self of action wisdom to look within yourself escape from the liberating yourself from the cycle of rebirth material world so you can to reach moksha become intergrated with Brahman Fire continue to perform the sacri ce sacri ces to become closer to the godsbrahman 3 We have been tracking a variety of religious moves found within Hinduism We have seen that desire is an important issue for Hinduism but that there are different understandings of the place of desire in the religious life Write an essay identifying the main positions we have encountered and explore the implications of the different positions Vedas 7 desire is okay keeps us going spirit of life V39 Upanishads 7 desire is bad need to remove the self from the senses Gita 7 taking away desires don t desire fruits of labors desire the labor itself Bhakti love of a God who is brahman desire in that love is okay because you desire to be integrated with that God Brahman We have been exploring views of freedom found within Hinduism Select an important tradition within Hinduism and define what freedom means for this tradition What is freedom how is it achieved and what is it that obstructs freedom according to the particular Hindu tradition you have selected Important tradition patanjali yoga Freedom is having your atman revealed and freeing yourself from karmic bondage Reached o Restraint from want 0 Spiritual discipline 0 positions amp posture o Breath Control 0 Withdrawal of the senses 0 Mental Concentration 0 Deep meditation 0 Higher consciousness Karmic residue and the trap of samsara could obstruct freedom R153 Religions of the East Indiana University Haberman Spring 20 10 1 How would you explain the Buddhist doctrine of quotno selfquot anatman In your discussion you should draw on concepts such as the ve skandhas and dependent arising as well as any metaphors you nd helpful eg candle body cells etc o noself O O O O O O The idea that one is empty and is interconnected with the vastness of everything All existence is permeated with suffering and although people do experience moments of happiness and joy there is always a sense of anxiety and uneasiness knowing that we will soon lose what we have This is the premise for the the rst 2 noble truths o Dukkha life is suffering o Tanha the cause of suffering is clinging 7 the truth is there is nothing to hold on to since everything is passing The 5 skandhas are the source of the identity of the self and a changing process I Formmatter the body physical material nature of things I Sensation physiological processes resulting from contact with matter I Perceptions the recognition of objects I Predispositions karmic residue I Consciousness moment of awareness The Buddha believes the attachment to the idea of the self which is caused by the 5 skandhas is the route of all existential suffering dukkha The concept of anatman denies that the self can be the ve skandhas or that the self even exists since everywhere within the ve skandhas resides impermanence and suffering According to Buddhism rebirth in subsequent existences must rather be understood as the continuation of a dynamic everchanging process of quotdependent arising determined by the laws of cause and effect karma rather than the atman being passed to your next life Your karmic candle lights the candle of your next life 7 the rst burning candle is the cause of the burning of the second candle Thus as long as we stay ignorant to the fact that there is no self and that nothing is permanent and continue to crave pleasure and continued existence tanha we keep on producing unhealthy actions and accumulating karma that leads to rebirth samsara 2 Mahayana Buddhism frequently de nes itself in opposition to Hinayana or Theravada Buddhism Outline the major differences between these two interpretations of Buddhism and identify what you see to be the most signi cant implications of these dilTerences Buddha Ideal Path Dharma Goal Theravada Model Arhat llly Vinaya Teachings of the Nirvana human emancipated Monastic discipline Buddha lived continued in pali 2500 scriptures BCE Mahayana Eternal Bodhisattva is not Upaya in nite In nitely varied Dharma body presence freed until all variety of methods and ongoing Or Buddha beings have been to reach nirvana 7 Sanskrit sutras hood 7 a liberated goes not just available to being of through samsara monks in nite to help others wisdom and become compassion enlightened 3 The Four Noble Truths comprise the heart of Theravada Buddhist teachings Construct an explanation of the central teachings of Theravada Buddhism using the framework of the Four Noble Truths Be as complete as possible within the limitations of the assigned essay 1 Dukkha all life is suffering o All existence is permeated with suffering and although people do experience moments of happiness and joy there is always a sense of anxiety and uneasiness knowing that we will soon lose what we have this is the source of dukkha 2 Tanha suffering is caused by clinging We try to cling and hold on to things like happiness to life itself to ourselves But the truth is that there is nothing to cling to since everything is passing So we lose what we try to hold on to and in the process we experience suffering The heart ofthe problem is ignorance and the illusion of permanence Nirvana suffering ends when craving ends All craving can be eliminated by removing all the conditions on which it depends Nirvana is the experience offull life and meaning 5 o a person may awaken from the quotsleep of ignorancequot by directly realizing the true nature of reality such people are called arhats and occasionally buddhas After numerous lifetimes of spiritual striving they have reached the end ofthe cycle of rebirth no longer reincarnating and experience true freedom from suffering 4 Marga Reaching this liberated state is achieved by following the path laid out by the Buddha all eight norms are followed together for each supports the others 0 Eightfold path Right i Speech ii Action iii Livelihood iv Effort v Mindfulness vi Concentration vii Thoughts viii Understanding includes knowing the four truths 4 The human predicament is understood to be a situation of bondage determined by karma within both Jainism and Sikhism These two traditions however recommend very different ways of achieving freedom Summarize the respective paths developed by each of these traditions then compare them for their similarities and difference Jainism Similairities Sikhism Problem Bondage 0 Karma Problem caught in a state of Cause karmic passion 7 karmic Reincarnation separation from go particles cling to our energy Both originated in Cause ignorance selfcenteredness vibrations India egoism Goal freedom Have a goal of some Goal freedom from karma Path t f 1 Path Nam most accessable form ype 0 en 1ghtenment Asceticism motivated by non violence ethics doing no harm to any living thing Refrain from Violence Lying Stealing Abusive seX Excessive attachment or possession Nontheistic The world is ruled by karma There is a realm of gods not free from karma eventually it will run out and they will enter samsara again for we can only seek liberation at the human level All living things are different places on purus a If you rid yourself of this karma you can break through the head of purusha and be free from samsara The soul is originally pure Karma and experiences soil it of god Smaran private inner meditation repetition in the mind Kirtan public congregational singing of nam Theistic Freedom not dependent on self development Giving up control and everything to god Submitting to gods will 5 The chariot was used as an important metaphor to discuss the concept of the self in both the Katha Upanishad and in the conversation between King Milinda and Nagasena in the Pali Scriptures Compare and contrast the idea of the self that emerges from these two discussions The atman self is a linguistic illusion We are made up of parts that each individually are not the self There are parts that make up those parts Each one of the ve skandhas and all ve together are not the self The self is a linguistic illusion King Melinda says to Nagasena 7 The word chariot comes into existence dependent on its parts It is a designation a description an appellation a name Like the chariot we exist as impermanent interdependent selves Nagasena praises him and says in the same way Nagasena is dependent on the parts of the body and the ve skandhas It is also a designation a description an appellation a name He makes two points 0 The birth of anything is simply a result of many conditions Without these conditions birth life and death is not possible People are confused with the idea that a word is a linguistic device used to represent many conditions As if the word nagasena gave birth to him maintains him and kills him But the conditions for all of these things are conditions for other things dharmas The components of the chariot are much like the ve skandhas The ve skandhas are an illusion of the self Passenger atman the quotSelfquot Chariot the body Driverconsciousness buddhi Reins the mind manas Horses the ve senses Path the objects perceived by the senses


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