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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Connor Harvey on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL103 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/233511/biol103-indiana-university-of-pennsylvania in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
POPULATION GROWTH Exponential Growth Rate Population Size N Time 9 The exponent1al growth rate G keeps 1ncreas1ng a over time as the population size increases 0 N v 1 Cl S O 5 lt3 1 5 CL 0 O Time 9 A Model of Exponential Growth Population Growth Rate G What does per capita mean Per capita growth rate r depends on per capita birth amp death rates Example 15 births 100 yr 5 deaths 100 yr per capita growth rate 1000 As the population increases V the overall growth rate increases because you are 600 multiplying r by a larger number 100 Growth Rate can also be expressed as a percentage Example 15 births 100 yr 5 deaths 100 yr Birth Rate per year Death Rate per year Growth Rate per year or as doubling time 100 9 Per capita growth rate depends on life History Characteristics 1 offspring female 2 Age at rst reproduction N Generation Time 10 21039 1 10 1o 103 10 105 Generation lime days 3 Survivorship curves what is a cohort 102 of cohort rernainig alive Age of Cohort How do life history characteristics a ect population growth rate Why doesn t natural selection result in individuals that produce a M of babies early and a en Because Life history 39 39 What does this mean e g an increase in offspring number results in a decrease in parental survival Why do sockeye salmon spawn once and then die re ect Ll Mala Female a 05 c E E g 05 g 6 04 a E n 02 a Reduced Normal Enlarged Bland size LIMITS TO GROWTH I Density Dependent Factors As density increases so does A So As density increases birth rate death rate These density dependent factors change shape of growth curve What is carrying capacity Population Size N Time The logistic growth model The logistic model is a simpli cation In the real world 8 A m 5 VJ O 391 cu O D snowshoe we m r n r W B 2 120 2 9 a o E 5 a a 15 s g a F 3 E Igute 75 Fugulmmn cycles 010m lynx Lyht Caradensrs and he swuwr We We We amsn39canus m the Hudsuns Bay vegicn m Canada as W calea by 39u39 returns m We mum39s Bay Convnany a el MacLuhch mu Population Size N Time What happened when predators of deer were eliminated from the Kaibab Plateau Limits to Growth cont II DensityIndependent Factors A HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH Historical Perspective lt 10000 BP Huntergatherer societies Population z b m d m Life expectancy m 10000 2000 BP K increased Population m b amp 1 still high In recent years population growth has followed somewhat dszerent patterns in dz erent parts of the world More Developed Countries MDCs 1700 1940 I slowly decreased b also decreased but lagged behind I G rose post WWII declining b caught up with I G decreased to lt 08 The quotDemographic Transitionquot in MDC s left and LDC s light Time Time POPULA39IION CHANGE IN MEXICO AND SWEDEN rm pm Innn can van lt3 cs 9 Egrgr u sr gr gr r gig gr gr sr 3904 3 a gr gr sr mm When will global popula on stabilize Depends on a Because ofhigh fertility and bottom heavy age structure world population growth is concentrated in LDCs Wmurr sum was Arum A L lm Ayn1m uu macmm t Elli am My 40 sunSam m I 7 3 s a u Bah out 5w LBWAv atquot annual m a use dewmm met Mumdevsmuad mums 1 Annual muisnon gth in miuions 10H 575 5mm us Ewan at new Miamiwa umquot Wurld Pupulaliun Gruwlh 175u7215u Populalion unmumns w a Mme dtvelnued rmmwu 5 e nume Umted Natmns World Population Prospects The 1998 Rewmn an enmetes by the Papu atmn Reference Bureau What is the Carrying Capacity of the Planet smgtoms of oveggogulation PERCAPITA 001 EMISSIONS 1995 By r 10 5 20 new nns Smnrm wm Community Ecology Study the interactions between species and how this affects the distIibution and abundance of the species How does the spread of the zebra mussel relate to community ecology There are 4 ways species can interact Effect on SD 1 SD 2 Competition definition Predation Parasitism definition Mutualism definition C mmensalism 0 definition Interspecific Competition What is the dt erence between a resource and a condition Gmwn sevamew The intensi of competition between two species 0 depends on 1 p auVPIa gt70 F caudahmv Fleia ve ponuranan denslly Figure 3272 in names 04 Pavamecrum when mm m separaxe cunures awe and when gm lugclhw bevow mmaugn bath spews mm when grown mummy P caudslum canno WW when gmwn mm P surelia allev Gausu 19341 cvease m popuuwons M Mo 5 What is the ecological niche For niche theory according to Dr Seuss see httpnsm1nsmiupedurgendronSeussshtml Interspecific Competition has short and long term consequences 1 ShOIt term consequences A 0 Example ants amp rodents in the desert 0 2 Preferred seed sizes overlap 0 3 S a 0 c g a 3 mus Hypothesis quot 0 9 Prediction no 333932222222 oeou LampampFxr n V 29 e Seed sze Mm Experiment 17 4 Sim nfnuive seeds bmmxed by menslmg ants and vadcms um Pena Aruon him Brown 5 Danae 1977 B 39 Percem Observations like these led Ecologists to develop the 2 Longterm consequences Populations can evolve in ways that reduce competition Example Evolutionary change in beak size in two competing species of Galapagos nch Within each species beak size varies 9 individuals With small bills are better at eating small seeds and vice versa What happens when two similar species occupy the same island Frequency of birds Beak Size Community Ecology Predation Ecology use the term predator to refer to any animal that consumes other organisms What are the different types of predator 1 Predation can have short and longterm effects s on Biological Communities 1 Shortterm A What happens to species diversity in the intertidal community when the seastar is removed Why Why is the seastar called a keystone species 2 Longterm
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