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Notes 9809 Week 2 Introduction to critical pedagogy You tube clip on critical pedagogy Why Critical Pedagogy wwwfreireprojectorgcontentcritical pedagogy tv I CRITICAL PEDAGOGY READER 20 11 Century Educators and Activists who helped create Critical Pedagogy Dewey 3 work laid a core foundation through his attempt to link the individual and social intelligence with the discourse of democracy and freedom WEB Dubois Souls of Black Folk and Carter Woodson Wis education of the Negro helped African American students and others with racialized identities in uenced anti racism multiculturalism and social justice Miles H orton Highlander Folk School great think tank considered by many to be the spark behind the Civil Rights movement HerbertKohl open school v t 39 Jonathan Kozol helped us understand the social 1 of 39 quot 39 39 39 quot practices protests NCLB Shame of the Nation Maxine Greene mother of aesthetic education successor of Dewey s ideas believes schooling should be both political and social and given rise to progressive educators at Othersiwho critique capitalism and cultural capitalism notably Michael Apple and Ivan Illich Brazilians Freire the most in uential educational philosopher in the development of critical pedagogical thought questions of pedagogy related to social agency voice and democratic participation in uenced other disciplines from 1970 1997 Inserted power culture and oppression within the context of schooling believes in emancipatory education Video clips Paulo F reire insert International Journal of Critical Pedagogy httpwwwfreireprojectorgojsindeXphphomeindex Augusto Boal Theatre of the Oppressed 1971 experimental theater approach invite members to participate and demo on stage Gramsci theory of hegemony and Foucault knowledgepower domination subordination Frankfult School challenge the na1rowness of traditional forms of rationality that de ned the concept of meaning and knowledge in the Western world believed that theories and practice should inform those who want to transform the oppressive conditions Critical Pedagogy Is Cultural Politics supports the empowerment of culturally marginalized and economically disenfranchised students Political Econom Economics positions students asymmetrically to support different sectors of the economy ie class reproduction Historicity of Knowledge Knowledge is created within a historical context and that gives meaning to the human experience Dialectical T heorlg challenge existing ideas Ideology and critique critique foundational ideas and concepts Hegemonlg understanding where and how whiteness and dominant ideologies reinforce status quo values quot 39 and camequot quot Praxis Dialogue and Conscientization Conscientizacao Critical social consciousness through dialogue Critiques of CP WHAT ARE THEY 2 3 4 WATCH intro to CF and Giroux on CP TV click here wwwfreirepr0jectorgcontentcritical pedagogy tv Giroux II CRITICAL PEDAGOGY Mclaren and Kinechloe Questions Why would the right wing be resistant to CF Be specific Describe the notion that education is not neutral Describe the attack on Academic FreedomiDavid Horowitz wants a Bill of Rights for Academic Freedomishow video httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvLtgeXPstpk Horowitz Freedom Center wwwhorwitzfreedomcenter org httpwww 39 D J 393 J m J 1925aborhtml Academic Bill of Rights With a pro osed Academic Bill of Rights1 on the horizon that challenges academic free om s self regulation and autonomy in the universities it would seem that the First Amendment would be summoned to reconcile these divisive issues in schools in the not so distant future Academic freedom is an umbrella term that encompasses the constitutional and professional rights of teachers Fly are 1976 Freedom of teachin is one of the four elements that is embodie by academic freedom2 One 0 the plaguing questions of our time within education is can a teacher be dismissed for actions or discourse used in the classroom One might ascertain that the First Amendment uarantees the teacher the right to say or behave according to her his beliefs gut this is not the case The courts have never fully agreed that freedom of speech is absolute Flygare 1976 However when a teacher is dismissed from a position the courts must assess each situation case by case to determine whether the school board properly restrained the teacher s freedom of speech Flygare 1976 9 The courts examine several factors such as the age of the students ex oseg to the objectionable speech the relevancy of the objection whether 0 39cies or regulations about classroom expression exist and whether any aternative for free speech exists in the school The courts may also examine if the speech was symbolic that is if a teacher wore an armband button or badge As we unpack some of the issues facing secondary English teachers it is also im ortant to update where we stand now on censorshi and think forward about ow the First Amendment continues to affect teacfhers Public school teachers need to understand that First Amendment rights of academic freedom accorded to university professors are much more limited in public elementary and secondary schools It is unlikely that a public school teacher could say or post what McLaren posted on his web site without repercussions It should be noted that while we are discussing preservice teachers First Amendment ri hts classroom students ri hts are suspended when they enter public SC 001 domain Tierney 2006 in his review of current texts on hate speech in American universities asked a oignant question Who decides whether speech is hateful or how academic reedom is de ned 33 Answers to these questions have yet to be fully reconciled because school districts vary on what can and cannot be said and on how the First Amendment is interpreted In fact demands va from state to state district to district and school to school which makes it a the more dif cult to achieve consensus on how the First Amendment is upheld in particular cases With only fewer than 10 of postsecondary institutions that have adopted policies that challenge First Amendment principles Gould as in Tierney 2006 p 34 it is little wonder that English educators might feel hesitant to address loaded topics in their methods courses END Notes l The Academic Bill of Rights is a document that calls for universities to maintain political pluralism and diversity The Bill requires that no political ideological or relig ious orthodoxy should be imposed on professors and researchers through the hiring or termination process It also seeks to enforce that faculty members will not use their courses or their position for the purpose of political ideological religious or antireligious indoctrination This grows out of the Academic Bill of Rights originally drafted by David Horowitz and which has now been proposed as House Concurrent Resolution318 108th Congress 2003 2 Academic freedom also includes freedom of research freedom of outside utterance and association and academic due process Flygare 1976 Vs What do you think about this quote Consequently a critical issue we face with employing social justice in teacher education is that promoting social justice in teacher education is anathema to the mission and traditions of the modern university which is intended to foster an open intellectual atmosphere of free thought and speech CochranSmith et al 2009 p 633 th0ughts Where are your ethics here Chapter 1 Kincehloe pp 3637 discusses where we re evolving in education as an outcome of CP what do you think about his suggestions Where are we headed l the development of the socioindividual imagination 2 the reconstitution of the individual outside of the boundaries of abstract individualism 3 the understanding of power and ability to interpret its effects on the social and the individual 4 the provision of alternatives to the alienation of the individual 5 the cultivation of the critical consciousness that is aware of the social construction of subjectivity 6 the construction of democratic communitybuilding relationships 7 the reconceptualization of reason 8 the production of social skills necessary to active participation in the transformed inclusive community III MORRELL CRITICAL ENGLISH EDUCATION What does he say is important to being an English educator especially about out of school literacies Tremmel what are some of the big ideas out of Tremmel s piece Assignment create a dialogue between chapters in the two major books Freire Morrell Tremmel and the articles in the readers in small groups come up with ideas critiques differences in points of View etc Provide a thematic context at the beginning so we know where the conversation is occurring Feel free to include stage directions or employ any creative ideas you have Week 3 9 1509 Critical pedagogy critical theory cultural theory and the history of tracking 1 Freire chapters 3 and 4 II Begin with Morrell and Tremmel from last week 111 Part 1 CP reader 111 a Giroux 1 Consider the Frankfurt school Das Institut fur Sozialforschung Frankfurt l923to reconsider human existence a early years of FS involved concerns ofbourgeois socioeconomic substructure b under Nazi threat moved to Columbia Univ and then back to Frankfurt c festered on a critique of Marxism domination and emancipation rejected Marx and Engels d Adomo Horkheimer and Marcuse attempted to construct a basis for social theory and political action e emphasis on how 39 j quot quotJ was quot J belic wd that crisis of reason takes place as society becomes more rationalized and for rational thought reasons also required critique and negativity f challenged absolute ideologies such as positivism ie ignores critical possibilities knowledge is based on scientific evidence and theory g believed that theory must grow out of a context for theory to become theory and that theories grow out of spaces of injustice h these theories must therefore have a goal of emancipatory practice i critiqued culture for being turned into an object which could therefore be used for capitalist gains became a way of controlling the masses and so they advocated for its critique aa Marcuse poses radical critique of division of labourwork and play should interpentrate whereas Marx saw play as counter productive to the worker 2 Selfconscious critique is essentialpsychoanalysis used to explain the subjective dimension of liberation and domination turned to Freuddepth psychology a Marcuse provided formal structure of how a dehumanized society could maintain control over its inhabitants Recall Marx had provided the political and economic theory of domination b individual desire for grati cation and dynamics of social repression provide an understanding of psychic liberation c Freud called this the struggle between Eros life instinct and Thanatos death instinct Bourdieuischool and other social institutions legitimate and reinforce through speci c practices and discourses classbased systems of behavior and dispositions that reproduce the existing dominant societyi cultural capital ways of talking acting modes of style moving socializing forms of knowledge language practices and value translates into material access schools typically reward those who have dominant cultural capital b Friere see other notes c McLaren 1 Critical theorists begin from the premise that men and women are unfree and inhabit a world rife with contradictions and asymmetries of power and privilege a critical educators endorses theories that are DIALECTICAL to challenge and critique existing structures b schools must be partisaniand tied to a better quality of life for all social justice 2 Knowledge is socially constructed and tied to agendas or power knowledge is never neutral and is tied to race gender and class 3 What do you think when McLaren says that hegemony is not a process of active domination 4 What is ideology according to McLaren p 69 5 Can we ever have equality if existing power structures are asymmetrical How does this asymmetry sustain dominant ideologies 6 What does he say about hidden curriculum as form of cultural politics d Greene Teachers like poets create new hybridized spaces that promote spaces of inquiry and can foster particularities which do not assimilate students to adopt dominant beliefsiin that nuanced space magic can happen Watch httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvSYStYPvtt 8 htt www outubecomwatchVSm kWIm B38ampfeaturerelated 922 Week 4 Critical pedagogy and democracy past and present 1 Critical Pedagogv Chptr 2 Religion as Socio quot 39 critique Weber s analysis of religion in uenced the direction of education 7 teaches us how to tap into our power I a way out of the ironcage through religion can bring about social change religion is linked to authorityiand people s identities are shaped by these communities formation of character of the young charisma that derives from within the dichotomy of character s stories rituals myths ethos spirit and dominationauthority helps instill a sense of agency Gee The Legacies of Literacy Greeks invented basis for western literacy Plato first great literate in western culture Phaedrus Plato feared that writing would lead to the downfall of memoryexternal crutch Plato believed true knowledge came from the question what do you mean He attacked any form of language that could not hold up to the question what do you mean because it led to a genuine search for the truthihence valued the dialogic 6 But he also believed that people are suited to be at different levels within a hierarchal state ie subservient status dichotomy then between literacy as liberator and literacy as weapon 7 Sweden achieved near universal reading literacy for men and women before end of 18Lh century and by mid 19 century added writingireinforced through religion primarily Lutheran and households with compulsory exams 8 Catholic dominated countries were less literate than Lutheran because Catholics did not give texts to everyone to readipreferred oral tradition 9 Sprawl of literacy evolved as dependency on foreign countries increased consider outsourcing companies to foreign soil globalization of literacy and economic dominance 10 Freire reading the world precedes reading the word and reading the word implies continually reading the world M WPElt Meta questions 1 So what shapes literacy practices 2 What components must operate to make literacy possible and how do these questions tie into the background for tracking And what is to come 11 Critical Pedagogy Chapter 5 Neoliberal Non Sense Pepi Leistyna A Where are we now is posed B Read aloud from p98 what are the social anal political consequences of privatizing the educational system C Bush used the Texas Miracle to spearhead educational policy and based education reform through high stakes testing By 1990 Texas Education Agency utilized TASS to measure students successes in math reading science and social studies Students who did poorly were either put into special education or held back at grade level This process led to extremely high drop out rates in Texas D Office for Civil Rights charged discriminatory practices against them for unfair practices against guess who African Americans and HispanicLEP students E High dropour rates are fantastic for raising test scores p 100 Numbers were manipulated to save face by superintendent of Houston Public Schools Ron Paige and other admins and teachers encouraged students to cheat Paige won National Superintendent of the year and was appointed Secretagy of Education by GW Bush F Bush outsourced test prep and review to McGrawHill and funded them G Soooo we have NCLB and schools give 50 million tests a year at the cost of 400700 million H Companies benefiting from this include McGrawHill Houghton Mi in Harcourt Brace and all were Bush s Stocks Each of these companies have remediation packages with states I McGrawHill has 280 offices in 40 countriesiwhat does this imply 6 billion in annual revenues and 359 in Fortune 500 wealthiest company in 2006 Harold McGraw sits on Barbara Bush s foundation for family literacy and awarded Paige the highest award while as superintendent The Negroponte Jr who was MH exec vp went on to become our ambassador to Iraq under Bush Questions This is all quite nepotistic What is your opinion of high stakes testing Who is benefiting How do highstakes testing perpetuate capitalist market Are we to be concerned about Arne Duncan Discuss to which other areas are schools outsourced media policy Englishonly mental health theory without evidence III Chapter 20 Critical Pedagogy William Stanley A Critical pedagogy is shaped by a neoMarXist critique of capitalism that views education as a wider effort to bring about a radical transformation of the American political and economic systemidiscuss A1 Dewey 0n Deliberative Democracy John Dewey s words have long served as a model for democratic schooling and for the restoration of America as a great model for a global community In fact he said that a success to a deliberative democracy is dependent on how a communi communicatesi free social inquiry p 350 with one another to name problems and then enact change 19271988 B What is neoliberalism C What is neoconservatism D How do you reconcile teaching students who come from backgrounds which embrace ideologies from all of these perspectives Are we honoring the principals of education that were laid of by Dewey in Democracy in Education 1916 IV Articles Alsup et al The State of English Education A What do you take away from the reading What do the authors coveys as the current state of EE Let s turn to it a we are an activist field of education b we have belief statements and we have summa reports and a new one on social justice that is in review 2009 B What does this tell you about the eld you are working in the theorypractice hat is helping shape your pedagogy Giroux Translating the Future Discuss He provides a sense of hope and change s0 if we review critical pedagogy past and present we now have sense of where we are and how far we ve come but what can help forge and sustain a commitment to it and at whatwhose cost Week 6 October 6m Critical Pedagogv and Social Justice Begin with reviewing the beliefs statement and a de nition for social justice I The Critical Pedagogy Reader A Confronting Class in the Classroom bell hooks p 135143 Questions 1 Why do you think social class is rarely discussed in academic settings 2 How might you address teaching about class differences through literature as a sense of building agency 3 How can understanding class status help promote social justice Activity Level Playing Field Terms power privilege oppression 11 Critical Pedagogy A Chapter 4 Locations or Not of CP in Les Petites et les Grendes Histories Kathleen Berry 1 Pedagogy in Europe means the relationship and responsibility to the other and it is critical 7 make sense 2 Discussion Tell us about your rst experiences with injustice 3 How is the personal related to your larger experiences petit to grande B Musicing Paulo Freire A CP for Music Education by Frank Abrahams CP in music means that seeks to break down the barriers that exist between the music students hear and love outside of the classroom and the music their teachers want them to learn music becomes empowering 1 What did you think about how music is typically taught in schools that it is disembedded from the context 2 Why are music programs marginalized in schools How have some music program perpetuated dominant ideologies 3 How can music be beneficial to students 4 How might you include music and cp in your classroom 5 See p 228 for CP for music education 6 How can music develop agency in students lives III Applebaum B Social justice education moral agency anal the subject of resistance Applebaum 2004 reveals that when we consider the political nature of social justice teaching we cannot separate it from a moral position or as an ethical stance Research indicates that social justice Miller in press is highly political because ofits inherent ability to challenge the status quo and its potential to dismantle of hierarchy of privilege that largely goes uncheckedgand which is further sustained by erecting politicized barriers that make it dif cult to move social justice into policy It behooves us to explore this idea of moral agency because it threatens to reposition our own morality as the right morality and privileges us over those with whom we might find oppressive By eliding this struggle we perpetuate inequities that we want to dismantle and reposition not only whiteness but us as moral authority Our research should not come across as moralistic but we must also understand how to draw a boundary between what is and isn t socially just as we relate it to the spacetime of the rotating morals under any governing democracy Therefore there is a paradox inherent in social justice research Careful consideration of how to address moral agency with preservice teachers is central to not exuding a proselytizing stance Applebaum 2004 says that moral agency must avoid assumptions of certainty p 70 and it must be a voluntary noniforced or coercive act She also explains that teachers should encourage in their own students how their own moral motivations reposition whiteness Moral agency must avoid the pitfalls of certainty IV Brown K Social Justice education for preservice leaders 1 Kathleen Brown 2005 tells us the evidence is clear that various segments of our public school population experiences negative and inequitable treatment on a daily basis p 155 LadsoniBillings 1994 Sheurich amp Laible 1995 Valenzuela 1999 Still students of color and white students from low socioeconomic backgrounds experience lower standardized test scores teacher expectations and access to resources Brown 2005 In fact over 44 million second language learners are enrolled in the United States public schooling system and are expected to take the same standardized tests and are typically evaluated similarly to students whose first language is English Arce Luna Borjian amp Conrad 2005 2 It is important to remember that teachers identities inform their curricular decisions relationships with students and educational philosophies Brown 2006 p 259 and that teachers expectations and perceptions of youth affect student achievement Brown 2006 p 260 We have a social moral and ethical responsibility to make social justice into a pillar in our methods courses and to also allow for students to make decisions about what does and doesn t authenticate their principles along the way When individuals are empowered and informed they are better prepared to effect change It is not to say that we need to overhaul democracy but it is to say that we can challenge the ways that the principles in a given democracy have and can hold people from rising to their full potentials Questions What does it mean to be a white teacher and how can you challenge your own complicity How do we invite all voices to be heard At what point will you draw the line How do we come across not as moralistic or as a moral authority When Butler says we have agency when we are subjects what is a subject vs object not as objects what does she mean especially with regard to heteronormativity and patriarchy Agencyresistance to dominant ideological tropes Week 7 October 13 CP and Barack Obama 1 CP Reader part 3 After Race An Introduction Darder and Torres A What do they mean when they say the ideology of race and ction of race B We have two dominant views on race essentialized not malleable and social constructioniseeped in an ideology of domination exclusion exploitation genocide C Race has no scienti c basis there is one race human race homo sapiens race is linked to phenotypic 1 The observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental in uences 2 The expression of a speci c trait such as stature or blood type based on genetic and environmental in uences characteristics and the argument amongst scientists and anthropologists is that human races do not exist D Origin of race connected to rise in nationalismcapitalismserved to sanction exclusionary practices E US Census had 26 classi cations see link below for race in 20Lh century now collapsed into 4 nonwhite categories and other iwhat are they We also have a debate over ethnicity vs race httpww census w 39 quot n quotr quot quot L ps0056twps0056h tml F Movement in 1971 to create word Hispanic was to manipulate politics imposed term to clump cluster people 15 million citizens LatinosChicanos and then people are fundeddisregardedclumped into categories that do not speak to true identity G What are some social and economic consequences on the school system by essentializing race Is this a robbery that we are complicit in H What are the dangers of the MULTICULTURAL m0vement ie super cial nonactivist reparation Two types of racism result 1 Exclusion and extermination and 2 Inferiorization Toward a CRT 0fEducati0n Ladson Billings and Tate 1 Race as factor in inequity 2 Property Rights better property means access to better schools and intellectual property access in schools 3 Intersection of race and property Blacks were once property of whites and as long as Blacks were slaves they could not own property they were not considered human 14TH AMENDMENT 1868 Blacks could be citizens overtumed Dred Scott 13Lh Amendment 1865 ended slavery 15TH Amendment 1870 right to vote see redlining httpenwikipediaorgwikiRedlining 4 CRT and education racism is deeply ingrained and the challenges to the system threatens the privileges of some the hierarchy maintains inequitable everythings 5 People of Color represent 12 of national population they are the majority in 21 of the 22 largest urban school districtsiand white ight has increased along with school desegregation since 1954 Brown vs Board of Education American Indian Geographies of Identity and Power At the Crossroads of Indigena and MestizajeAnglas Grande Mestizaje cultural ambiguity 1 What is a critique that Grande offers against the uni cation of una cultura mestizo one new culture Indian intellectuals believe in hybridity but do not want to codi ed as transgressive as that only perpetuates an ideology that can remainbe positionedconstructed as marginal 2 What is signi cant to this author about identity and place 3 Important moments in Native American History 1819Civilization Act provide education to NA 1830 Indian Removal Act Jackson 1886 Dawes Allotment Act divided reservation lands by tribes had negative impact on economic sustainability of tribes 1924Indian Citizenship Act given citizenship rights under Calvin Coolidge 1934 Indian Reorganization Act reversed Dawes act and 1 allowed the tribal council to employ legal counsel 2 prohibited the tribal council from engaging any land transitions without majority approval of the tribe and 3 authorized the tribal council to negotiate with the Federal State and local governments 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act With the passage of the Indian Civil Rights Act ICRAin 1968 also called the Indian Bill of Rights Native Americans were guaranteed many civil rights they had been ghting for The IRCA supports 1 the right to free speech press and assembly 2 protection from unreasonable search and seizure 3 the right of a criminal defendant to a speedy trial to be advised of the charges and to confront any adverse witnesses 4 the right to hire an attorney in a criminal case 5 protection against self incrimination 6 protection against cruel and unusual punishment excessive bail incarceration of more than one year andor a ne in excess of 5000 for any one offense 7 protection from double jeopardy or eX post facto laws 8 the right to a trial by a jury for offenses punishable by imprisonment and 9 equal protection under the law and due process Many other civil rights such as sovereignty hunting and shing voting and traveling have been fought for or are being sought The ght for American Indian civil rights is a signi cant part of American History and continues on today 1970 Self determination make decisions about its own people 4 What do some Native American communities fear will happen to their youth when they leave the reservation 5 How can you best meet the needs of NA students How is identity linked to schooling For more legal information go to httpwwwd0ig0vbia Howard Zinn and Columbus 11 Henry Giroux Rethinking the Promise of Critical Education Under an Obama Regime Tuesday 02 December 2008 httpwww trntlmnt 9 quot quot n v gir0ux promise critical education A Reader Giroux and Saltman under Bush testing was the ultimate form of control and accountability measure teachers are deskilled what is Giroux s concern about Duncan are corporate models of education good for our country B Weideman how does a theory for social justice help to make meaning of the readings for today what would Friere say still needs to change Week 8 October 20 Critical 1 and quot iuy identities identitv theory I The Critical Pedagogy Reader Part 6 A Critical Issues in the Classroom Lipman Three counterhegemonic positions to learn from 1 In Porte Alegre Brazil The Citizens School Project Created by workers from impoverished areas a school responds to historical exclusion b curriculum is focused on reconstituting of cial knowledge through interdisciplinary leaming grounded in central issues facing the favela community c run by councils Research shows that this school is teaching students life skills and is working to challenge hegemonic principles 2 Rethinking Schools Milwaukee based teacher joumal provides countemarratives 3 Culturally relevant teachers of African American students teachers providing relevant histories B Standardization Defensive teaching and the Problems of Control McNeil 1 What is your opinion about standardization of schooling myths standardization does a bring up the bottom good schools aren t affected 2 What does McNeil mean when he says it is one of the great ironies of American education that schools were created like a factory line P389 3 Defensive teaching Teacher Control teachers controlled content by omission not invite dialogue mystz ing course content made topics more important than they were beyond the students comprehension levels listed facts and leaving out details defensive simplification demanded little from students and oversimplified ideas C Writing Identity and the Other Dare We do Disability Studies Linda Ware 1 Disable equals otherlyabled IDEA 1987 Disabilities Education Act students mainstreamed 2 What are your experiences understandings observations of how students who are otherlyabled have been treated 3 If we do not examine our beliefs around this we only further to perpetuate unfair practices 4 Disability has largely been overlooked in our society but has been included in medical case historieslargely third class citizens DRM Disability Rights Movement 5 What can you do in your own classrooms to bring attention to this movement 11 Critical Pedagogy Chptrs 13 17 19 Re ections on the Violence of High Stakes Testing Janesick 1 Describe how Janesick sees high stakes testing as a form of Violence Do you agreedisagree 2 Turn to p 241 review testing how is this antithetical to what we know about readerresponse 3 PUT AN AP mc test through this criteria on p 243 is this authentic assessment and if so by whom 4Go to httpwwwfairtest0rg come back and share 30 mins 5 see pp 245246 on what the Regan administration 1980s did planned attack on education go to lab and list 5 things you learned from this site 111 Course packet F reire and the politics of race in education Michael Apple A Apple and Freire talked while he was secretary of Education in Sao Paulo B Race is not stable but a social construction a set of fully social relationships C The invisibility of whiteness and its effect in education and on the market forces allows race to function as an absent presence in our societies D How do we disrupt these ideological issues in our classrooms What will you do And how can you draw attention to this without producingindoctrinating white guilt E Identity is intimately linked with your role in the classroom Identity Matters McCarthey S and Moje E A Why does identity matter write a response B How do we construct position in uence stabilize destabilize C How can teaching practices affect identity What specifically Curriculum artifacts social space dialogue discourse etc D Discuss self identity etc notes from dissertation matrix View You Can t be Neutral on a Moving Train Watch the Wire Week 9 October 27ma Critical 1 t quot 39 theorv and 39 quot 39 theory I Begin with notes above from course packet down 11 CEE position statement 2005 Supporting linguistically anal culturally diverse learners in English education Retrieved January 30 2009 from httpwww ncte or cee positions quot 39 uersinee Read the preamble aloual anal read through highlights togetheriwhat do you think 111 Moll LC Amanti C Neff D amp Gonzalez N Funds of knowledge What are funds of knowledge P 133 article Fill in together What are your funds of knowledge what do you bring to the classroom based on the de nition Assignmenthomework In teams design a lesson around funds of knowledge Decide on rationale objectives procedures age level for activity format possible modi cations assessment Sociocultural theory of literacy Ask what in uences your own learning Home Culture Family Language Sociocultural perspectives of literacy suggest that reading writing and language are not isolated and decontextualized they are multiple literacies and are inextricable from discourses Literacy is de ned within a sociocultural lens constructing meaning from printed text within a sociocultural context the intersection of how the child is in uenced by culture and society It is always socially and culturally situated We use our cultural tools symbols texts and ways of thinking to make meaning within literacy practices Derived from Vygotskian views that emphasize where literacy and learning emerge Sometimes referred to as cultural identity Literacy is interactive Ask what is your cultural identity and how does it in uence your learning Pause Linguistically Diverse Refers to the students whose first language or home language is a language other than English or other than middleclass English ELLsecondlanguage learners language minority students LEPlimited English proficient Culturally Diverse Distinguished by ethnicity social class and or language Ethnicity is determined by national origin or one s ancestors and peoplehood provide nonuse of the term race Describe the current debate about English only 1968 Us Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act 1974 Lau vs Nichols school districts had to implement some remedy to educate students whose first language was not English Linguicism language discrimination is still pervasive can you think of examples of this Current trends in language2000 Census estimated that over 46 million or 179 of people 5 years old and over spoke a language other than English at home Question What does this mean for those you become teachers IV Rosenblatt L The literacy transaction Evocation and response Transactional theory says show Efferent what we take away from the reading experience Aesthetic the lived through feelings Evocation response to clarify leads to meaning History of English in the schools Arthur Applebee tells us that English as a subject did not appear in the school curriculum until end of l9Lh century 1890 s Schools were divided into two tracks college prep and terminal or general track The Committee of Ten chaired by the president of Harvard convened The committee recommended that more courses should be made available to all students foreign languages math science English history and that Latin and Greek should not be the only subject studied Teaching English in the US the emphasis re ected the same approach as teaching Latin and Greek analyzing and diagrammng sentences and the learning and application of grammar Traditional model emphasized functionalityemphasis on form structure and not on meaningstudied who the authors were and their backgrounds and was scienti c New Criticsstructuralists approach was the dominant way of approaching literature and grammar for 70 plus years Today we look at meaning have Louise Rosenblatt to thank for readerresponse transactional theory where the reader s experience with the text is emphasized Week 10 Nov 3 Critical pedagogy and critical literacy as models of inclusivity Readings The Critical Pedagogy Reader Part 5 Critical Pedagogy Chptr 10 Pull out terms I handed out review rst second thirdspace in context of the matrix Explain identity in relationship to the matrix Leander 2002 Moje 2002 and Hagood 2002 suggest that identities can be shaped in response to oppressive structures When individuals negotiate and contest their identity development by dominant culture they may develop identities that may be marginalized by social groups that retain power Rather than negotiate identities towards these researchers suggest that identities be negotiated against 1 Critical literacy is Interrogating multiple points of View Disrupting the commonplace Focusing on sociopolitical issues and taking action Promoting social justice Comber and Simpson 2001 suggest that the agenda of critical literacy is such that it examines the relationships between language practices power relations and identities 271 They suggest that teachers must respond to the changing times amidst con icting and changing cultural practices when selecting texts so as to help students make meaning of the world in which they live 277 They also concur that race ethnicity language poverty location and gender impact students educational success and the ways in which they participate in the authorized discursive practices available in educational institutions pp 275 276 11 Hagood M Critical literacy for whom Hagood 2002 contends that critical literacy should assist students in developing an understanding of how texts produce particular formations of self 248 Texts are situated within certain social and cultural groups By all intensive purposes texts are imbued by larger sociopolitical issues of power that are associated in cultural and social grou s Texts re ect the chan es in society such as in how power may change particular ethnicities c asses and or social patterns In other words as perceptions of ethnicities change and as they may each gain access to positions of ower and authority texts re ect those changes Our identities are impacted y their transactions with those texts and when the texts shift along with the changes in society so too do our identities shift This means that from a poststructuralist perspective identities are constantly in ux a what was your aesthetic and efferent response to the alticle b What did you make of the teachers reactions to Timony in the school c Had you been in the same position as the teachers in the school how might you have addressed Timony Hagood s 2002 seminal study illustrates how both postmodernism and identity can be coconstructed as she rep0siti0ned and destabilized the readers gaze so that we might better understand the experience of the actant Timony a young man had been marginalized by his teachers and considered atrisk for a variety of reasons but speci cally for wearing angstridden clothing carrying a Kurt Cobain lead singer of the band Nirvana who committed suicide guitar pick which was perceived as a potential weapon and for reading texts about Kurt Cobain From a structuralist view the teachers assumed the stance that identity is associated with and situated within what we read and because of that stance Timony s identity and feelings of selfworth went unrealized by them However Timony s discourse at school illustrated that he was to the contrary a critic of teen angst and against Cobain s suicide If his teachers had truly listened to him they would have known and recognized that Timony s identity was negotiated outside of his reading of Cobain and that he transacted the construction of himself against the text not through the text itself Had teachers understood a poststructuralist perspective or understood how meaning and identity can be reconstructed perhaps Timony would not have been labeled as atrisk Sadly though Timony s discourse was misinterpreted by those in school and subsequently he was positioned as an atrisk youth Hagood s research admonishes us to reconsider the hazards of understanding situations or conducting research through myopic lenses As a signi er of the uid nature of teaching it is important to recall that Timony Hagood 2002 was at risk of being mislabeled but when we reconceptualize his predicament at school through a different lens such as the matrix and in applying thirdspace we see that Timony wasn t the problem it was the myopic view of some There are indeed places and spaces for different types of teaching styles and pedagogies that need to be enacted and performed 111 Lewinson et al Taking on critical literacy T he journey of newcomers and novices Pull out and scan article Lewinson et al 2002 suggest that the eld of critical literacy is de ned by disrupting the commonplace interrogating multiple view points focusing on sociopolitical issues and taking action and promoting social justice through texts 3 Therefore critical literacy can be a vehicle through which identity is negotiated as texts bump up against the self Since critical literacy is political practice in uenced by social cultural and historical factors Barton amp Hamilton 2000 Street 1995 as in Hagood 2002 p 249 and is committed foremost to the alleviation of human suffering and to the formation of a more just world through the critique of existing social and political problems and the posing of alternatives Hagood 2002 p 249 texts taught through a poststructuralist lens can be a way to help youth negotiate and af rm their identities as they make meaning of the world in which they live A poststructuralist reading of texts can be a powerful way to assist youth in holding onto their authentic selves while it teaches them to interact with the world so they may act on it in a fashion that does not perpetuate hegemony or the status quo Youth with an af rmed authentic self can seek to transform the world through a subjective self that does not ascribe to the construction that the school system seeks to impose upon them Consequently the world environment becomes vulnerable to a new subjectivity as it transacts with authentic selves free of construction Read the Three Little Pigs book again IV Shannon P Critical literacy in everyday life Discuss through context below V Activating Critical literacy Daily students digest and peel back layers of the text through class discussion in depth text analysis student teaching ap endix A daily check ins vocabulary building appendix B an essay 2111ch lastly a social action project appendix C l have attached several ideas for other social action projects here I treat texts with great reverence and by modeling my love and passion for reading my students often inherit a dee sense and commitment to interrogating reading through their own lenses ogether we interrogate deeper sociopolitical issues as they intersect with the readings What I have seen students learn from studyin each novel short story and poem this way is a new and more critical way 0 transacting with their own experience through the text Rosenblatt 1978 As individuals we each make meaning of the text in our lives and often we make meaning as a community 1 illustrate this by teaching N afiw 074 by Richard Wright Handout Nafim 074 examples Teaching Native Son and Disrupting the Commonplace When I teach Nafi e 3074 students must complete the following tasks write a nal a er questions form out of our dialogic take a vocabulary check in vocaEuiJary comes from the words they select from the text that they don t already know students teach a portion from the text an wa they want highlight and complete marginalia within the text itself stu ents highli ht the how and why an author conveys meaning through a key that is create in the front of their texts allusion diction gurative language archetypes syntax point of view theme imagery and symbolism and generally the most exciting aspect for them is to complete a social action project lnterrogatin Multiple Viewpoints and Sociopolitical Issues On the first ay of the new unit I provide a brief background of the author time period and major social and economic issues during which the book was centered For Native 3074 I discuss communism the abolition of slavery and its legacy and the personal politics of Richard Wright and of his subsequent alienation by other Black protest writers This segues into self selecting partners who will team teach a portion of the book I break down the book into readings by chapters or page numbers and the students choose their groupings I find this works best because students tend to soar when they can select partners rather than be re assigned partners Students will make the time to meet outside of class an will teach the class in whatever way they want about their portion of the text as per rubric requirements Over the years I have seen the most fascinating student teachings jem fpri ger shows AA meetings jeopart games sidewalk chalk collages human trivial ursuit sling shots and fami or shows Students decide how they want to teach a section of the book and in so doing they ain power over their own experience and can make meaning of the text in w atever way they need to Most students have never been taught this way nor felt ownershi over their classroom experience and it tends to work positively for them A ter a given student teaching we always have discussion on that reading and make meaning of the text as it transacts with our lives Students develo their own questions from the reading and bring them in for discussion in a dia ogic settin I tend to facilitate the dialogue passively quietly taking notes and occasionalTy jumping in but for the most art I want them to challenge each other and discuss multiple erspectivesEhis is a modi ed form of Socratic Seminar 1 do not force stu ents to participate in seminar although each student must sit in the circle I do not want to perpetuate nor invalidate a student s home discourse that may be to remain silent So for those students especially Native Americans and often times Hispanic females although they are encouraged to speak it is not required instead I invite them to talk if they so choose Additional requirements for each day of the readings are to bring in three vocabulary words defined that I collect and assemble into their vocabulary building and test and to be prepared for a check in over the night s reading Check ins often include a re ection on the mar 39 alia they were to complete the night before and often serve as a check that ey read Students write a final paper on the text and through their writing have an opportunity to express themselves and even take action and promote social 39ustice Questions for the essay derive out of classroom experience and almost always point to deeper social issues Taking Action and Promoting Social Justice Usually I create social action projects and students have choices for which project they want to tackle Sometimes students initiate their own projects with prior consent The point of a social action project is that it becomes a concrete ex erience for students to have an aesthetic lived through transaction gRosenblatt 1978 with the text Years after students read a book they generally or et names and even plots but a lived through experience is alwa s em edded in the human psyche and becomes a way for people to reapplI reactivate and activate a memory into a new context For Nafi e 3074 they were to participate in a cooking show and show prejudice through cooking any of the lSMs which exist throughout the text racism sexism lookism heterosexism classism Their task is to create a recipe for the book and cook in front of the class a solution that would both symbolically and allegorically explain and attempt to heal any of the lSMs found present throughout the text Oftentimes we follow up on the project with a what comes now question We ask ourselves what do we do with these new insights and how do we transform our own experience into social justice This brings us to close each and every unit Summation on Critical Literac Bomer and Bomer 1999 articulate that curriculum is a metaphor for the lives we want to live and the people we want to be and I take this to mean that what we teach is a foreshadow of what is to come and a ashback to what has alread happened Teachers must choose texts that are relevant to their students 39ves and that encoura e an interrogation of larger sociopolitical issues Teachers are instruments 0 social chan e and creators of agents that is students who become ambassadors for socia change Agency is a personal narrative in which the self is a rotagonist who confronts and solves problems with associated motives and af ect Dozier Johnston and Rogers 2005 p 12 We must choose curriculum wisely we must teach with the intention to create a better world we must implant the seeds of knowledge and the understanding of o pression in our students Students are the future they are my investment of w at is and can happen in the future We feel a social responsibility to our friends family local and national communities and to the world to help students recognize that they are participants in society and carry with them as citizens of the United States democratic ideals and princi les and therein lies a personal res onsibility to step up and create the change t ey want to see in the world if an when they see that change is necessary to their own and others survival We must teach and show students how Natioe foo To Kill a Mockingbird fang of 3010777074 Night and Home on Man 0 ftrvet transact with their lives and we must foster a classroom environment at enables them to ferret through texts and peel back the deeply important layers Week 11 See handout Week 12 Critical pedagogy and the techno literacy new literacies movement 1 Course packet Beliefs about Technology and the Preparation of English Teachers 2005 Conference on English Education Leadership and Policy Summit Retrieved March 1 2009 from the World Wide Web httpwww ncte u ceepositions 39 quot r 39 39 Task go to and review this document 11 Gee J Good Video Games and Good Learning How many of you play video games What have you learned from them How can video games bridges to the classroom Learning principles that good games incorporate What does Gee say about inhabiting the identity of the avatar when you play Interacti0n Pr0ducti0n Risk taking Cust0mizati0n Agency Well0rdered problems Challenge and consolidation Justintime and On Demand Situated meaning Pleasantly frustrating System thinking Explore think laterally rethink goals Sma1t tools and distributed knowledge Crossfunctional teams Performance before competence III Kist W Beginning to create the new literacy classroom What does the new literacy look like gt gt V V Our society is electri ed by an in ux of technological advances which has impacted the way individuals read write feel value see and think Appropriating such discourse into schools has led research to the pedagogy of multiliteracies which suggests that students should be able to both read critically and write functionally no matter what the medium Kist 2005 p 11 and that includes according to new literacy studies both non traditional and non verbal literacies eg Gee 2005 Kist 2005 practiced either in school or out Tremmel 2006 p 35 Along with the disciplinary standards movement Beliefs 2005 NCTE IRA standards 4 amp 12 English Education programs require the integration of media and media instruction into their teaching We feel it is essential not only to integrate media into methods but to also develop along with it critical media literacy visual literacy and visual rhetoric skills to enable students to critically read the technological world that infuses their lives Just as we continue to teach better comprehension of more traditional print texts we must help today s secondary students acquire discernment and analytical ability for vieng movies and television because the majority of their daily information comes from non print sources not limited to the news MTV commercials ESPN soaps cartoons and documentaries lVliller amp Norris 2007 Today in this multimodal session we demonstrate two ways of teaching what are now referred to as models of new literacies pedagogy lVliller forthcoming Kist 2005 in our methods courses We feel it essential to map new literacies into methods as a way to cultivate critical lenses for analysis of all mediums and in all levels of our English teaching experiences regardless if it s for our undergraduates graduates or preservice teachers DO REALITY TV TALIC WIKIBlog IV Readings The Critical Pedagogy Reader Part 8 What topics are you passionate about that you want to teach Ecodiversity 911 Theories What else How does TV symbolically represent and mirror life Discuss FCC and who owns what httpwwwfccgovaboutushtml httpwww 139 39 39 m 39 39 39 t shtml httpwww Freenress ownershipchartmain Watch the WIRE and discuss apply the 499 nal model to this Dr lVIiller LBST 499 Popular Culture Due December 10th 2009 Names of group members Final exam ofAnalysis ofWIza s Not There Homework Select any reality prime time soap opera etc TV show and View it a minimum of three times by the end of the semester Xhile you View it keep a log of the episodes with dates and notes which will be collected when you complete your nal project You should probably think of a way to catalog your answers so that it will be easy to address the questions below This can be done as a group or as an individual project The nal format can be either a WIKI or a power point you will have about 15 minutes to share this with the class Rememberi consider and analyze who s not on the show and why as you go through thisithis should be build into your argument Criteria Name the show and unpack the meaning by analyzing the logo colors font sociopolitical messages Who is the target audience gender social class age national origin language sexual orientation ability ethnicity language and be as thorough as possible 10 When and how frequently is it on 5 Where is the show lmed and how does the context seduce repel viewers city wilderness suburbia cyberspace etc 5 What station is it on and which major network owns the property rights 5 Integrate a brief re ection on each of these issues of ethnicity class gender sexual orientation 0 gender expression national origin age language ability and or religion hint this can be done by telling us a bit about excl character Consider how individuals either mirror or counter stereotypes in their positions on the show Explain the appeal of the viewer consumer of the show 20 Re ect on your experience as the viewer and consumer of the show as it relates to course content readings theories and discussions dominant negotiated preferred readings 15 Ask and re ect how does this show perpetuate myths or lead into a new way of considering humans and the media 15 Re ect on if you would let children View this show why or why not 10 Re ect and explain to whom you would n t recommend this show to consider it s impact on identity 10 Re ect and answer what you learned about identities in this process 10 What would Baudrillard say about the speci c show you watched be specific 15 Includes a thoughtful discussion of firstspace second space and thirdspace in the context of the show 5 Uploads a clip from the show 5 Includes cited sourcesrefs to course readings discussions throughout 10 Includes use of correct formatting of MA or APA works cited 10 Includes and explains pics or graphics ie an identity artifact 5 Explain whether or not you will continue to watch 5 Each member participates 5 If you could rename the show ANYTHING what would you call it 5 Hands me back this rubric with your names on 5 Submits all participants logs 10 Total and comments 245 Critical Pedagogy Chptr 7 Teach how to WIKI and BLOG Week 13 Critical pedagogy and queer theory 1 Gender non binary talk etc Power points images Blackburn M amp Buckley J F Teaching queer inclusive English language arts A Explain the acronym GLBTTSQA B lfyou haven t done your own inner work this can be dif cult C Why is this topic loaded D Why are queer narratives silenced E GSLENorg quotstart agsa Current stats httpq wwwglsenorgg cg bin iowa all librarv record 2340htmlstate champtV research transgender youth httpwwwglsenorgcgr biniowaalllibraryrecord2388htmlstateresearchamptyperesearch YOUR LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY httD WW lambdale al orcr inecourt cases naboznvevenodle nvhtml Groundbreaking case arguing that schools have a responsibility to protect students from antigay verbal and physical abuse Miller s DisEmbealaling gender diversity in the preservice Classroom A Normalizing language B Powerpoints C Discuss transgender issues D Politics of representation and identity see national resources And current hate crimes ruling E Review p 321 Moj e E amp MuQaribu M Literacy anal sexual identity Ideas for discussion Role plays 11 Readings The Critical Pedagogy Reader Part 4 How can schools operate what types of programs to support an adolescent s emerging sexuality How can we BOTH liberate and critique the concept of the beauty myth Premise The basic premise of THE BEAUTY MYTH is that forced adherence to standards of physical beauty has grown stronger for women as they gained power in other societal arenas Wolf argues that this standard of beauty has taken over the work of social coercion formerly left to myths about motherhood domesticity chastity and passivity all of which have been used to keep women powerless In the author s view the gaunt youthful model has supplanted the happy housewife as the arbiter of successful womanhood The myth of beauty spreads the belief that an objective measurement of beauty exists and that woman must want to embody it and that men must want such women However Wolf contends that the beauty myth is really not about women it is about men s institutions and power Beauty is about behavior not appearance The qualities labelled beautiful in women in any given time period are no more than symbols of female behavior considered desirable at that time Besides weakening women psychologically the beauty myth feeds a multibilliondollar cosmetics industry and keeps women from rising too high in the workplace by offering a way around antidiscrimination laws httpwwwhomestarorgb annanwolfhtml TO NOTIDENITFYA PBOBLEM OR TO IGNORE TOPICIS TO BE COMPLICIT INITSRECYCLING and CONTINUATION
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