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Biology Of Plants

by: Sage Waters

Biology Of Plants BIOL 108

Sage Waters
GPA 3.92

M. Bosela

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M. Bosela
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sage Waters on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 108 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by M. Bosela in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/233541/biol-108-indiana-university-purdue-university-fort-wayne in Biology at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Review Questions and Problems 1 Was the degree of antimicrobial activity detected related to the type of solvent used for extraction Explain with reference to the class data Yes for all plant samples that exhibited antimicrobial activity solvent effects were detected with water being the more effective solvent For two species Sassafras and Cinnamon tested against S aureus antimicrobial activity was only detected for the water extracts indicating that the chemicals with antimicrobial activity were more soluble in water than hexane For garlic both extracts hexane and water exhibited antimicrobial activity However for both bacteria the degree of inhibition diameter of the zone of inhibition was greater for the water extracts than the hexane extracts 1320 mm vs 2128 mm for the S aureus tests and 79 mm vs 1415 mm for the E coli tests 2 Using the Dr Duke s Online Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database httpwwwars grin gov duke collect the data needed to complete the table provided below Garlic Cloves Bulb 45715 Not available ScordjnjnABZ 39000 Not available 25715 Not Cysteine derivatives with glutamic acid attached via the amino nitrogen dipeptides S guanidino cysteine cysteine derivatives with a guanidine group attached at the sulfur 3 Allicin is a thiosulfinate 3 For each plant from the previous table Question 2 indicate the structure of the most common secondary metabolite To determine the chemical structures run an image search in Google or Yahoo Redraw the chemical structures below or copy and paste the images into a word document print and attach separately Indicate which of the secondary metabolites shown would be expected to be most polar and which would be the least polar Remember that bonds between carbon and either nitrogen oxygen or sulfur contribute polarity to a molecule since the electrons of the bond are not equally shared conferring regions of partial negative or positive charge In addition acidic groups COOH and basic groups NHZ which partly ionize in water confer a very strong degree of polarity O CSS Hi A O NH2 H23 E a O a C 39 e D B S 3C Figure 1 Secondary metabolite structures A Allicin B Alliin C Safrole and D Cinnamaldehyde None of the compounds allicin safrole or cinnamaldehyde contains many functional groups that confer polarity Since allicin and cinnamaldehyde have single polar bonds C 0 vs SO they would be expected to be less polar than safrole which has two CO bonds however since the oxygen atoms in safrole are bonded to the same carbon atom they would tend to antagonize each others effects and resulting in less net polarity than if the oxygen atoms had been located at different positions In fact the water solubility of safrole as determined empirically is significantly lower than that of allicin or cinnamaldehydre with the compound being described as insoluble in water Comparing cinnamldehyde and allicin allicin would be expected to be slightly more polar The polarity of C0 and 80 bonds is equivalent with electronegativity differences of 10 see the electronegativity table but allicin is smaller and thus has a higher density of partial charge In addition the polar covalent bond is in an interior position on allicin a feature that would be expected to increase solubility in polar solvents such as water by reducing the effective size the nonpolar regions NOTE Alliin the precursor of allicin is highly polar with both carboxylic acid and amine groups which are ionizable and a polar covalent sulfuroxygen bond For water extracts alliin and allinase the enzyme that converts alliin to allicin may have been coextracted In intact cells allinase and alliin are found in separate compartments If the enzyme remained functional in the extracts the concentration of allicin may have increased between the point of extract preparation and testing 4 Assuming that the concentration of secondary metabolite X in an extract is 500 mgL that the total extract volume is 300 uL 03 mL 00003 L and the fresh weight of the tissue sample used for extraction was 200 mg 02 g estimate the amount weight per gram of plant tissues Show your calculations on the back X 00003 L 015 mg extracted 015 mg 1000 mg X 075 mggram fresh weight


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