Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Politics The council of 500 was a group of 500 men elected annually o Chosen via a lottery system, showed thaw theoretically every citizen was able to serve in a political process o Makes almost every important decision of state, including going to war, making peace, passing laws, decrees o Direct democracy seen through how as long as you're a males out can. Go and directly vote on what the council is discussing Ostracism o Every year, was divided into 10 parts so that there was one part of the year for each tribe to be in charge of the council o The tribe will vote on if they want an ostracism, if the majority say they do then 8th part of the year everyone puts in a name. They count the ballots and if someone gets a plurality vote they are banished for 10 years o Designed to prevent another tyranny to happen. It allows the people to get rid of a seemingly corrupt politician without the risk of having it pinned on one person who trot get rid of them o Wasn't used for twenty years Persian wars Herodotus o Considered to be the first historian o He is the "father of history" because of how he answers the question why o "Redundant causation" or "double motivation", meaning he records not only divine causation but human causation as well o His purpose was to explain how the "barbarians and Greeks came into conflict" o Barbarian has a bad connotation now, but back then it just meant anyone who wasn't Greek o History comes from the Greek word historie which means inquiry. This describes Herodotus' methods o Herodotus went all around the known world, asking questions, interviewing people Cyrus o 30 year reign of Persia o Makes Persia the strongest empire in the region o He dies, leaving the kingdom to his son o ____, the empires goes from Asia Minor to _ o Each king after Cyrus has a desire to live up to his rule by expanding the empire Ionian revolt o Persians were in control of Ionia, Ionians revolt, Athens helps them but they aren't successful o King wants revenge o Sets out to attack Athens, there is s storm that causes them to be unsuccessful . They decide to take s diplomatic route o Athens and Sparta refused to give "earth and water", and kill the ambassadors sent to them to collect it. Violation of international law and a scandal o The next year, Darius decided to go for s military strategy because diplomacy didn't work o Battle of Marathon Listen to lecture The Athenians send their entire army to hold off the Persians, while they also ask Philippius to run to Sparta to for help. The Spartans come as soon as they can to help the Athenians. Both armies of Persians and Greeks sit and wait for 5 days The Persians take advantage of every soldier being at marathon, so they leave to attack Athens The Greeks are signaled by some Ionians that the Persian Calvary is gone, so the Greeks decide to attack while the Persians are weaker, then hope they have enough time to go back and defend Athens 6400 Persians die, 162 Athenians The Athenian survivors, leave 1 tribe to stay on the battlefield, the rest go back to Athens They get back just in time, as the Persians show up and decide they don't want to risk another loss so they leave and Athens is save They buried all the soldiers who died on the battlefield o If Athens hadn't won the battle of marathon, the Greeks would've been just a footnote of Persian history They proved that they are capable of defeating the Persians It teaches the Greeks in general that it is possible to beat these people instead of just taking it Hellenic league League of Greek city states coming together to beat the Persians The Spartans are out in charge of the league because of their military expertise and the fact that the league is mostly filled with people provided by Sparta from their Peloponnesian league Athens provides most of the navy because Sparta doesn't have experience in that Thermopylae 5200 Greek troops, 900 helots Famous 300 Spartans Greeks are outnumbered probably 40:1 o They know they're not going to win, but hope that they can cause enough causalities to wear down Xerxes and keep morale up back home Ephialtes, commander of the army o Everyone wants to flee, but Ephialtes says he and the Spartans will stay, 700 other thespians also stay although it's basically a suicide mission Although technically a loss, they were able to kill 20,000 Persians and boost morale We know they didn't expect to win because they only sent 300 men, that all had at least one living son to continue their family alone Salamis Persian have a clear spot to Attica, so the Athenians evacuate to Salamis Spartans wanted to go back, give up Athens, and defend the isthmus if Corinth Athenians don't want to do that, so Themistocles plays a trick o He sends a letter to Xerxes saying that he should attack at Salamis o So Xerxes listened and the battle took place there The Greeks were outnumbered 4:1, but somehow won the battle o 1sr Greek victory in the second Persian war o Causes Xerxes to change his strategy for the rest of the war. Up until this point, he would fight on land and sea simultaneously Now, he has lost faith in the navy so he sends them home and the rest of the war is fought on land 30,000 Persians are killed, only 1500 Greeks die The Persians give up because they realize it's not worth it and they keep losing To celebrate the victory, the Greeks went to the oracle at Delphi and send a serpent column on a gold tripod to thank Apollo The Greeks decide to take the war to the Persians Summer of 479, the Athenian navy ends up fighting a battle at Mycale o The Greeks win by a lot o Seeing a successful Greek fleet in their region, the Ionian Greeks ask for help in liberating them. The Hellenic league agrees and is able to help the Ionians o Spartans don't think they need to do any more, so they go home o The Athenians stay to occupy the Persian city of Sestos and successfully conquer it o Marks the end of the Persian wars as well as the end if the archaic age and beginning of the classical age of Greek history o Leads to a huge divide between the Spartans and Athenians , and therefore a division in the Hellenic league Delian league Don't want to follow Spartan rules, ask Athens to be in charge of their navy Athens then starts a new league called Delian that has goals of getting revenge on the Persians for their in visions of Greece, as well as get tribute from states supporting the Persians Peloponnesian wars Showdown between Sparta and Athens Athens is clearly dominate on the sea, so they try to replicate this into land o Some Egyptians ask for help in o 454 transfer of treasury to Athens 451 signing of treaty called the 5 year peace, sort of unsuccessful o In 456 both sides agree to a 30 year peace, that only lasts 15 years Athenian empire Delian League became the Athenian empire in 454 Used as an arm of Athens’ foreign policy From the 450s to the 420s, the most famous and influential political figure in Athens was Pericles o Athens was a democracy so there was no official man in change, but Pericles was unofficially the one in charge o Pericles was a democratic imperialist o Militant democracy, meaning that Athens expanded their empire and spread democracy to the conquered peoples o Pericles began an “urban beautification program” using money from the tributes required of allies, built the Parthenon to honor Athena Other political interference o All mandatory appeals were to be heard in Athens, even if there were no Athenians involved o Declare that all allies much use Athenian coinage, weights, and measures Offensive because minting your own currency was a sign that you were independent and autonomous Allies had to take their money all the way to Athens, and exchange it for Athenian currency at a rate of 3% Athenian Drama th Principle source for Greek drama was Aristotle writing in the 4 century "Drama" means action, as in what is represented in the stage Tragedy o Developed from a Greek word meaning "goat song" Could be called goat song because the chorus dressed like goats, you brought your goat with you, or the winner received a goat as a prize o Tragic chorus was a group of men singing songs o Tragedy Proper developed when an actor was added to the chorus Started with a call and response situation where a chorus would sing something and one man would respond o Genuine actor by the time of o Each of the great playwrights added actors, leading to a total of 3 actors who played multiple roles per play o Drama was not a private competition, it was through state sponsored dramatic festivals in honor of the god Dionysus where people competed o Theatres had a large seating area, orchestra level, stage, and an area under the stage for the actors to change costumes and stuff o Plays were chosen to compete in Dionysia during the religious festivals Playwrights submitted their plays in advance, and the 3 best playwrights were chosen If chosen, then the playwrights were allowed to show 4 plays, 3 that formed a trilogy and 1 that was based off an older way The actors were chosen by lottery when assigned to the playwrights They often chose their Producers were chosen by lottery and were the wealthiest people in Athens, because they were responsible for costumes, machinery, etc. Producing a play was a liturgy (service) to Athens, just like outfitting a warship or donating to build a monument To promote this, and encourage producers to do well, if you produced a 1 place play then you could put a monument of yourself in downtown Athens Aeschylus (525-456) o Wrote over 80 plays, only 7 survived o Part of those 7 include the only full trilogy Sophocles (496-406) o 7 surviving plays o Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex, the O.T.) Prophecy that Oedipus will kill his father and marry his mother. His parents leave him on the hillside, a shepherd finds him and saves him. Oedipus grows up in Corinth, not knowing who his real parents are. One day he is walking down the road, runs into a group of men, they fight and Oedipus ends up killing a man who was a stranger who was actually his father. He goes home, finds the Queen Jocasta who was recently widowed, and marries her. When the city is inflicted with a plague, Oedipus is told that the only way to end it is to avenge the murder of King Laius. He eventually confronts the truth that he killed his father and married his mother and pays a heavy price. Euripides o 19 surviving plays o Not as successful as the other two playwrights Elements of tragic plays Traditional stories and themes The audience usually knows the ending of the story because it has been told to them for years According to Aristotle, tragedy produces a “cleansing”, meaning that as the audience watches the play they experience sadness and pity, but those feelings are washed away in the end and result in a feeling of pleasure Over and over, characters in tragedies make crucial mistakes that lead to their ruin Question to what extent does the main character bear responsibility of this own fate? The characteristic that leads to downfall can be associated with hubris Can be roughly translated to being overly prideful However, the Greeks didn’t care if you were very prideful in your own mind, as long as you didn’t do anything about it. Hubris is defined as an act in deed or word that manifests your pride, and is caused by your overwhelming pride Comedy “Comos”=comedy o Was actually a traveling group of men, who would go from town to town drinking and singing songs, making fun of the people they encountered, bringing their animals with them Comos became the “Comic chorus” o Moved around a lot o Usually wore animal costumes o Turns from Porto chorus to a real chorus and adds actors Aristophanes (445-385) o 11 surviving plays o No surviving plays from playwrights of his competition o Subjects were normally about everyday life, the present moment His play “the clouds” was about the educational movement sweeping through the state o Lysistrata Most famous play In it, all the women went on a sexual strike until the war stopped Made fun of Greek society and even the gods The (2 , Great) Peloponnesian War Thucydides o Next great historian after Herodotus o He writes a focused monograph on the Peloponnesian war because he realized as soon as the war broke out that it would be the biggest war ever o Also narrows significantly the field of causation o Herodotus employed redundant causation, meaning that there were divine and mortal reasons for events Thucydides only discussed human reasoning
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