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Week 11 Lecture Notes

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by: Haley J Schuhl

Week 11 Lecture Notes PSY 223

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Psychlogy > PSY 223 > Week 11 Lecture Notes
Haley J Schuhl
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It's been brought to my attention that there are multiple copies of this and a couple other materials. They are exactly the same be careful you don't buy multiple copies! Sorry for the inconvenience.
Social Psychology
Glenn Reeder
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Week  11  Lecture  Notes   Monday  10/26/15   • No  social  behavior  this  week   • Test  on  Friday  Nov.  6     • Gender  and  types  of  aggression   o Women  inflict  emotional  or  relational  aggression  (possibly  slapping   or  throwing  things  à  the  damage  doesn’t  put  anyone  in  the  hospital)   o Men’s  aggression  does  physical  damage     o Aggression  is  correlated  (1)  positively  with  testosterone  (higher   levels  of  testosterone  associated  with  higher  levels  of  aggression)  and   (2)  negatively  with  serotonin  levels  (serotonin  is  a  hormone   associated  with  making  you  feel  good)     • Instinct  theories  are  pessimistic   o If  aggression  is  genetic,  then  it  cannot  be  controlled.  This  makes  it   seem  like  we  are  doomed  to  be  aggressive.   o These  theories  don’t  explain  variations  in  aggression  over  situations   or  cultures     • Frustration  (other  theories  of  aggression  besides  evolutionary  theory)   o When  we  are  blocked  from  a  goal,  we  experience  frustration     o Frustration  increases  the  probability  of  aggression  (doesn’t  imply  that   everyone  who’s  frustrated  will  show  aggression)   o “Frustrated”  rats  attack:  Give  them  food  pellets  and  train  them  to   press  the  bar.  They  would  get  trained  and  learn  to  press  the  bar  and   they  would  get  food.  However,  if  they  stopped  giving  food  when  the   rats  would  press  the  bar  they  would  show  frustration  and  would   sometimes  bite  the  other  rats  in  their  cage  (aggressive  behavior).   o Social  rejection  (being  ignored)  can  increase  aggression  à  this  is   often  the  source  of  frustration  that  leads  to  aggression  in  the  cases  of   school  shootings   o We  are  more  likely  to  aggress  if  we  view  frustration  as  intentional   (someone  is  purposefully  trying  to  stop  you  from  achieving  your  goal)   • Alcohol  and  Aggression   o Alcohol  lowers  inhibitions  à  this  makes  you  more  likely  to  act  on   urges  that  you  would  normally  suppress     o Impairs  executive  functioning  à  we  might  ignore  mitigating   information  and  intentions  (someone  steps  on  your  toe  which  might   make  you  angry,  but  the  chances  are  that  it  was  an  accident,  don’t  take   into  account  that  you’re  at  a  crowded  bar  and  the  other  person  might   be  intoxicated  as  well)  ,  changes  the  way  we  make  decisions     § alcohol  myopia:  narrow  focus  of  attention   § mitigating  information:  background  info,  situational  factors   o Alcohol  serves  as  an  aggressive  cue,  just  seeing  it  or  thinking  about  it   can  increase  aggression   • Deserved  vs.  not  deserved   o We  aggress  if  we  don’t  think  we  deserve  the  frustration     • Situational  cues  created  automatic  associations   o The  weapons  effect:  the  mere  presence  of  a  gun  makes  violence  more   likely     § People  were  asked  to  give  electric  shocks.  In  the  control  there   were  random  objects  on  a  table  but  in  the  experimental   condition  there  were  guns  on  the  table  in  the  room.  The   experimental  group  gave  more  electric  shocks  than  the  control   group.   • Social  learning   o Angry,  emotional  aggression  is  “blowing  up”  because  of  frustration,   when  people  “see  red”  and  aggress  without  much  planning   o Instrumental  aggression  is  hurting  someone  to  gain  a  reward.  Using   aggression  as  a  means  to  an  end.  Often  much  colder,  strategic,  thought   out,  planned  out  sometimes  months  or  years  in  advanced.     o Both  types  of  aggression  are  learned  in  a  social  environment  à  we   learn  that  aggression  is  a  good  thing  under  certain  circumstances  (like   in  the  military)  but  not  ok  in  other  situations.                   Wednesday  10/29/15   • Individual  Differences  Related  to  Aggression   o Example:  school  shootings   o Three  Types  Identified   § Traumatized  (or  bullied)   § Psychotic  (schizophrenia,  hearing  voices,  disconnected  with   reality)   § Psychopathic  (not  having  any  sympathy  or  empathy  for  others,   desensitized,  may  be  narcissistic  à  think  very  highly  of   themselves,  feel  entitled)   •    Instrumental  and  Emotional  Aggression   o Both  are  learned  in  a  social  environment   o Southern  culture  of  honor:  emphasizes  honor  and  status  for  males,   and  its  acceptable  to  use  aggression  to  protect  that  honor   • Learning  by  reinforcement   o When  aggression  is  rewarded,  it  becomes  more  frequent     § Aggression  rewarded  in  first  person  shooter  video  games,   sports,  in  movies     • Modeling   o We  imitate  others     o Albert  Bandura’s  Bobo  Doll  studies:  some  of  the  children  were   exposed  to  an  adult  who  would  hit  the  Bobo  doll  and  played   aggressively  with  the  doll,  another  group  saw  a  cartoon  of  a  character   playing  aggressively,  while  the  control  group  had  no  model.  The   children  used  the  same  techniques  that  their  model  did,  even  saying   the  same  things  that  the  adults  did  while  they  played  with  the  doll.   The  live  model  had  the  most  aggressive  responses,  the  cartoon  was   slightly  less  effective,  and  children  who  had  no  model  were  not  very   aggressive  with  the  toy.   o Parents  who  use  physical  punishment  serve  as  aggressive  models  for   kids  and  increases  the  child’s  aggressive  behavior   § “Society  as  a  whole,  not  just  children,  could  benefit  from   ending  the  system  of  violent  childrearing  that  goes  under  the   euphemism  of  spanking”  –APA     • Cultivation:  Mass  media  construct  reality  for  us   o George  Gerbner  did  research  that  found  TV  presents  an  aggressive   view  of  the  world.  Gave  multiple-­‐choice  test,  people  could  select  “the   way  things  are  in  the  real  world”  and  “the  way  the  world  is  portrayed   on  TV”.    Participants  who  were  heavy  TV  viewers  were  biased  à   thought  the  dangerous,  mean  world  they  saw  on  TV  was  more   accurate  than  it  is   • Media  Violence     o Lab  Studies:  Violent  programs  lead  children  to  hurt  each  other.  Under   really  controlled  circumstances,  violent  TV  caused  them  to  be  more   likely  to  press  the  hurt  button  afterwards.   o Long  term  field  research:  Boys  were  but  on  a  “diet”  of  either  violent  of   nonviolent  movies.  The  violent  movie  group  was  more  aggressive  on   the  playground  compared  to  the  nonviolent  group.   o Conclusion:  Media  violence  is  strongly  related  to  aggression     o Research  is  relatively  consistent     • Why  media  violence  is  influential  in  aggression     o It  introduces  children  to  ways  that  they  can  aggress  that  they  weren’t   aware  of  previously     o “Primes”  violent  ideas,  more  likely  to  think  about  them   o Desensitization:  it  reduces  the  emotional  sensitivity  to  violence,  we   might  see  how  actors  in  TV/films  don’t  get  upset  by  violence     Friday  we  just  watched  a  short  film.  Our  next  exam  is  Friday  11/6/15.  


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