Week 11 Lecture Notes
Week 11 Lecture Notes PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Week 11 Lecture Notes Monday 10/26/15 • No social behavior this week • Test on Friday Nov. 6 • Gender and types of aggression o Women inflict emotional or relational aggression (possibly slapping or throwing things à the damage doesn’t put anyone in the hospital) o Men’s aggression does physical damage o Aggression is correlated (1) positively with testosterone (higher levels of testosterone associated with higher levels of aggression) and (2) negatively with serotonin levels (serotonin is a hormone associated with making you feel good) • Instinct theories are pessimistic o If aggression is genetic, then it cannot be controlled. This makes it seem like we are doomed to be aggressive. o These theories don’t explain variations in aggression over situations or cultures • Frustration (other theories of aggression besides evolutionary theory) o When we are blocked from a goal, we experience frustration o Frustration increases the probability of aggression (doesn’t imply that everyone who’s frustrated will show aggression) o “Frustrated” rats attack: Give them food pellets and train them to press the bar. They would get trained and learn to press the bar and they would get food. However, if they stopped giving food when the rats would press the bar they would show frustration and would sometimes bite the other rats in their cage (aggressive behavior). o Social rejection (being ignored) can increase aggression à this is often the source of frustration that leads to aggression in the cases of school shootings o We are more likely to aggress if we view frustration as intentional (someone is purposefully trying to stop you from achieving your goal) • Alcohol and Aggression o Alcohol lowers inhibitions à this makes you more likely to act on urges that you would normally suppress o Impairs executive functioning à we might ignore mitigating information and intentions (someone steps on your toe which might make you angry, but the chances are that it was an accident, don’t take into account that you’re at a crowded bar and the other person might be intoxicated as well) , changes the way we make decisions § alcohol myopia: narrow focus of attention § mitigating information: background info, situational factors o Alcohol serves as an aggressive cue, just seeing it or thinking about it can increase aggression • Deserved vs. not deserved o We aggress if we don’t think we deserve the frustration • Situational cues created automatic associations o The weapons effect: the mere presence of a gun makes violence more likely § People were asked to give electric shocks. In the control there were random objects on a table but in the experimental condition there were guns on the table in the room. The experimental group gave more electric shocks than the control group. • Social learning o Angry, emotional aggression is “blowing up” because of frustration, when people “see red” and aggress without much planning o Instrumental aggression is hurting someone to gain a reward. Using aggression as a means to an end. Often much colder, strategic, thought out, planned out sometimes months or years in advanced. o Both types of aggression are learned in a social environment à we learn that aggression is a good thing under certain circumstances (like in the military) but not ok in other situations. Wednesday 10/29/15 • Individual Differences Related to Aggression o Example: school shootings o Three Types Identified § Traumatized (or bullied) § Psychotic (schizophrenia, hearing voices, disconnected with reality) § Psychopathic (not having any sympathy or empathy for others, desensitized, may be narcissistic à think very highly of themselves, feel entitled) • Instrumental and Emotional Aggression o Both are learned in a social environment o Southern culture of honor: emphasizes honor and status for males, and its acceptable to use aggression to protect that honor • Learning by reinforcement o When aggression is rewarded, it becomes more frequent § Aggression rewarded in first person shooter video games, sports, in movies • Modeling o We imitate others o Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll studies: some of the children were exposed to an adult who would hit the Bobo doll and played aggressively with the doll, another group saw a cartoon of a character playing aggressively, while the control group had no model. The children used the same techniques that their model did, even saying the same things that the adults did while they played with the doll. The live model had the most aggressive responses, the cartoon was slightly less effective, and children who had no model were not very aggressive with the toy. o Parents who use physical punishment serve as aggressive models for kids and increases the child’s aggressive behavior § “Society as a whole, not just children, could benefit from ending the system of violent childrearing that goes under the euphemism of spanking” –APA • Cultivation: Mass media construct reality for us o George Gerbner did research that found TV presents an aggressive view of the world. Gave multiple-‐choice test, people could select “the way things are in the real world” and “the way the world is portrayed on TV”. Participants who were heavy TV viewers were biased à thought the dangerous, mean world they saw on TV was more accurate than it is • Media Violence o Lab Studies: Violent programs lead children to hurt each other. Under really controlled circumstances, violent TV caused them to be more likely to press the hurt button afterwards. o Long term field research: Boys were but on a “diet” of either violent of nonviolent movies. The violent movie group was more aggressive on the playground compared to the nonviolent group. o Conclusion: Media violence is strongly related to aggression o Research is relatively consistent • Why media violence is influential in aggression o It introduces children to ways that they can aggress that they weren’t aware of previously o “Primes” violent ideas, more likely to think about them o Desensitization: it reduces the emotional sensitivity to violence, we might see how actors in TV/films don’t get upset by violence Friday we just watched a short film. Our next exam is Friday 11/6/15.
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