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Week 2 Notes

by: Rachel McCord

Week 2 Notes P155

Rachel McCord
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences
Robert Nosofsky

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About this Document

These are the second week of notes. If covers the different areas of the brain, their functions, as well as confounds and interesting drugs that affect different regions!
Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences
Robert Nosofsky
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel McCord on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to P155 at Indiana University taught by Robert Nosofsky in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology and Brain Sciences in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 01/23/15
P155 Week 2 Notes Recall that we previously discussed and left off on the topic of Confounds o In order to deal with the Experimenter expectancy effect a result observed because an experimenter expects it to happen 0 Use DoubleBlind Control Both the subject w the experimenter are unaware of which group received the treatment 0 An example of experimenterexpectancy effect in a real life natural situation facilitative communication techniques with autistic children 0 Use of doubleblind technique demonstrated a case in which results of facilitative communication were experimenterexpectancy effects Neuroscience and the Brain 0 Neuron or Nerve Cell 0 100 billion neurons in the brain 0 Basic structure Beings with dendrites fingerlike structures that receive information from other neurons or the outside world then connects to cell body basic metabolism of the cell extends to the axon long slender tube and finally branches out to terminal branches each end have terminal buttons that help transfer information o Oneway conduction o 3 Main Types 0 Sensory Neurons receive sensory information directly from the environment I Start of the process 0 Motor Neurons causes muscles to contract I Final neurons of the chain 0 Interneurons or associative neurons place where all the complex chains occur 0 How does the individual neuron work 0 All neurons have the semipermeable membrane has little channels that allow some particles in and keeps some particles out I When at rest negative ions are inside and positively charged ions are outside this is how the process starts I At rest neuron is in a polarized state called resting potential I When stimulated membrane increases its permeability I With sufficient stimulation neuron depolarizes action potential ie the neuron quotfiresquot I Chain reaction among neurons 0 Refractory period neuron is resistant to firing again I Absolute I Relative o Allornone law Neuron either fires or it doesn t fire each individual impulse is of equal strength I If there is greater stimulation it fires fastermore times per second so it codes different magnitudes of sensation o Neurons covered by a myelin sheath are able to fire faster Alcohol Addiction and Withdrawal o Nerve cell excitability is inhibited by alcohol 0 Causes intoxication o Nerve cells may adapt by creating new ion channels 0 After these channels are created it takes more and more of the substance in order to receive the same effects increase in tolerance 0 With sudden removal of alcohol the nervous system may therefore overact causing withdrawal systems 0 The new ion channels that were created remain after stopping taking the substance in this instance alcohol Neural Communication Terminal Buttons 9 Synapse 9 Dendrites 0 One neuron ends with terminal buttons 0 Neuron just fired Dendrites in another neuron receive the stimulation fire from the previous neuron o Synapse is the space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of another I Key to neural communication 0 When a neuron fires chemical substances released into synapse I Called neurotransmitters 0 Fit into receptor sites have very specific chemical shapes Neurotransmitters released into synapse try to fit into the receptor sites of the next neuron which makes the communication work I quotLock and key metaphor 0 There can be hundreds of thousands of neurons meeting up in the synapse not just one o Neurotransmitters can be either excitatory or inhibitory o Excitatory Makes the next neuron fire 0 Inhibitory Turns the next neuron off 0 The sum of these stimulation determines if the next neuron will fire or not The sum goes back to the fact that there can be hundreds of thousands of neurons meeting up 0 Drugs affect the nervous system by affecting neurotransmitters o Agonist facilitate neurotransmitter actions 0 Antagonist interfere with neurotransmitter actions 0 Note Just because a drug being used is an agonist or antagonist you can t determine whether or not it is an excitatory or inhibitory It depends on which neurotransmitter the drug is affecting Mechanisms of Drug Influence 1 Same structure as neurotransmitter so it mimics its behavior a The drug can have the same chemical shape b Would be an agonist 2 Blocking the receptor sites a Chemical shape that is close to neurotransmitter but isn t exact so it half fits onto receptor sites and blocks the neurotransmitter from connecting b Would be an antagonist 3 Affect release of neurotransmitter 2 ways a Will cause the neurons to increase the release of neurotransmitters i Agonist b Causes a decrease in the release i Antagonist 4 Prevent reuptake a Reuptake Neurotransmitters are released into synapse but the nervous system only allows certain amount of time to connect to receptor sites otherwise they are reabsorbed back into the terminal buttons b By forcing the neurotransmitter to stay in synapse for longer amount of time has greater chance of hooking up with receptor sites to enable the next neurons in reaction chain to fire c Would be an agonist Examples of Drug Influence o Acetylcholine Ach release by motor neurons causes muscles to contract 0 Cobra Venom prevents release of Ach Which causes paralysis die from suffocation 0 Black widow spider causes over release of Ach Which causes muscle spasms still die 0 Antidotes to black widow spiders is cobra venom 0 Alzheimer s disease caused by death of nerve cells in brain that release Ach o Dopamine general regulating effects on brain functioning 0 Certain types of schizophrenia are caused by overrelease of dopamine I Antipsychotic drug chorpromazine 0 Example of drug that has similar structure of dopamine but not exact so blocks the receptor sites antagonist o Underrelease of dopamine causes Parkinson s disease I Drug treatment of Parkinson s disease Ldopa enzymes break it down into dopamine agonist I Have to be careful when treating because too much Ldopa will cause certain types of schizophrenia to arise o Endorphins painrelieving properties 0 Discovery of this is what lead to understanding and discovery of neurotransmitters 0 Same chemical structure as heroin and morphine Brain 0 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral nervous system sensory and motor neurons The brain 0 The brain stem very top part of the spinal cord that meets the brain 0 Medulla responsible for fundamental biological functions such as heart rate and breathing o Cerebellum responsible for various motor activities I quotthe old brain I If damaged person will experience jerky movements 0 Ponds and Reticular formation arousal sleep and dreaming o Limbic System Midbrain o Hypothalamu all sorts of bodily drive such as hunger thirst body temp sex drive etc o Amygdala responsible for various emotional reactions as well as aggression in animals fight or flight Located right above the hypothalamus o Thalamus Big sensory relay station to then go to higher levels of the brain where the sensory will be interpreted o Hippocampus In the middle of the limbic system Basic function is memory Converts short term memory into long term memory I Short term memory what we are consciously thinking about now I Long term memory permanent memory I HM damaged hippocampus severe anterograde amnesia inability to create new long term memories HM stands for initials of famous patient 0 Cerebrum the big outer portion of the brain 0 Divided into two halves right and left hemispheres 0 Corpus callosum what connects the right and left hemispheres o Cerebral cortex outer covering of cerebrum where all the higher level activities are happening Highly wrinkled with convolutions I Divided into 4 main lobes frontal lobe front parietal lobe behind frontal temporal lobe below frontal and occipital lobe back I Visual cortex is located at the back of the occipital lobe I Auditory cortex is located at the top of the temporal lobe I Motor area is located at the back of the frontal lobe o Frontal lobe controls abstract thought and planning I Somatosensory area is located at the very front of the parietal lobe 0 Area where sensory decoding takes place I By far most of cortex consists of association areas 0 Patient with visual agnosia I Vision is fine but difficulty in using visual information to recognize objects I Caused by damage to association areas connecting visual cortex to temporal lobe


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