Week Two Notes-Geology G-104
Week Two Notes-Geology G-104 GEOL-104 20584
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Hughes on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL-104 20584 at Indiana University taught by Laura Wasylenki in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Evolution of the Earth in Geology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
12015 G104 The present is the key to the past Earth made of O Rocks 999999999 Glass Magma Water Gases 0 Organic chemicals 0 O O O Rock an aggregate of minerals or a glass made by geological processes Mineral 1 solid 2 naturally occurring 3 orderly periodic arrangement of atoms in a 5 crystal structure 4 definite range of chemical composition mostly inorganic not primarily C H or O Halite NaCl 0 Salt always breaks in right angles 0 Even at the smallest scale atoms Arrangement and number of atoms governs e 1g 0 Taste structure strength etc Calcite CaCo3 0 Looks like salt clear but breaks off in more diamond like patterns Muscovite KAlzAlSi3O10OH2 O Breaks off in layerssheets instead of in blocks Weak bonds will be where a mineral will break Quartz SiOz 0 Sharp white colored random shape identical bonds difficult to break breaks randomly 0 Strong bonds no weak bonds in any direction Can look at how a mineral breaks to determine its composition and in turn how it was formed Some minerals are more tolerant of substitutions of atoms than others Some species of Plankton actually make minerals bio minerals Coal is not a mineral primarily organic Color is not a good identifier of minerals because most minerals can be different colors because of the bacteria growing inside of the crystals 0 Long bonds are generally weaker while short bonds are generally stronger 0 Glass disordered arrangement of atoms 0 Not a mineral 0 Mineral ordered arrangement of atoms 12215 Minerals form by solidifying from liquid 0 Magma water rich uid gas snow 0 Crystallize When they begin to grow the form in geometric shapes but as the get bigger they collide and deform 0 Shape governed by atomic structure Gems are just crystals that grew slowly and nearly perfectly for a long time 0 Gems and minerals are the same no big difference Bio minerals naturally occurring solids with periodic arrangements of atoms and defined ranges of chemical composition 0 Bones teeth shells 0 Sugar C6H1206 not a mineral O Graphite C is a mineral I Not made by an organism gt Best reason why glass is not a mineral 0 Most glass is man made 0 Glass has an irregular arrangement of atoms instead of an orderly periodic crvstal structure 0 Glass does not have any cleavage planes 0 Glass can come in many colors and can have many different chemical compositions gtkIs cubic zirconia a mineral O No it does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms 0 No it does not have a definable range of chemical composition 0 No it is man made 0 No it is not solid 0 Yes it is a mineral Earth s crust 0 Oxygen 47 0 Silicon 28 0 Aluminum 81 0 Iron 5 0 Calcium Numbers an assumption based on 36 0 Sodium 28 0 Potassium data gathered all sample 26 0 Magnesium 21 0 Others of the Earth s crust 08 0 Silicates are the most abundant minerals on Earth 0 LES Silicon Oxygen O Pot sium feldsparfltalSi308 O Qua Z SlOz O Amphibole NaCa2MgFeAl5AlSi8022OH2 O Olivine MngiO4 and FCleO4 0 Silica tetrahedron the crust s basic Lego piece 0 Some silicate minerals have single SiO4 tetrahedra connected by other metals 0 Others have pairs rings chains sheets or networks of tetrahedra connected by other metals 0 Can determine shape of grains 0 How does carbon decide to be graphite HlO D35 or diamond Hl5 D22 O Graphite sheets of carbon 0 Temperature and pressure 0 How does water H20 decide to be a solid liquid or gas 0 Temperature and pressure 0 All materials want to minimize their energy and find equilibrium 0 Pressure GPa gigapascal 0 Temperature K KelVins 0 Diamonds form 100 miles deep and some process pushes these toward the surface where we find them 0 Stable at high pressure but stays the same in low pressure because the breaking and reforming of the bonds is an extremely slow process 0 The whole object is a rock eX Granite the indiVidual grains or crystals are minerals O Rocks are aggregates of one or more kinds of mineral or glass Test material
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