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Notes for October 28

by: Elizabeth Ronecker

Notes for October 28 HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865)

Elizabeth Ronecker
GPA 3.5

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Notes only for October 28th because we watched a film on October 26th
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Ronecker on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
History  1200   Professor  Watts     Notes  for  October  28,  2015     World  War  II:  the  international  crisis   Terms-­‐  Benito  Mussolini,  Adolf  Hitler,  Munich  Pact,  German-­‐Soviet-­‐Non-­‐aggression   pact,  Isolation,  Internationalism,  “America  First”  committee,  lend  lease  act,  tri-­‐partie   act,  Pearl  Harbor,  D-­‐day,  Henry  Luce     I. The  rise  of  fascism   a. Depression  was  an  international  crisis   i. Occurred  in  Europe  and  US   ii. Tremendous  focus  on  government   iii. Ended  up  bankrupting  them  around  the  globe,  especially   industrial  economies   iv. Suggested  a  fail  of  capitalism   v. Suggested  a  fail  of  democracy;  because  democracy  and   capitalism  were  seen  as  hand  in  hand   vi. Desperation  set  in  with  desperate  people  looking  to  desperate   politics-­‐>  fascism   b. Fascist  movement  prstised  escape  and  renewal   i. 1920,  1  large  fascist  movement   ii. Took  place  in  Italy  with  Benito  Mussolini   1. Wanted  to  revive  the  roman  empire   2. Authoritarian   3. Expansionist  movement  into  Africa;  colonizes  Ethiopia   4. Revival  of  Italian  money   c. Germany,  Rise  of  Hitler  and  Nazi  party   i. 1920,  beer  hall  revolution   ii. He  quickly  consolidates  power;  outlaws  all  other  parties   iii. Authoritarianism   iv. Builds  up  army  and  takes  on  idea  of  expanding   v. “Today  Germany,  Tomorrow  the  World”   d. Japan   i. Authoritarian   ii. Military  expansion   iii. 1930,  invaded  china  and  seizes  Ventura,  China   iv. Conquers  most  of  china  and  moves  south  with  the  pacific  isle   e. All  three  have  common  factors  that  make  them  Fascism   i. All  are  authoritarian-­‐>  established  at  top  and  flows  very   harshly  down   ii. Intense  nationalism-­‐>  talked  about  the  mythical  destiny  of  the   Germans,  Italians,  or  Japanese  (1000  year  reich  or  renewal  of   roman  empire)   iii. Racial  explicitly-­‐>  ideology  that  glorifies  ethnic  purity  (Jews  in   Germany  and  Italy)     f. Leads  to  war   i. Germany,  more  specifically  Hitler  expands   ii. Seizes  the  Rhineland  and  adds  it  to  Germany   iii. Other  countries  worry  about  expansion   g. Munich  Conference-­‐  English  and  French  vs.  Germans,  try  to  come  to   agreement  about  Germany’s  expansions   i. Munich  pact-­‐  the  agreement  reached;  Hitler  can  take   Czechoslovakia  and  in  return  will  not  take  over  other  countries   in  the  future   ii. Chamberlain,  prime  minister  of  England,  says  that  all  is  well   and  that  there  was  peace  in  their  time   h. German-­‐Soviet-­‐Non-­‐aggression  pact-­‐  between  Hitler  and  Stalin   i. Shocked  the  rest  of  Europe  because  Hitler  and  Stalin  were  on   the  opposite  ends  of  the  political  spectrum   ii. Agreement  that  they  would  not  go  to  war  with  each  other   iii. Uncertainty  for  the  rest  of  Europe  on  what  Hitler  and  Stalin’s   plans  were   i. 1939,  Germany  invades  Poland   i. Because  of  German-­‐Soviet-­‐Non-­‐aggression  pact,  Soviet  union   does  not  try  to  stop  invasion   ii. Sets  of  WWII   j. England  and  France  have  an  alliance  with  Poland  and  thus  war  is   declared   k. The  1  months,  there  is  a  lot  of  uncertainty;  not  a  lot  happened  in   terms  of  fighting   l. 1940,  Germany  has  been  preparing  enormous  invasion   m. German  air  force  conquers  Denmark  and  other  low  countries   n. Germany  invades  France  and  England  barley  escapes     o. 1940-­‐>  Germany  controls  most  of  Europe   p. English  can  not  really  fight;  bad  shape  after  trying  to  escape  from   France   II. American  Neutrality   a. 1930,  US  has  strong  feelings  of  Isolationism   i. Caused  by  WWI   ii. Even  though  the  Allies  won,  many  of  the  Americans  are   disillusioned   iii. Didn’t  want  to  partake  in  foreign  affairs   iv. “America  First”  Committee-­‐1930s,  formed  by  many  famous   people   1. Wanted  to  focus  on  domestic  affairs   2. Keep  America  out  of  foreign  issues   3. Charles  Lindbergh  was  a  spokesman  along  with  Henry   Ford   v. Internationalism-­‐  supported  by  FDR   1. Believed  that  isolationism  was  bad   2. Saw  that  the  US  had  become  powerful  and  that  is  was   stupid  that  the  US  could  sit  back  and  ignore  the   developing  problems  and  foreign  affairs     3. Defense  of  the  US   4. Wanted  to  do  business  internationally   b. FDR  realized  isolation  was  popular  so  he  inadvertently  kept  his   internationalism  beliefs  quiet   i. Believed  that  US  would  eventually  be  brought  in  to  the  war   ii. Maneuvered  the  government  in  subtle  ways  to  help  the  allies   iii. Lend-­‐lease  act-­‐  1941;  for  lend  leasing  or  otherwise  dispensing   military  supplies  to  the  allies  (England)   1. Help  stop  Germany  without  direct  involvement   2. US  arsenal  of  democracy   c. Late  1930s,  the  Japanese  are  expanding   d. Tri-­‐partie  pact-­‐  defense  alliance  between  the  3  fascist  powers   eventually  became  the  axis  powers   e. America  protests  Japan’s  invasion  of  the  southeast  asia,  thus  the  US   cuts  off  trade  as  a  punishment   f. December  7,  1941-­‐  Pearl  Harbor-­‐  Japanese  sneak  attack  on  military   fleets  at  Pearl  Harbor  in  Hawaii   i. Bombs  American  Fleets   ii. Almost  cripples  entire  fleet   iii. 2,500  Americans  killed   iv. Part  of  the  American  fleet,  unknown  to  Japan,  was  on   maneuver   g. FDR  calls  congress  and  makes  famous  speech  that  the  attack  on  Pearl   Harbor  will  live  in  infamy       i. US  declares  war  on  Japan   ii. Thus  axis  declares  war  on  US  and  vice  versa   III. World  at  war     a. Tremendous  globalization  of  military  and  economy   b. American  economy  starts  moving  with  war   c. GNP  doubles  after  1  year   d. US  builds  86,000  tanks,  300,000  airplanes,  6,500  ships  and  15  million   armaments   e. Enormous  growth  of  the  federal  government   i. 1941,  I  million  employees   ii. 1945,  4  million  employees   f. Military  growth-­‐>15  million  young  Americans   g. The  European  theater  against  Germany   i. Germany  makes  a  mistake  because  of  hubris   ii.  1941,  Germany  tries  to  invade  Russia   iii. Germany  not  prepared  for  Russian  Winter  and  invasion  bogs   down   iv. Allows  Russia  a  counter  attack   h. American  and  English  Planning   i. June  6,  1944-­‐>  D-­‐day   1. Invasion  of  France  at  Normandy   2. 1.5  million  troops   3. Starts  to  push  Germany  back   i. Allies  push  from  the  east  and  Russia  pushes  from  the  West   j. Hitler  commits  suicide  and  the  Reich  falls     k. The  Pacific   i. US  rebuilds  fleet   ii. Island  hopping-­‐  recapturing  pacific  islands  from  Japanese   control   iii. 1945,  US  destroys  Japanese  navy   iv. US  tries  to  invade  Japan  and  sees  an  evaluation  that  5,000   American  lived  would  be  lost  as  a  result   v. Manhattan  project-­‐>atomic  bomb   vi. Late  summer  1945,  US  warns  japan  about  the  bomb  in  an  effort   to  stop  Japan   vii. August  6,  1945,  US  bombs  Hiroshima   viii. Japan  still  refused  to  surrender   ix. August  9,  1945,  US  Bombs  Nagasaki   x. September  1945,  Japan  surrenders   IV. Outcomes  of  the  War   a. US  is  the  most  powerful  country  in  the  world   b. Henry  Luce-­‐  editor  of  Time  and  Life;  published  essay  called  American   Century-­‐>saying  that  the  US  would  become  a  world  leader   c. Underlying  tensions  of  the  war   i. Large  deaths  and  causalities   ii. Soviets  lose  millions  of  people   iii. Death  camps-­‐>  clear  that  extinguishing  took  place  and  that   over  6  million  Jews  had  been  killed   iv. Atomic  bomb-­‐>  question  of  what  was  to  be  done  with  it  and   whether  or  not  it  was  a  vision  of  the  future      


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