Practical Reasoning Week 5 Notes
Practical Reasoning Week 5 Notes TPHIL 250
University of Washington Tacoma
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Qihua Wu on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TPHIL 250 at University of Washington Tacoma taught by GEE,JERAMY S. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see PRACTICAL REASONING (I&S,QSR) in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Washington Tacoma.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Syllogistic Logic use when sentential logic is not effective in testing the validation of an argument Break a sentence into four parts quanti er words such as all and none subject verb and predicate term adjectives and change the sentence into a sentence that uses copula words such as are and is that connect the subject term with predicate term Common way of changing it is to keep the quanti er and subject then add copula and extend the predicate term by adding the newly noun form of the verb from the original sentence Ex All people eat fruit Change to quotAll people are fruit eatersquot Make sure you use consistent copula in the arguments since that way is easier to draw a Venn diagram and see the relationship between the terms Universal Af rmative All S are P Universal Negative No S are P Particular Af rmative Some S are P Particular Negative Some S are not P Contradictories If Universal Af rmative is true then particular negative is false and vice versa If universal negative is true then particular af rmative is false and vice versa Change standard form categorical proposition into other forms Conversion Switch the position of the subject and predictive term Obversion Change the quanti er to the opposite like all to no and add non in front of the predictive term for universal quanti ers add not non to particular quanti ers though for quotSome food are not healthyquot is changed to quotSome food are nonhealthyquot Since not not change into just nothing Contraposition Switch the subject and predicate term and make both terms the opposite by adding quotnonquot in front of each subject and predicate term To draw venn diagram rst identify the subject and predicate terms by looking at the conclusion Then identify the middle term if there is the transition between the subject to the predicate term Draw corresponding circles to each term and make sure the circles intersect Then shade on the circles that do not follow the argument rst work on the major premise premise that contains the predicate term then work on the minor premise premise that contains the subject term After going through the premises look at the remaining unshaded area if it includes nothing as an exception to the conclusion then the argument is valid
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