Week 10/26-11/2 lecture notes
Week 10/26-11/2 lecture notes AVS 1500
Popular in Introduction to Animal Science
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
11022015 October 26 2015 Ruminant Anatomy Book 1 Diaphragm Muscular structure that separates between the thoracic and abdominal body cavities If you nd the diaphragm then your in a good position on the animal Helps regulate the internal body temperature Movement of diaphragm helps with the change in varying pressure in respiration Pg 99 Tendons do have a blood supply although it s minimal to that of the muscles Not as vascular so it doesn t heal as quickly 3 holes that go through the diaphragm o Esophagus o Descending Aorta descends down and takes oxygenated blood throughout the body 0 Vena Cava takes deoxygenated blood back to the heart 2 Endocrinology The study of hormones In the brain of mammals there are 2 structures that are very closely related 0 Driving structures in all of Endocrinology as far as mammals are concerned Hypothalamus a Latin means under less than below a Thalamus relay station in the brain Located right above Hypothalamus Message comes in quotow owquot needs to go out to sensory part of brain a Responsible for producing hormones that go to pituitary gland n Regulates all the functions Pituitary Gland n Anterior and Posterior lobes n Produces hormones from the hypothalamus and then secretes them into the blood stream n Hormones travel to wherever target organ locannis n Feedback goes to hypothalamus n Anterior Pituitary o Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH o Leutinizing Hormone LH o Hormones target the ovaries and the testis o Testis produce testosterone o Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone 0 Feedback to the hypothalamus to let it know that the levels are okay Most of the time its negative feedback 99 Positive feedback during birth 0 In the neck region of the animal there are 2 other organs that are very close to each other 0 Thyroid Gland double lobed organ Makes thyroid hormones T3 and T4 Involved in metabolism Too much of the hormone can cause weight loss excitability Too little of the hormone can cause weight gain 0 Parathyroid Little nodules that site on the thyroid gland Makes a hormone called parathyroid hormone PTH n Helps regulate Calcium in the bones to blood stream Adrenal Glands 2 0 Has a medulla and a cortex 0 Sits on top of Kidneys 0 From the Adrenal gland Medulla reproduces epinephrine and norepinephrine Associated with a natural high runner s high Cortex region produces cortisol Helps with stress levels but shuts down immune system October 30 2015 1 Adrenal Gland Center of gland Medulla regulated by sympathetic nervous system 0 Hormones that are regulated by Medulla Epinephrine Norepinephrine Cortex produces different hormones just a regular Endocrine gland o Cortisol helps with stress Highest level when sleeping o Aldosterone helps regulate blood pressure Increases and decreases diameter of blood vessels Constrict blood vessels increase blood pressure 0 Androgens general class of sex hormones DHEA precursor converted by an enzyme into androstenedione Another enzyme that then converts that into testosterone Aromatase enzyme then converts testosterone into estrogen n Happens in Male and Female 2 Pancreas has 2 main functions dual function Attaches to the small intestine by way of the duodenum Production of hormones to aid in digestion o In blood stream there is glucose moved into blood cells 0 In the presence of insulin we have the ability to insert channels into the membrane of cells in order for glucose to move inside 0 Glucagon is the reverse cuts attachment between molecules and it releases glucose back into bloodstream Production of hormones to aid in blood sugar regulation 0 Beta cells produce insulin Patient who lacks insulin do have defective Beta cells 0 Alpha cells produce glucagon Dysfunctional alpha cells low energy 0 Glucose is a 6Carbon ion stored as glycogen in cells o If we need sugar immediately then we will use it in the cell Glycolysis process of splitting glucose split molecules are called pyruvate Goes through Creb s Cycle and produces ATP November 2 2015 Companion Animal Book 1 Cells communicate using chemicals and electrical signals 2 Hormones are released into blood stream from anterior pituitary gland and travel to the testicles FSH spermatogenesis or production of sperm LH production of testosterone Inside the testicles o Leydig cellsLS o Seminiferous tubuleFSH Spermatogenesis occurs 0 Pg 157 0 Female reproduction Litter bearing species if has de ned uterine horns 0 From ovary estrogen and progesterone produced 0 FSHfollicle o LHcauses the follicle to rupture ovulation starts Follicle then regresses structure changes a This is what produces progesterone n Structure called corpus luteum P4 n Produces progesterone P4 Egg is then picked up by infundibulum and progresses into the uterine horn Sperm must swim all the way up to the upper third region of the uterine horn in order to fuse with an egg 0 Fertilization Become a structure called zygote Haploid half the number of chromosomes Myosisgametes Mitosisdivision of mammalian cells Zygotedipoid Morula big mass of cells begins to migrate Blastocyst formed by Morula and implants in female Ectopic pregnancy human female sperm and egg unite and don t start migrating down uterine horn Can cause death in both fetus and mother