Psychology 202: Mind & Society Week 5
Psychology 202: Mind & Society Week 5 202
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bayann Alkhatib on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jeff Measelle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Mind and society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Psychology 202 Week 5 Emotions What are emotions Emotions are an A evaluative reaction B bodily response to an C emotioninducing stimulus The order of A and B remains theoretically controversial sequence is unknown Adaptive because they communicate for us especially facially Capable of communicating a wide range of emotion through facial expressions Even babies have this capacity very early on Negative and positive experiences guide behavior that increases the probability of surviving fightflight and reproducing Facial Expressions Communicate Expression Facial expressions across cultures and species there is crosscultural congruence in some facial expressions Research suggests that some facial expressions are universal Animals and humans can communicate many of the same emotions facially Universal differences to emotions do not differ that much from one another Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions ie emotions regulate People s emotionsmoods can alter ongoing mental processes Emotions shape decision making for better amp for worse Judgements are strongly influenced by current feelings Affectasinformation theory use current mood to make decision When cognition and emotions are in conflict emotions typically have more impact on decisions than cognition Emotions Serve as Social Function Emotion Display Flues ie emotions regulate Expression of emotion key social factor Yes but culture and experience still shape how emotion is recognizable and displayed 1 Elfenbein amp Ambady 2003 recognize emotions in people from our own culture better than in people from other cultures 2 Display rules what is considered appropriate expression of emotions and when Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations Display rules serve social purposes Even infants learn emotional regulation techniques in a way to support interpersonal expenences Guilt strengthens social bonds 39 Guilt prevents people from doing things that would harm their relationships Displays of guilt demonstrate that people care Guilt can be used to manipulate others Socialization is more important than biology in determining how children experience guilt Embarrassment Blushing rectifies interpersonal awkwardness and restores social bonds after a transgression communications a realization of interpersonal reactions How do People Experience Emotions Emotions are subjective we are aware of our emotional states Emotions range from intense mood disorders to nonexistent alexithymic often in response to the same source Socio paths experience severe deviations in their subjective responses to situations Emotions have a Physiological Component Emotions are associated with physical changes Emotions are associated with physical changes The JamesLange theory of emotion Emotion is the result of perceiving physical changes Emotion follows from physical changes Facial Feedback Hypothesis facial expressions trigger the experience of emotions walk around forcing yourself to smile for 10 minutes you will be happier 39 Criticisms of JamesLange Theory Body reaction too slow emotion perceived faster than body reacts Physical changes alone don t produce powerful emotions not a unique physiological response for each emotion can t explain different emotions in response to sam stimulus the CannonBard theory of emotion Emotions and physical reaction happen at the same time Emotions have a cognitive component Schacter amp Singer s Two Factor Theory of Emotion a situation evokes a psychological response such as arousal AND a cognitive interpretation such as an emotion label of that situation when people experience arousal they initiate a search for its sources Neuropsychology of Emotion Dual Processing of emotions Thalamus recognizes emotion signals and relays them to Limbic system activation of the amygdala produces immediate visceral responses via precortical associations Cortex cortical activation is a slower route and allows for use of memory for stimuli Information reaches the amygdala along two separate pathways 1 Sensory information travels quickly though the thalamus to the amygdala for priority processing 2 sensory material travels from the thalamus to the sensory cortex where the information is scrutinized in greater depth before it is passed along to the amygdala Motivation How does motivation activate direct and sustain behavior Motivation is defined as the area of psychological science concerned with the factors that energize or stimulates behavior Interest in Biological factors universal factorspsychological factors what leads to differences social factors universals and industrial differences Needs create arousal that motivates behavior Homeostasis describes the tendency for body function to maintain equilibrium Setpoint Deficiencies biological or psychosocial lead to goaldirected behavior Drives are psychological states that encourage behaviors that satisfy needs incentives external objects or external goals eg money power approval of others that motivates behaviors Humanistic Model morality creativity spontaneity problem solving lack of prejudice acceptance of facts Self actualization Esteem LoveBelon o in Safety Ph siolo39 1 Intrinsic motivation refers to the value or pleasure that is associated with an activity but has no apparent biological goal 2 Extrinsic motivation emphasizes the external goals an activity is directed toward such as reducing drive or obtaining reward Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation