Chapter 11 & 5: Motivation and Development Lecture Notes
Chapter 11 & 5: Motivation and Development Lecture Notes PSYCH-1000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Lecture Notes: Chapter 11: Motivation & Chapter 5: Human Development October 26-30, 2015 Introductory Psychology with Dr. Rollins Chapter 11: Motivation I. Emotions▯ thoughts, feelings, behavior, physiological arousal. a. Purpose: source of motivation, energy, and focus. b. Biology of emotions i. Cause changes in the autonomic nervous system. 1. Physiological changes. 2. Sympathetic division. a. Arousal. 3. Parasympathetic division. a. Calming. 4. Cause changes in heart rate, temperature, perspiration, breathing rate, and muscle tension. a. Different emotions typically produce different effects in the autonomic nervous system; however 2 emotions can produce the exact same physiological changes. 5. Brain mechanisms▯Limbic system▯Amygdala. c. Theories of Emotion i. James-Lange Theory▯when an emotionally arousing event occurs, it causes a certain set of physiological changes that then cause us to experience a particular emotion. 1. Event▯Specific Physiological Response▯Emotion 2. Supporting Evidence a. Facial Feedback Phenomenon▯when changes in facial expressions cause a change in emotion. b. Behavioral Feedback Phenomenon▯when changes in behavior lead to changes in emotion. 3. Application: use of polygraph in lie detection. a. Measures autonomic nervous system changes. i. Blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse, and perspiration. b. Not a valid measure of lie detection because other emotions can cause arousal. i. Individual variations may cause innocent people to appear guilty on a polygraph. c. Wrong 1/3 of the time. i. Mostly labels innocent people as guilty. ii. Canon-Bard Theory▯when an emotionally arousing event occurs, nonspecific physiological changes and an emotion will occur simultaneously; however, neither one causes the other. 1. Perceived event▯ Nonspecific Physiological Changes + Emotion iii. Schacter and Singer’s 2 Factor Theory▯when an emotionally arousing event occurs, it causes nonspecific physiological changes that lead to a cognitive interpretation of the situation, and you experience an emotion based on how you perceived the event. 1. First theory to include cognition. 2. Event▯Nonspecific Physiological Changes▯Cognitive Interpretation▯Emotion 3. Supporting Evidence a. Transferred Excitation (Spillover Effect)▯when arousal produced by one situation intensifies our reaction to other situations. i. Crowding increases arousal. iv. Some emotions don’t require a conscious interpretation, but most do. d. Communicating Emotions: Facial Expressions i. Primary emotions▯sadness, joy, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, & interest/excitement. 1. Universal across all people and cultures. 2. Unlearned. 3. Begin at 6 months old. ii. Self-conscious/secondary emotions▯empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, & guilt. 1. Not universal expressions. 2. Require self-awareness. 3. Begin at 1-1.5 years old. e. Happiness i. Not related to one’s age, gender, or level of attractiveness. ii. Money buys happiness up to a point. 1. People will be most happy when they have enough money to attain comfort and security, but any additional money after that will produce diminishing returns. 2. People tend to be happier after spending money on experiences rather than objects. 3. People tend to be happier after spending money on others. iii. Happiness depends on whom we compare ourselves to. 1. Comparing yourself with those who have less = more happiness. 2. Comparing yourself with those who have more = less happiness. 3. Monkeys do this too. iv. Adaptation-Level Phenomenon▯our tendency to judge new stimuli or events in relation to what we have recently experienced. 1. What we consider to be neutral depends on our recent experiences. 2. We adjust to new circumstances, so what is neutral can change. v. Major events-whether good or bad-often do not have as great of an effect on long-term happiness as we think. vi. Genes influence one’s level of happiness. Chapter 5: Human Development I. Human Development▯the study of physical, emotional, social, and cognitive changes over a lifetime. II. Infancy a. Characterized by reflexes▯unlearned, involuntary responses. b. Motor development i. Depends on maturation and experience. ii. Growth of synaptic connections in brain. iii. Milestones are achieved in the same sequence, but with different timing (ages). c. Habituation▯decreased response to unchanging or repeated stimuli. i. Babies spend more time looking at novel stimuli. III. Cognitive Development in Infants and Children a. Piaget’s Theory i. Children are actively trying to understand how the world works. ii. 4 stages with qualitative differences: sensorimotor, preoperational period, concrete operational period, & formal operational stage. b. Sensorimotor Period i. 0-2 years old. ii. Babies are trying to create an understanding of the world through sensory and motor interactions. iii. Live in the present moment. iv. Unable to form mental representations. 1. Cannot think of something unless it is right in front of them. 2. Lack of object permanence▯the understanding that objects still exist even when they are not visible. a. Develops at about 6-8 months. Piaget didn’t think it developed until 2 years. b. Separation anxiety development (8 months) correlates with the development of object permanence. c. Preoperational Period i. 2-7 years old. ii. Egocentrism. iii. Lack theory of mind▯ability to take another’s perspective. 1. Gain theory of mind at ages 4-5. 2. Autistic individuals also lack theory of mind. iv. Difficulty with mental operations. 1. Lack conservation▯understanding that quantity stays the same even if appearance changes. v. Working memory is very limited. Children can only focus on one dimension at a time. d. Concrete Operational Period i. 7 years old-adolescence. ii. Understand conservation. iii. Simple mental operations can be performed. 1. Applied to concrete objects only. 2. Cannot be applied to abstract concepts. e. Formal Operational Period i. Adolescence and throughout life. ii. Abstract, hypothetical thinking. iii. Systematic, logical reasoning. f. Piaget’s Theory Today i. Kids and babies know more information sooner than what Piaget believed. ii. Sequence of the stages is correct, but the timing of them can differ. iii. Stages progress more gradually than what Piaget thought. IV. Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Childhood a. Temperament▯an individual’s emotional and behavioral response style. i. Reflects reactivity, sensitivity, and intensity. ii. Appears early and remains constant throughout one’s lifetime. 1. Genetically influenced. iii. Forms the foundation of personality. iv. Classifications in babies. 1. Easy baby▯predictable, easy-going. 2. Difficult baby▯irregular, irritable. 3. Slow-to-warm-up baby▯in between. b. Attachment▯emotional bond with caretakers. i. Harlow’s monkey experiment 1. Baby monkeys were taken from their mothers and raised in isolation with model wire mothers with food and cloth mothers without food. a. Cloth mothers were preferred. 2. Contact comfort is more relieving than nourishment. a. Monkeys who could touch their mother’s fur were much less distressed. 3. Monkeys were screwed up for life. a. When placed with other monkeys, they showed fear or aggression. b. They would not mate. c. When they were artificially inseminated, they were horrible, abusive mothers. i. No maternal instinct. ii. Variations in Attachment 1. Hinsworth’s Strange Situation Test a. Placed a baby and his/her parent in a room full of toys. At some point the parent leaves for a short time, then returns. b. Showed different patterns of attachment behaviors. c. Secure Attachment▯babies feel comfortable to explore toys in the room. They check in with their parents and feel distress upon separation. They are relieved when the parent returns. i. Responsive caregivers. d. Insecure Attachment i. Ambivalent/Resistant▯babies don’t explore toys and are extremely upset when their parent leaves. They are not very comforted when the parent returns. 1. Inconsistent caregivers. ii. Avoidant▯babies avoid or ignore the parent and don’t get very upset when the parent leaves the room. 1. Unresponsive/neglectful/ abusive caregivers. e. Outcomes i. Secure attachment babies were more competent, cooperative, persistent, happy, popular, confident, and motivated. ii. Correlation with parent style, not causation. 1. Other causes for the correlation could be genetics or temperament.