Chapter 9 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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Chapter 9 Human Development Chapter 9.1.1 NatureNurture revisited Development : Changes in behavior or abilities or both NatureNurture issue: The degree to which biology(nature) and environment(nurture) contribute to a person’s development ● Behavior is influenced by the interaction of nature and nurture 9.1.2 Prenatal Development Zygote: A sperm cell with 23 Chromosomes from the father fertilizes an ovum with 23 chromosomes from the mother creating the fertilized egg called a zygote ● The point where the egg is fertilized is contraception Stages of Pregnancy Germinal/Zygotic Stage:The first stage of prenatal development, it begins at conception and ends approximately 14 days later. ● This stage is predominantly cell division ● Blastocyst100 cell organism ● The zygote moves down the fallopian tube during this and ends this cycle by implanting itself in the uterus(Day 9) The Embryonic Stage : The development of the organism now called an embryo or a zygote this is weeks 38 of pregnancy ● The embryonic sac, umbilical cord, and placenta develops ● Major organs and organ systems form (cardiovascular, digestive, skeletal, excretory, respiratory, and nervous systems) ● Heart begins to beat ● Miscarriages ● Genetic defects ● Spinal cord forms ● Liver is producing red blood cells ● Genitalia have formed(However are not visible by ultrasound) ● Human features have developed ● 3rd week: Neural tube becomes spinal cord ● 21 days: Eyes begin to appear ● 24 Days: Heart begins to form ● 4th week: Arm and leg buds emerge, urogenital system, 4 heart chambers ● 58 weeks: Face begins to form, intestinal tract ● 8 weeks organism is over an inch long The Fetal Stage: The third and final stage of development, from 9 weeks to the end of pregnancy ● Organism is no longer called an embryo it is now a fetus ● The fetus grows larger and begins to move ● At 14 weeks it can kick, open its mouth, swallow, and turn its head ● Its lungs have developed ● External sex organs are developed( Gender can be determined) 15%20% Of pregnancies end in miscarriages. 9.1.3 Application: The Importance of a Positive Prenatal Environment Down Syndrome : A genetic birth disorder resulting from an extra 21st chromosome Characterized by distinct facial features, a greater likelihood of heart defects and intellectual disabilities Teratogen: An environmental substance that has the potential to harm an organism that is developing Sensitive Period : When genetic and environmental agents are most likely to cause damage to the offspring 3rd week: Neural tube becomes spinal cord 21 days: Eyes begin to appear 24 Days: Heart begins to form 4th week: Arm and leg buds emerge, urogenital system, 4 heart chambers 58 weeks: Face begins to form, intestinal tract 8 weeks organism is over an inch long 9.2 Physical development in Infancy and Childhood Neonate : A newborn during the first 28 days of life 9.2.1 Brain Development The brain is very changeable as the nervous system develops Myelin is incomplete Very few neural connections exist before 3 years old 9.2.2 Reflexes and Motor Developmen t Reflex : An automatic response to a specific environmental stimulus that serve as the foundation for voluntary motor behaviors Rooting Reflex : If you touch an infant's cheek they will turn in that direction and open their mouth Also born with a grasping reflex that is the foundation of prehension(Using your hands) Prepared to communicate as well, they have a crying reflex for when they are in need, they have a smiling reflex to communicate when they are pleased At 2 months they may smile at everyone, but at 6 months smiles become reserved for familiar faces and voices Gross motor skills : Motor behaviors involving the large muscles of the body(Walking, jumping, etc) Fine motor skills: Motor behaviors involving the small muscles of the body(writing, playing an instrument, etc) Milestones 3 Months: Lifts head and chest when lying on stomach, grasps rattle, waves arms, kicks legs 6 Months: Reaches for and grasps objects, helps hold a bottle, shakes rattle, sits with little support, rolls over 1 year: Sits alone, crawls and pulls herself up, uses finger to point, grasps object with thumb and index finger 18 Months: Pulls and pushes objects, turns pages in a book, scribbles, stacks a few blocks, walks and run stiffly 2 Years: Drinks from a straw, tosses a ball, feeds self with a spoon, bends over without falling 3 Years: Puts on shoes, Dresses self with help, kicks a ball, hops on one foot, pedals, climbs 4 Years:Runs, jumps, hops, and skips, brushes teeth, jumps over objects, catches, bounces and throws a ball 5 Years: Rides a bicycle with training wheels, balances on one foot, cuts with scissors, jumps rope, copies simple designs, capable of swimming and skating 9.3.1 Perceptual development: Gathering Information from the environment Vision ● Infants are nearsighted ● Their eyes lack convergence( the ability to focus both eyes on an object) ● Infants have a harder time processing male faces versus female faces ● They easily recognize their primary caretakers face and faces of their own race at 3 months ● Infants prefer to look at faces ● Depth Perception ● Developed during their first year ● It is very important for infants to never be left unattended on any elevated surfaces due to their less than fully developed depth perception Hearing ● Unborn babies respond to sounds outside the uterus at 20 weeks ● One of those sounds is a mother's’ voice, which they will typically recognize soon after birth ● They can locate the direction of sounds ● They can remember simple speech sounds a day after hearing them ● It is suggested that that ability to discriminate sounds and familiar voices is present in fetuses( Draganova et al. 2007; Kisilevsky et al., 2003 Lecanuet, Manera, and Jacquent, 2002) ● Soft rhythmic sounds are prefered ● Preference for listening to voices specifically motherese(baby talk: drawn out vowels, exaggerated syllables, and rhythmic up and down inflection) Other senses ● Taste buds are functional at birth and they prefer sweeter foods ● Their sense of smell is very acute, at 3 days after birth they can identify the smell of their mother versus another woman ● Infants are sensitive to touch, holding/caressing infants stimulates their growth and can improve brain,cognitive, and social development 9.3.2 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 1.Schema : Mental idea, concept, or thought ● Based on world experiences ● He believed that we are biologically programmed to seek understanding of our world so we form Schema’s to fit with our perceptions of the world ● Mental equilibrium: When our cognitions correspond with the environment ● Mental disequilibrium: When our cognitions do not correspond to the environment, we strive to get rid of this uncomfortable state so that equilibrium is achieved again 2.Assimilation : The process by which an existing schema is used to understand something new in the environment 3.Accommodation : The process by which a schema is changed, modified, or recreated in order to understand something new in the environment Stages 1.ensorimotor(Birth2yrs ) Reflexes, Object permanence(Understanding an object exists even though it is not present) 2.Preoperational(2yrs6/7yrs) ● Symbolic thinking (The understanding that objects can be represented by symbols) , Illogical thinking, ● Centration(The act of focusing on only one object or feature of an object), ● Egocentrism ( The belief that everyone thinks as you do) 3.oncrete Operations(6/7yrs11/12yrs) ● Conservation ( The understanding that an object retains its original properties even though it may look different) ● Logical thinking ● Decentration 4. Formal Operations(12yrs Adult) Abstract Reasoning 9.3.3 Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Culture and Thinking Private Speech: The behavior of children to talk to themselves to guide their actions ● Private speech peaks at age 57 and by the age of 9 is typically silent ● Private speech can return at any age if we get confused or have difficulty with a task ● Cognitive development can occur in any direction and be influenced by social interactions, culture, and environment. Zone of proximal development( ZPD ): The gap between what a child can already do and what he or she is not yet capable of without help Scaffolding: When an adult begins by instructing and guiding a child through a task or activity and slowly decreases the amount of assistance until the child no longer needs any assistance 9.3.4 Moral Reasoning: How we think about right and wrong Moral reasoning : How you decide what is right and what is wrong Preconventional Level( Most children) Stage 1 : Obedience and Punishment Orientation children avoid rules to avoid punishment Stage 2 : Naively Egoistic Orientation Children view morally right actions as actions that increase their rewards Conventional Level(Most adolescents and adults) Stage 3 : Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation More rightness is based on maintaining the approval of or avoiding the disapproval of others Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation: Moral rightness is based on following the rules or laws of society Postconventional Level( Some but not all) Stage 5 : Contractual/Legalistic Orientation Exceptions to rules can be considered as protection of individual rights over societal laws. Stage 6 : Universal Principles Orientation Individuals develop their own set of principles that guide their judgements Differences in males and females( Gilligan) Males focused more on concepts of fairness and justices Females focused more on concern, care, and social relations 9.4.1 Temperament: The influence of Biology Temperament : A person’s general pattern of attention, arousal, and mood that is evident at birth Ex. ● General activity level ● General mood ● Ability to establish a regular pattern of eating and sleeping ● Likelihood of approaching or withdrawing from new people and new situation ● Ability to adapt to changes from their normal routine Easy Infants : generally in a good mood, establish a regular pattern of eating and sleeping, readily approach new objects and people, and adapt readily to changes in their routines Difficult Infants: Show more intense negative emotions, more irregular pattern of eating and sleeping, don’t easily approach new people and situations Slowtowarmup infants: In between these two extremes 9.4.2 Attachment: Learning about Relationships Attachment : The emotional bond between a caretaker and infant that is established by 9 months ● Attachment is not based on needs. alone but also warmth, and closeness Separation anxiety: The fear an infant expresses when separated from the primary caretaker ● Typically begins around 7 Months Stranger anxiety : The distress an infant displays when presented with unfamiliar people ● Typically begins around 8/10 Months Variations in attachment patterns Secure attachment : Infants who are securely attached to a parent as a supportive base from which to operate and explore. They may get upset when the parent leaves but will be calm once the parent returns Avoidant attachment: Infants who show avoidant attachment appear to ignore the parent, they appear to pay very little attention to their parents presence or lack thereof. Resistant attachment: Infants who display resistant attachment resemble a clinging baby they remain close to the parent and do not actively explore a new situation. They show extreme distress when the parent leaves and feel angry when the parent returns, they may hit or push the parent and are not easily consoled Disorganized/disoriented attachment: Infants showing disorganized attachment seem confused or disoriented they look away from the parent and may have a blank expression after being calmed by them 9.2.3 Variations in Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parent: A parenting style characterized by high levels of control and low levels of affection ● Set high expectations of children w/o known reasoning ● “It's my way or the highway” ● Children are not included in family discussions about rules, roles, or issues ● They are to do what they are told and physical punishment and force may be used if they do not obey ● They are usually more withdrawn, anxious, and confirming that other children. Authoritative Parent: A parenting style characterized by moderate levels of control and affection ● Rules and punishments are declared democratically ● Reasonable demands made of children ● Children are typically competent, happy, and selfconfident ● Appears to be the most effective parenting style Permissive parents : A parenting style characterized by low levels of control and discipline ● Two types: Permissive Indulgent: very warm, affectionate, and involved with children Permissive Neglectful : Show little affection or warmth toward children, they are uninvolved in parenting and neglect the emotional needs of their children ● Children make their own decisions ● Very little is demanded of children 9.4.4 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: The influence of culture Birth1Year(Trust vs Mistrust Stage): Development of trust and a sense of security, the infant is more likely to develop this if their needs are met. 13 Years(Autonomy vs shame and doubt): The children struggle with separating from their primary caretaker. A balance between independence and dependence is established however if the child’s attempts at independence or belittled the child is more likely to develop shame and doubt. 36 Years ( Initiative vs guilt): Children begin to understand that people expect certain things out of them and well as a desire to try new things( Initiative) and depending on people's reactions can cause guilt. 612 Years( Industry vs Inferiority): Mastery and competence, this is where feedback shapes personality Adolescence (Identity vs Role confusion): Sense of self, personal values, and beliefs ● Figuring out who you are and what you believe in and how they relate to others ● Experiment with new roles to see if they want to be what they may imagine ● May have difficulty forming a stable identity Emerging adulthood : The transitional period between late adolescence and early adulthood ● When an individual is no longer in adolescence but has not assumed adult roles and responsibilities ● Does not happen for all individuals Young Adulthood ( Intimacy vs Isolation): Committing to a mutually loving relationship ● After forming a stable identity ● It is necessary for intimacy to modify your identity to fit the values and interests of another without sacrificing your identity ● Demonstrated through cooperation, tolerance, and acceptance of differences in opinions ● Isolation is reflected by a fear of losing one's identity and a reluctance to establish close relations Middle Adulthood ( Generativity vs stagnation): Contributing to society through one’s work, family, or community services ● Did I contribute to society? ● If you have then a sense of generativity will be established ● If you did not then you may feel stagnation or a sense of failure ● Stagnation may be coped with by what society calls a midlife crisis Late adulthood ( Ego integrity vs despair): Viewing one’s life as worthwhile or satisfactory ● The process of evaluating your life 9.4.5 GenderRole Development Gender Roles : Societies expectations for how males and females should behave Gender Permanence or gender constancy: The understanding that one’s gender will not change; Typically not understood prior to the age of six however they are very rigid in gender stereotyping “if they have long hair they are a girl” GenderSchema theory( Bem ): The idea that gender roles are acquired through modeling and reinforcement activities that work together with the child’s mental abilities ● Since children are really keen observers of their environment they watch and see what behaviors or others are rewarded or punished thus learning how themselves and others should behave *can differ through culture and society* Nature and nurture influences on genderrole behavior ● There is a preference to develop samesex friendships ● Higher levels of physical aggression in males ● Gender specific toy preference ● Males had a preference for wheeled toys ● Females tended to have a wider range of toy preferences ● Hormones in the prenatal environment affect the gender role behavior of males and females. Ex. A female exposed to high levels of testosterone in the prenatal environment may behave more typically like a male Parents are the first source children have on gender and they treat sons and daughters similarly However daughters tend to experience more parental involvement with their education than sons Girls perceive parents as being more encouraging of higher education than sons. However parents believe science was less interesting and more difficult for daughters vs sons They also expect children to play with genderappropriate toys, boys play with guns cars blocks and balls girls are expected to play with dolls and tea sets and play dress up house and school. Chores may also differ, sons typically get the chores outdoors such as mowing the lawn or taking out the garbage while girls are more likely to be given chores such as washing dishes and vacuuming. Fathers tend to hold to the gender stereotypes more so than mothers Gender bias: Favoring one gender over the other . Boys tend to receive more positive and negative attention from teachers and are called on more frequently. Teachers also are more likely to accept wrong answers from girls ● Boys are encouraged to pursue careers in math and science where girls are encouraged to pursue education, nursing, and social work Peers also influence behavior by praising or teasing children who do or do not engage in “gender appropriate behaviors” boys are especially cruel with this 9.5.1 Puberty Puberty: The process of sexual maturation ● Typically occurs 2 years earlier in girls than boys, avg age 10g 12b ● During puberty a growth spirt can add up to 10in and 40lbs to the adolescent ● Girls hips broaden relative to their shoulders ● Boy's shoulders broaden relative to their hips Sex hormones Girls: Cause breasts, ovaries, uterus, and vagina to mature, cause first menstrual cycle(Menarche) Boys: Penis, scrotum, and testes mature, voice deepens as the larynx enlarges 9.5.2 Brain changes in adolescence and adulthood ● Changes begin at the back of the brain and move forward ● The number of neurons and the complexity of their connections increase in the cerebellum ● The amygdala is more active in teens vs adults ● Nerve fibers in the corpus callosum thicken ● Overproduction of gray matter before puberty that is then pruned 9.5.3 Physically changes from early to later adulthood All biological systems reach maturation in our late 20’s to early 30’s Including sensory abilities 40’s aging begins to be noticeable, skin may wrinkle, the individual may gain weight, after 60 they may lose weight, have sagging skin, and reduce in height due to compression of the vertebrae and loss of bone tissue 9.5.4 Gender and reproductive capacity ● Female fertility gradually decreases from 1550 ● Then menopause “hits”: The period where a female stops menstruating and is no longer fertile ● Estrogen production decreases causing the breast and uterus to shrink, the vagina no longer produces the same amount of lubrication Andropause : The hormonal change experienced in males around the age of 60 ● They produce fewer male hormones causing a decrease in sperm concentration in semen and hair loss ● They are still capable of producing offspring 9.6.1 Formal operations revisited Idealism of youth: A phenomenon where adolescents experience insights into how things could be rather than how they are Imaginary audience : the belief held by most adolescents that everyone is watching what they do Personal fable : The belief held by adolescents that they are special and unique, that others cannot properly understand what they think and feel Optimistic Bias: The idea that certain things will not happen to them Ex. Unprotected sex won’t get them pregnant because that happens to other people 9.6.2 Postformal Thought: Developing adult reasoning Dualistic thinking: Reasoning that divides situations and issues into right and wrong categories Relativistic Thinking: The idea that many situations do not have one right or wrong answer Postformal thought: The idea that answers are circumstantial’ 9.6.3 Changes in mental abilities Fluid intelligence: Abilities that rely on processing skills such as reaction time, attention, and working memory. Crystallized intelligence: The use of knowledge, expertise, and good judgment 9.7.1 and 9.7.2 included above 9.7.3 variations in social relations in adolescence and adulthood Dating ● Regular dating has declined ● In these initial romantic relationships social support, affection, and individuals with similar interests are desired. ● Teaches teenagers how to compromise and cooperate with people in multiple situations ● Sexual experimentation Cohabitation ● The decision to live together with an intimate partner ● Tend to be short lived ● Easily broken up Marriage: Adaptation, satisfaction, and gender differences ● Marriage requires adaptation, I love you’s become less frequent, sexual activity may decrease, and couples spend more time performing daily chores and tasks together than having fun ● If couples have a similar family background, social class, education, religion, warm or positive family relations, supportive behavior, willingness to sacrifice, and secure financial circumstances they are more likely to report having a satisfying marriage Divorce ● Higher chances among young couples without children ● Emotional, economic, legal, and practical difficulties follow ● Identities have to be reshaped, family issues may follow 9.7.4 Parenting ● Gender roles may change when someone becomes a parent ● Less sleep, leisure time, and couple time occurs once an infant is born ● Financial planning is necessary because raising a child can cost $300,000.00 not including collage ● Older couples have an easier time adjusting to parenthood Empty nest : A feeling of loneliness parents may feel when their child moves out or moves on to independance Full nest/Boomerang generation: When children do not move out when they reach adulthood, may cause stress if the children are not acting responsibly. Establishment phase : Deciding on a specific occupation Maintenance phase: C areer development Deceleration phase : Planning for retirement Retirement phase: When they stop working 9.8.1 Emotional Reactions to Death(Of self) Denial: Not accepting the news of a death, may participate in same as they usually do Anger : May lash out over the unfairness of death Bargaining : Attempting to strike a deal with family, doctors, or a higher power Depression: May lose interest in previous activities Acceptance : The peace after all of these stages 9.8.2 Bereavement and Grief: How we respond to death Bereavement : The experience of losing a loved on Grief: The emotional reaction to the death of a loved one Impact/shock Phase: Disbelief on hearing that a loved one has died, numbness, may behave as if in a dream Confrontation phase: Deep despair, uncontrollable weeping, anxiety, and feelings of guilt and anger. The individual may have difficulty concentrating, sleeping, or eating Accommodation phase : The stage where the survivor reengages in life and memories are internalized