Week 9 Notes
Week 9 Notes PSYX 100S-03
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S-03 at University of Montana taught by Kali Diane Strickland (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Liberal Arts at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Motivation and Emotion Motivation Directing a behavior towards a goal Types of Motivators Biological hunger sleep thirst Social achievement friendship confidence Intrinsic brings joy Extrinsic to avoid negative consequences Human s Unique Needs Maslow s Hierarchy o Physiologicalsex food water breathing 0 Safety security ofjob health body 0 LoveBelonging friendship family sexual intimacy o Esteem selfesteem confidence achievement 0 SelfActualization morality creativity Theories of Motivation Homeostasis Physiological equilibrium and stability 0 Drive internal state of tension that motivates engagement in activity to reduce tension Incentive external stimuli regulate motivation and reinforcement Evolutionary motives are adaptive and aid to reproductive success Locus of Control the extent at which individuals believe they can control events affecting them Hunger on the Brain Hypothalamus4fs Feeding fleeing fighting fornicating 0 Lateral on switch 0 Ventromedial off switch Hunger on the digestive system After eating the stomach sends a nerve impulse about satiety to brain Converts food into glucose glucose levels in the blood send signals to the brain about hunger Hormones Ghrelin stomach contracts which promotes hunger Insulin extracts glucose secreted by pancreas Leptin More secreted the lower feeling of hunger is long term hunger regulate cck satiety signals Environmental Cues Exposure more likely to eat if exposed to food cues Expectations more likely to eat if others are eating or it is time to eat Availability more likely to eat if food is abundant Stress the hormones and neurotransmitters can affect hunger Influence on Weight Set point theory body has a natural stability point 0 When fat stores get low the body compensates Settlingpoint theory Weight remains stable when no factors influence it Genetic predisposition 0 Accounts for 61 of variation in weight amongst males and 73 amongst women 0 Can influence sensitivity to external stimuli Weight and Health 0 Obesity BMI less than 30 0 Ages 1619 19 obese o 339 obese o Anorexia and Bulimia I 710 0 Body dysmorphia I Extreme dissatisfaction with a perceived body abnormality or imperfection Human Sexual Responses William Masters amp Virginia Johnson 0 Pioneered research into human sexual response 0 Four stages I Excitement Heart rate and BP increase I Plateau I Orgasm I Resolution I Followed by refractory period Brain Factors 0 Mesolimbic dopamine pathway activates o Amygdala dulls 0 Lateral orbitofrontal cortex shuts down during orgasm involved in reasoning and inhibition Hormonal Factors 0 Betaendorphins reduce pain 0 Oxytocin increases trust 0 Vasopressin increases bonding o Estrogen testosterone regulate sexual motivation Social Factors 0 Cultural expectations Evolutionary Factors 0 Parental investment theory parents often put an unequal amount of effort into producing offspring Variations 0 Gender differences I On average men think more about sex and are more willing to engage in uncommitted sex I There is more withingroup difference than betweengroup difference o Asexuality lacing sexual motivation not always lacking a desire for romance 0 Sexual Orientation Patterns of emotional andor sexual attraction to individuals of the same gender another gender or any gender I Kinsey scale sexual orientation exists on a scale spectrum Emotions Components of Emotion Cognitive how you think about and regulate emotions o Alexithymianot being able to describe your emotions Behavioral Facial expressions and body language 0 Six fundamental emotions happy angry sad fear surprise disgust o Microexpression Physiological autonomic arousal o Galvanic skin response muscle tension heart rate 0 Sympatheticfight or flight o Parasympathetic rest and digest Limbic system 0 Amygdala modulating the emotions o Hippocampus remembering emotional responses 0 Hypothalamus fight or flight response 0 Go quickly through the thalamus The cortex 0 Organizes and relates emotional input and responding FacialFeedback Hypothesis 0 Facial muscles send signals to brain that aid in recognition of emotions Theories of Emotions JamesLange o Autonomic arousal leads to conscious feeling of emotion 0 Ex Feeling afraid because your pulse is racing CannonBard o Thalamus sends signals to the cortex and autonomic nervous system simultaneously 0 Pulse races and we feel afraid at the same time Schacter s TwoFactor 0 Experience of autonomic arousal heart racing 0 Interpretation of arousal base don the environmental context 0 Sensory input to ANS arousal to evaluation of environment to emotion Evolutionary o Emotions are developed because of their adaptive value in reproductive success 0 Emotion evolved before thought Empathy and Emotions Mirror neurons fire when an organism acts or when another organism is acting this aids in mimicking and empathy
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