Fund Design&Built Env I
Fund Design&Built Env I COA 1011
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sid Streich on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COA 1011 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/233848/coa-1011-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Architectural Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Georgia Institute of Technology College of Architecture Common First Year COA 1011 Fall 2003 Instructor Jason Graham Exercise Two Constructed drawingsMaterial constructions Introduction This series of exercises is concerned with the description manipulation and investigation of a 4 x 4 x 4 cube via two and threedimensional drawings diagrams and physical models By their very nature drawings diagrams and models communicate ideas that are difficult to capture with words that s why designers use them Nonetheless there is a design vocabulary that one must develop and as this exercise proceeds we will be increasingly dependent on several specific terms in order to communicate with each other Most of these ms are discussed graphically and verbally in the reading and are also outlined in the glossary attached This is by no means an exhaustive glossary of design terms but it does give us some common ground on Wnich to work Objectives of Ex 2 The subexercises of Ex 2 are thematically linked each engages the hypothetical cube in a particular way but the overall objective for exercise is the development of skills in two basic areas of design inquiry Orthographic drawing a set of drawing conventions that utilizes measured lines to represent three dimensional objects forms or spaces in a twodimensional drawing Orthographic drawing is one of the most basic skills in the designer s arsenal It is a means for describing and communicating formal or spatial ideas through drawing i see it i draw it orthographically others read it i communicate it to others It also a means for the investigation and creation of forms that don t yet exist i draw it in order to see it change it and communicate it to others In a manner very different from the way drafting is taught in high school we would like to propose that orthographic drawing is simultaneously a means for representingcommunicating and inquiringmanipulating Modelingfabrication the act of manipulating physical materials to create threedimensional forms One can think of it as modeling or fabricating the design intentions conceived via orthographic drawings One can also use modeling in the primary sense as its own arena of investigation One should not automatically understand this to mean that building a model from a design drawing is the ultimate culmination of the design process but rather as simply another means of investigating aspects of the design with its own conventions advantages disadvantages Sequence of Exercises The first three assignments 21 22 23 are concerned primarily with learning the conventions of orthographic and axonometric drawings You will learn these drawing techniques by immediately putting them to a use to help you manipulate a 4x4x4 cube by extruding and subtracting from it The next two assignments 24 25 deal primarily with modeling and fabrication You will make stud models of your drawn cube and figure out howto build or fabricate a model of it using chipboard and white museum or strathmore board Translating drawn ideas into material constructions will introduce a Whole new set of challenges The last two assignments 26 27 will ask you to exercise your imagination your analytical skills diagramming and yourfacility in orthographic axonometric and perspectival projections For 26 you will be asked to use charcoal to flesh out your abstract White museum board models to treat them as scaffolds for your imagination finding in them spatial sequences or landscapes full of material and narrative possibility For 27 you will be asked to propose another way of describing the cube you have produced in drawings and models making inventive use of axonometric or perspective line drawings In a manner similar to 17 you will be asked to come with a proposition identifying what you want to draw and how you want to draw it The possibilities are many For example You could do a set of postcards from the project using constructed onepoint perspectives perhaps or you could do an exploded axonometric that shows parts and an assembly sequence or you could by 39 39 39 scale p int f i and quot transform what you have into something rich and strange Georgia Institute of Technology College of Architecture Common First Year COA 1011 Fall 2003 Instructor Jason Graham Exercise Two Constructed drawingsMaterial constructions 21 trace studies media yellow trace wood pencil MWF and TTH versions Part One Sketch quickly freehand on yellowtrace the six distinct sides of a 4 x 4 x 4 cube at full scale 1 1 Assign each drawing a location on the cube ie Top bottom front back left right Compose these six faces or sides into a single drawing In a sense Wnat you are doing is opening up and Iaying flat the cube You might think through the different ways you could do this before drawing one of them Draw at least three subdividing lines onto each side Some things to consider as you thinkthrough what and Wnere the subdivisions could go the proportion of the subdivisions created the module at which the subdividing lines occur the modules relationship to the size of the cube 4 x4 x4 the relationship of the subdividing lines to the edges of the cube We recommend that you keep the subdividing lines either parallel or perpendicular to the edges Diagonal or curved lines may unnecessarily complicate this exercise 30 mins plus 10 min pinup Use blackboard to demonstrate Circulate giving quick desk crits Pick one or two examples for a quick headsup pinup Part Two Produce axonometric sketches freehand on yellowtrace though you may use a straightedge if your lines are too free of the cube showing the subdivisions on each side Try both 4545 and 3060 axonometrics Use the adjustable triangle Each axonometric drawing can reveal three sides of the cube Therefore it will take at least two axonometric sketches to display all six sides 30 mins plus 10 min pinup Use blackboard to demonstrate Circulate giving quick desk crits Pick one or two examples for a quick headsup pinup Part Three Produce a series of diagrams suitable for photocopying later onto 85 x 11 paper that describesinvestigates potential relationships or opportunities for carving into the cube using the subdivision lines as regulating lines Your series may be organized in one of the following ways o It may describeinvestigate rules for organizing your subtractionslextrusions pattern modularity reciprocal gestures volumetric displacement solidvoid etc It may describe investigate the way subtractionslextrusions behave as you cut a series of sections through the cube It may 39 39 39 39 a laten 39 39 of the and their relation to one another pinwheel knight s move cut and fill etc o It may describeinvestigate formal properties inherent in the cubic form gridded line vs plane vs volume geometric proportion You may find that this diagramming exercise suggests modifications to the original subdivision lines to better fit or reinforce a conceptual scheme Please feel free to do so 30 mins plus 10mins pinup Use blackboard to demonstrate Circulate giving quick desk crits Pick one or two examples for a quick headsup pinup Part Four Using your diagrams as a guide or as a recipe begin extruding and subtracting operations on the cube using both orthographic and axonometric drawings as necessary Certain moves may be best explored with orthographic projection While others with paraline axonometric isometric drawings See glossary You may find it helpful using dashed lines to transfer the subdivisions on opposing sides of the cube onto each other For example the opposing side of the front face of the cube is the back face Imagine that the front face of the cube is transparent revealing the subdivision lines of the back face Transfer these lines onto the front face using dashed lines a typical drafting convention for indicating lines that are hidden from a given reference plane Use yellow trace sheets in successive overlays to try out different variations Do not erase lines as you try out alternatives Trace up what you wish to keep draw afresh what you wish to change Eraser and tracing paper were not meant for each other 30 mins Cummulative total parts one thru four 2hrs 30 minutes Part Five Homework over the weekend for mwf Continue developing the extrudedsubtracted cube on trace Once you feel you are ready to summarize your explorations so far 1 Draft freehand but carefully on a sheet of 18 x 24 trace all six sides of the cube with subtractions and extrusions 2 On another sheet of 18 x 24 trace draft freehand but carefully 2 axonometric drawings showing all six sides of the cube with subtractions and extrusions 3 Make photocopies of the diagrams produced earlier in this exercise Georgia Institute of Technology College of Architecture Common First Year COA 1011 Fall 2003 Instructor Jason Graham Exercise Two Constructed drawingsMaterial constructions 22 vellum studies media 18 x 24 vellum 3 leadholders 3 different leads MWF VERSION Pin up discussion of 21 homework 30 min Drafting do s and don t s 30 min Part One On one sheet of vellum first draft all six sides of the cube including all subdivisions extrusions and subtractions at full scale 1 1quot Next select and then draft 3 sections crosssections of the cube Your sections may be serial a series of parallel slices or transverse perpendicular to each other The diagrams produced in 21 should influence your choice of the sections you choose to draw and the way you compose them with respect to each other What do sections reveal that is different from the six elevations Before you lay out these elevationsplans or facessides and sections think through how you want to arrange them on the sheet pay attention to not only their arrangement on the sheet but to the relationship between the sections and the correspondences between the sections and the elevationsplans Its best to do this figuring out in a series of quick thumbnail sketches something you did when you were trying to figure out the structure of the clothcharcoal exercise Use varied line weights to indicate the various solids voids cuts and profiles in each drawing Practice using constructionguide lines You should reread the glossary to familiarize yourself with Wnat the terms mean Vellum unlike trace allows one to erase lines Practice making good lines using leadholders pay attention to how you are holding the leadholders and Wnether you are pulling or pushing when making a line 45 mins Part Two On another sheet of vellum draft two of the 39 cube at full scale Choose views that best describe the compositional ideas or generative procedures that inform the manipulation of the cube Refer back to your diagrams as well as to the sections above 45 mins Homework Take 20 minutes in class to go over eXpoded or cut away axos on the board In doing the axonometrics you may have realized that the manipulated cube could be described better if it were possible to explode or quotcutawayquot the axonometric drawings In an exploded axonometric drawing parts of the object are broken off and slid outward along the x y and z axes see Ching p5052 Using trace as overlays quickly run through various ways in which you can partially explode or cutaway your axonometrics Complete the vellum drawings begun in class 1 sheet with 6 elevations and 3 sections 1 sheet with 2 axonometrics Ex 22 contd in next class session F Pinup and review homework drawings 30 min Rework as necessary focussing on drafting quality manipulation etc 60 min On a new sheet of vellum draft another 39 o t e 39 quot quot 39 39 39cube at full scale using exploded or cutaway strategies explored in homework on trace Choose views that best describe the compositional ideas or generative procedures that inform the manipulation of the cube Refer back to your diagrams as well as to the sections above rest of class period Homework Complete the set of vellum drawings 1 sheet with elevations and sections 1 sheet with 2 axonometrics all six sides or positivenegative volumes t 1 sheet with exploded or cutaway axonome rIc Draft with as much care as possible Georgia Institute of Technology College of Architecture Common First Year COA 1011 Fall 2003 Instructor Jason Graham Exercise Two Constructed drawingsMaterial constructions 23 bristol presentation drawings media 18 x 24 2ply smooth bristol 3 leadholderslleads Begin M and Tu of second week complete for homework Wor Th In classhomework The process of drawing on bristol differs significantly from that of trace and vellum While trace and vellum lend themselves to quick studies generative sketches and refinements through serial trace overlays laid over vellum base drawings bristol requires the reenactment of the drawings on a particular site the paper As such the entire composition of the page needs to be understood before a particular part of the drawing is begun Use a hard lead 4h to block out the locations of the various drawings on the page Then construct your drawing in stages building up line weights as you move around the page You will make two drawings on bristol On one sheet of bristol redrawthe final versioncompostion of the orthographic drawing of elevations and sections of the manipulated cube Before you begin review the vellum drawing you made make any changes to the composition of the drawings on the sheet consider the placement of the eleveationssections to each other and to the sheet identify the line weights you are going to use On another sheet of bristol redraw one of the two sheets of axonometric drawings you made on vellum either the pair of axonometric drawings or the explodedcutaway version Once again review the veilum sheet test out any changes you wish to make to the compostiion and to the dravviing through trace overlays before you begin the bristol drawing Now that the drawing work is nearly complete produce a series of analytical diagrams that describe the forms you have produced or the process by Wnich you produced them In 21 we produced a series of instrumental diagrams that had to do with your intentions prior to the act of intervention what you intended to investigate or develop If the first diagrams are concerned with intention this second series of diagrams has more to do with reflectioninterpretation This not a test to see if you got it right One last note about the diagrams they do not have to drafted with a straightedge but they should be taken very seriously Some of you may choose to recycle some previous sketches or make a collage or a charcoal drawing or mathematical formulae Glossary of terms Projection a movie projector projects a film image across the room and onto a projection screen When we talk about orthographic projection we mean a similar thing The lines and points that describe an object are projected onto the flat piece of paper using parallel lines so that there is a verifiable relation between the lines on the object and the lines on the page Webster s dictionary the image of a geometric figure reproduced on a line plane or surface Orthographic projection the word orthographic comes from the Greek root ortho meaning straight and graphs meaning to write or draw Ching describes it as a drawing in which the observer s line of sight is perpendicular to both the picture plane and the principal surfaces of the object being viewed Conversely the drawing surface is parallel to the major surfaces of the object As defined by Webster 1 projection of a single view of an object as a view of the front onto a drawing surface in Which the lines of projection are perpendicular to the drawing surface 2 the representation of related views of an object as if they were all in the same plane and projected by orthographic projection One further note orthographic projection is an abstraction We do not actually see things this way It is merely a tool by Which we can draw investigate and generate forms Plan an orthographic projection in which one is looking down upon an object as in a floor plan A plan may reveal the top surface of an object or the picture plane may slice through the sides revealing the bottom surface In the latter case a plan may be a section see below which is oriented toward the ground Section generally referred to by n n d 5g r as a r c n it is an 39 39 39 projection in which the picture plane cuts an object revealing the inside of the form A section drawing of a tomato woul reveal the pulp and seeds inside as well as the enveloping skin Elevation an orthographic projection in which the picture plane is perpendicular to the ground and does not cut through the object An elevation drawing of a tomato would reveal only the skIn Paraline drawings like orthographic drawings paraline drawings are abstractions There are many types of paraline drawings some of Which are discussed below but they all share a common characteristic they allow the viewer to see multiple faces of a drawn object yet all lines are measurable and none of the faces or elements of the object are distorted Isometric drawings paraline drawing in which all planes receive equal emphasis We will not be using isometric drawings in this exercise Axonometric drawings plan obliques and elevation obliques see Ching p46 are axonometric drawings at least as far as this exercise is concerned In each one plane is drawn orthographically and the other surfaces are constructed from that plane using parallel lines All lines that are parallel with either the x y or z axes are measurable you can measure an edge of the object and measure that same edge in the drawing and come up with the same dimension Perspective drawings mentioned here only to clarify the definition of paraline drawings As we noticed in many of the assignments in Exercise 1 when one is drawing a realistic image of a subject one has to consider the phenomenon of foreshortening Foreshortening is the visual effect that makes a tree 200 feet away appear smaller than a tree that is 20 feet away even if they are the same size Perspective drawings utilize foreshortening to lend the appearance of depth in space but this means that we cannot make the kind of dimensional comparisons that we can make with either orthographic drawings or paraline drawings We will not be producing perspective drawings in this exercise Diagram back to Webster s l A plan sketch drawing or outline designed to demonstrate or explain how something works or to clarify the relationship between the parts of a 2 Mathematics a graphic representation of an algebraic or geometric relationship emphasis added
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