Unit 9 - 12th-13th c. Medieval Transformations
Unit 9 - 12th-13th c. Medieval Transformations HIST 101 001
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Podcast Outline, section 9 Christendom and Islam in the Era of the Crusades Question: How deep do the changes in 12th -13th c. Christendom appear, in wider context? Podcast 9a: Reorganization of Medieval Christendom in the 11 -12th c • Roots of transformation: climate change, farming and population growth o Ancient Roman farming (half of land for crops, half for pasture, switch every few years); worked best in Med. climate, worked poorly in colder, wetter climate of N & C Europe th o By 10 c., warmer climate: longer growing seasons in Europe o New farming methods suited to N. Europe: § 1/3 of fields for animal pasture (3 year rotation); more deep plows, windmills, and waterwheels, pasture in forests § Hence: higher crop yields, but need for tighter organization a nd more human labor • Rebuilding Western (Frankish) Christian kingdoms (making “vassals”) o Kings gained influence, rebuilt kingdoms. But these states differed sharply from Roman Empire o Kings oversaw 100s of warlords, who lived off serfs’ labor, and promise d their superiors military support, personal loyalty o Kings rebuilt kingdoms by mix of two processes: § A) Slow building of small conquests, marriage links to other lordly families, turning lords into “vassals” (subordinate lords) • Capetian kings of France § B) Quick conquests, distribution of lands to favorites, who became new vassals • Norman kings in England • Monasteries, monastic orders, and their growing influence o But kings built power on a foundation laid by religious leaders bishops and esp. monasteries o In 10-11 c. Monasteries grew more numerous, became big landowners (via donations). Drew 100,000s more monks o Monasteries stored “excess elite children”: landowning families wanted 1 male heir, few married daughters, (who needed dowries) o Most monasteries stayed small. Some formed chains of linked monasteries, with shared leaders o Cluniac chain of Benedictine monasteries: 1000s of monks, controlling 10,000s of serfs o Monasteries offered valued services: praying en masse for the souls of warlords who donated or won their favor o Monasteries launched “Peace of God: movement to reform society, to get warlords to limit fighting (no fighting monks, clergy, unarmed, or on Sundays, in church, etc.) o =Roots of codes of chivalry • Bishops as church officials and state v assals o Bishops also became key figures reshaping medieval W Chr. Society. Claiming greater holiness (like monks, clergy la rgely now celibate) o Bishops extra religious powers ( to excommunicate offenders) o Bishops’ greatest power = to mobilize support netwo rks across boundaries of lordships and kingdoms o Bishops often had real political power, too: often controlled local town government, plus church, personal lands o Kings and lords often drafted bishops as vassals, giving them more lands for promises to supply soldiers when needed • Struggles for leadership in Christendom: The “Byzantine” system of church and state o Kings, wathords, leading monks, bishops often cooperated, but all competed for authority o In mid 11 c. biggest Christian power was still Byzantium o In Constantinople, emperors led central bureaucracy, dozens of military governors, a vast paid army, millions of taxpaying citizens o The church in Byzantium was led by the patriarch of C -ple, who really worked for the emperor (Church part of the state) o In 1060, C-ple was still the largest Christian city (500,000) largest trade center, and biggest center of higher learning • The Holy Roman Emperor and his new authority o New competitor for Christian Authority: Holy Roman Emperor o In mid 11 c. German emperors created a new system: each new emperor was “elected” by main princes of Germany (really still a loose hierarchy of warlords) o Holy Roman Emperors lacked Byzantine tax money, but sought funds by turning bishops into vassals, selling church offices o Holy Roman Emperors (briefly) took over papacy, named new popes from Germany in 1040’s-1050’s • The reform popes and their struggles for new authority th o In mid 11 c. the pope (bp of Rome) made claim to greater authority (not just talk of higher honor) o German “reform popes” hired dozens of secretaries and advisors o Popes changed the way new popes were chosen (election by hand -picked cardinal bishops, no longer by kings) o Popes demanded all priests and bishops be celibate; all bishops were supposed to answer to the pope o New bishops were forbidden to pay any special favors to kings to be chosen as bishops o Popes claimed right to depose kings who disobeyed rules of faith Podcast 9b: Christian expansionism and the Crusades, and their Impact: • Christian Expansionism i n the Atlantic, E. Europe and Spain. o Between 1000 and 1300, Latin Christian warlords (mostly from France and Germany) conquered new lands from “outsiders” o The conquests were not usually led by kings, but by lesser warlords or their younger sons (who had to conquer to have own lands) o Offers to Latin Christian peasants, craftsmen to follow and colonize o Expansionism (except for crusades) not centrally planned, but driven by powerful forces o In NW Europe (Ireland, North Sea Islands); in Mediterranean (Sicily); in C Europe (Hungary); in NE Europe (Prussia, Baltic Sea) • Christian Reconquest in Spain: anti -Islamic holy war o In 1000, Spain was mostly under Islamic rulers. By 1250, all but the southern strip was ruled by Christian kings o Spain was wealthy, and well e ducated (as part of Islamic world) o Conquerors worked with local Christians, Jews, Muslims (at first); they also recruited colonizing peasants form outside Spain o Successes in Spain were touted as a holy war (NOT first Christian use of holy war idea, but big renewal of it) • Inspiration of Crusades: Seljuk Turks: the new Islamic sultan and his conquests o Inspiratiothfor crusade: renewed Islamic power in Mid East o In early 11 c., Islamic states were increasingly divided; Fatimids (Shiites) rules in Egypt o Then Seljuks (Sunnis) from C Asia, conquered Iran, Iraq, Syria; they kept Abbasid caliphs as figureheads, while ruling as “sultans” o Turkish warriors began expanding into formerly Byzantine Christian lands in Anatolia o Byzantine emperors lost a big battle in 1 071, lose land then and more amid civil wars o By 1090’s, Byzantine Empire reestablished with new dynasty o In 1094, the Byzantine emperor asked pope for help recruiting Christian warriors to defend Byzantium o Pope responded to Byzantine requests by calling a council and calling for Crusade to “take back” Anatolia and Israel/Palestine • The First Crusade and the crusader kingdoms o “Crusade” (taking up of the cross): war against Muslims for holy sites, supposedly “imitation of Jesus” o Pope Urban promised that all who joined in the crusade against the Muslims would have their sins forgiven (like a pilgrimage) o Crusading idea drew 100,000 (some unarmed, some warriors) o Crusade gathered in C -ple in 1097, passed through Anatolia over two years it conquered coastal Syria and Palestine o In 1099, Jerusalem taken in a slaughter of 10,000’s o 4 new E. Christian “crusader’ kingdoms created (esp. kingdom of Jerusalem); many non - Christians compelled to convert or leave • Follow-up crusades and the military orders o From the start, the crusader kingdoms faced hostile neighbors, required constant recruits from Latin Christendom o When crusader kingdoms lost land, the pope called for new crusade nd rd o So 2 Crusade in 1148 (after loss of NC Syria) and crusade in 1189 (after Saladin’s reconquests) o Crusaders (esp. younger sons of lords) came to win forgiveness of sins by fighting Muslims; but also for a chance to gain land, power o Crusaders were also recruited by military orders = trained warriors living like monks (Knights Templar) o Military orders received donations, became powerful land owners • Islamic reactions to the crusaders Saladin and the Islamic counter -crusade o Islamic world lost only limited territory in first crusade o But Muslims wondered about apparent loss of God’s support; Muslims often blamed Muslims’ hostile disunity, heresy or sins o Muslims generally saw crusaders (“Franks”) as barbarians (uncivilized, ignorant, severely violent) o But crusaders who stayed in MidE were seen to adapt: to pick up Islamic habits, to seek truces and trade o New crusader recruits were seen as dangerous zealots, even by long -time crusader leader sin the Mid-East o Muslims were organized to counter the crusaders most by Saladin o In 1170’s Saladin served the sultan of Syria; he led a revolution in Egypt , then became sultan there and in Syria o In 1180’s, Saladin led counter-crusade; in 1187, he recaptured Jerusalem and most other crusader lands o Saladin as a new sort Muslim (anti -Crusader) “jihadi” hero (similarities of Christian and Islamic ideas of Holy War) o BUT Saladin and later Mid East rulers (Christian and Muslim) then NEGOTIATED o From 1191-1242, control of Jerusalem went back and forth, but agreements were made to share Holy Land • Crusades and the Byzantine Empire: The “Fourth Crusade” o Crusades had deeper impact within Christendom, esp. Byzantium o Byzantines saw Crusaders as powerful warriors, but also barbarians. Byzantines distrusted crusaders’ pious claims o Crusaders distrusted Byzantines, as weak and corrupted by wealth; violent clashes with Byzantines increased o In 1202, a “Fourth Crusade” diverted to C-ple for support; when no support came, Crusaders sacked and conquered C -ple o A “Latin Empire” ruled in C -ple, 1204-1261 o Byzantine rulers went into exile in three corners of old empire; they retook C -ple in 1261, but not all lands o Permanent splitting of Christendom; Catholic W and Orthodox E • Impact of the crusades: Catholic vs. Orthodox Christendom o Disagreements between Byzantium and the Latin Kingdoms shared religious identity th until the 4 crusade o After 1204, disagreements of Christendom became a permanent split; Catholic W and Orthodox E § Latin Christians called themselves the Catholic Church (looked to Rome) § E. Chr., the Byzantines, Bulgarians, Russians called themselves “Orthodox Church” • Jews in W. Christian lands during the crusades o Crusades started off targeting Muslims, but ended up also targeting other people within Christian lands as enemies of faith. Esp. Jews. o Until 11 c. Latin Christians tolerated Jews in W. Europe (for trade conne ctions). Jewish population rose. o During crusades, Jews faced murderous attacks by crusaders o Jews were sometimes protected by rulers, and abused (forbidden to own land, Jews lent money at interest, heavily taxed by kings) o Some Jews stayed (esp. Italy, Spa in, Germany). Others were expelled or fled to E. Europe or Islamic lands Podcast 9c: 12-13th c Social and cultural transformations in Comparative Context: • Expansionism, trade growth and the rise of W. Christian cities o In 1000 AD, Latin Christendom = poorest part of the Mediterranean, with no cities over 20,000 people o By 1200, trade wealth and population growth increased total wealth of society, and demand for some goods (clothing) o Expansionism put Latin Christians into wider contact with (initially) we althier Byzantine and Islamic societies o Some port towns (Venice, Genoa) built (or took over) networks of trade in Mediterranean (spices, fancy cloth, other fine crafts) • Expansionism, trade growth and rise of Latin Christian cities o Cities in Netherlands (B ruges, Ghent) grew wool-cloth industry o Luxury trade and wool trade interconnected (seasonal fairs, permanent market towns) o Latin Christians puck up banking methods from Islamic world o Growth in non-farming economy led 100,000s to migrate to dozens of growi ng cities (to live freer as craft workers than as serfs) o Cities grew most in N. Italy (such as Genoa, Milan, Florence, and esp. Venice, with 100,000 residents) but also in Netherlands • Medieval Christian city charters and autonomous city governments o All the main Medieval Latin Christian leaders competed to control this urban trade wealth: (Lords/Kings’ taxes. Bishops’ tithes) o Power of bishops in town highest (at first), so wealth “tithed” and used to support more clergy, schools, fancy new churches o Cathedral building boom (Romanesque, then Gothic style) a sign of increasing wealth o Lords and kings also co mpeted for urban wealth (taxes), hired troops to form larger armies and hired lawyers, secretaries, other bureaucrats and launched castle building boom o BUT merchants worked to k eep wealth, avoid taxes, tithes; m erchants formed guilds to set up rules for labor, markets and to ix prices o Wealthy merchants took some power in cities, and worked with bishops, lords, kings to write “charters” (autonomy agreemen ts): § In N. Italy, by the late 1170’s, most towns had pushed further, to declare themselves nearly independent republics § Holy Roman Emperor was forced to accept these dozens of autonomous N. Italian republics § Power of N. Italian cities grew as cities grew (most small, but some much larger: Venice, Genoa, Milan, Florence • New Medieval W. Christian centers of learning: scholasticism and universities th o Robust small circles of 12 c. learned Latin Christians, their Latin writings: “scholastic culture” o At first, higher learning in W. Christendom was informal, and Latin Christian elites argued bitterly over what should be taught o As teachers (such as Peter Abelard) introduced new topics (more philosophy), feuds developed. Chaotic demands, varying fees, etc. o By the 14 c., fights over teaching standards and topics led to new charters (=universities). Rules about curriculum, fees. o By 1300, many universities existed in W. Christendom (but organized higher learning was not new to Byzantium or Islam) • Christian vernacular literature and courtly culture ( troubadour poetry) o Higher learning was in Latin, but no one spoke it as first language; plenty of culture aimedtht less learned elites and masses o 12-13 c. was the golden entertainments such as tournaments and reli gious feasts o More literature was written in vernacular languages, in English, French, German (not in universities) o Professional poets/singers (troubadours) frequented Lord’s courts, fairs, taverns, etc. o Troubadour poetry focused on military adventure tale s, and esp. courtly love (treating elite women as pure, illustrious objects) • Cities, Higher learning, and “secular” culture in 12th c Byzantium and Islam o How important were the economic, cultural shifts in Latin Christendom? § Historians used to say: lar ge impact. Rural areas less affected, but larger towns, more trade, use of coin, higher learning, vernacular lit • BUT: most of these trends only new to Latin Christendom th • Big cities in Byzantium and Islamic world already in 9 -11 c. • Trade networks and wealth in Byzantium and Islamic societies already: Italian cities gained wealth by tapping older trade networks Podcast 9d: 12-13th c. Religious Changes in Comparative Context • New pious movements in 12 -13th c. Christendom: Mystics, wanderers, and “her etics” o Religion changed with the rise in population, expansionism, and trade wealth: more interest in holiness, in new forms o Mysticism: practices to make believers gain special wisdom and feel direct contact with God § Many Christian mystics read Scripture very closely to find hidden meanings § E Christian mysticism popular among monks (breathing exercises to feel light of Holy Spirit) § Learned Christian monks (E and W) tried many mystical practices: (fasting, sleep deprivation, even hallucinogenic drugs) o Apostolic Wanderers: New Christian holy men § Some Latin Christians tried living like Apostles (as told in Acts): poor, celibate life, traveling the world and preaching (outside of monasteries) § Apostolic wanderers could be found in rural areas § BUT they were more common along major trade routes and in cities § As money and luxuries became more common sights, these deliberately poor men and women attracted attention as holy people • Examples of “heretical” pious movements: Bogomils/Cathars, Valdes o Old monastic leaders and clerics often saw the new Apostolic wanderers as rivals for religious authority th o In 12-13 c., more accusations of heresy among Christians § It is not clear if any given “heretic” clashed with church teachings, or simply bothered bishops and monks § Ex. Cathars (pure ones): accused of teaching 2 gods (good v. evil) and avoiding clergy as corrupted. And vegetarians! § Another “heretic”: Valdes: wealthy merchant from Lyons who gave away all his wealth, lived as a beggar, preached against greed • Franciscans and Dominicans: Apostolic wandering priests o By 1200, Church leaders had denounced “heretics” but the wandering preachers were still common and popular o Some tired to organize a more legitimate form of apostolic types: friars (aka mendicants) o Wandering poor preachers organized into orders, blessed by pope o First order of Friars by Francis of Assisi (son of wealthy merchant) § Francis gave away ALL his wealth live as a beggar, travel in Italy; his followers later called Franciscans § Pope Innocent III blessed Francis’ preaching, in Italy and even on a mission to the Sultan of Egypt o Second order of friars took form in the e 1c.: the Dominicans § Followers of Dominic, who stressed learning more than poverty § Franciscans and Dominicans continued long after t heir founders died, and Francis was named a (highly popular) saint • The Papal Inquisition as response to fear of heresy o Still, church leaders hunted some wanderers as heretics o Before 1200, church leaders had debated, then excommunicated scholars labeled “heretics” o But how to deal with ordinary lay people? Secret heretics? Those who saw clergy as corrupt? Or popular “heretics”? § In the early 13 c., popes tried calling for a crusade against Cathars; this proved hard to control § So in 1230’s, Papal Inquisit ion = traveling tribunal, which investigated those accused of heresy § Kings executed condemned heretics (inquisition mostly staffed by Dominicans) • Jewish and Muslim medieval mystical piety: Kabbalists and Sufis o All of these trends could be found in other Mediterranean communities, sometimes long before W. Christians took interest o Kabbalists § Mysticism popular among learned Jews. By the 10 thc. (Kabbalah) § Jewish Kabbalists read Scripture for hidden meanings about workings of the universe § Kabbalists sought to connect personality with God (by sleep deprivation, fasting, drugs, etc.) § Kabbalists best known for “bible number codes” (Hebrew letters stand for numbers, revealing hidden meanings) o Sufis th § Muslims had mystics by 10 c., before W. Christians – Sufis § Sufis sought hidden truth in Quran and the natural world, even in love poetry § Sufis sought contact with God, by meditation, sleep deprivation, drug use, and ecstatic dance § Sufis formed organized groups (organized) in the 12 -13ht c., which sponsored travel, preaching § Sufis, like friars, thrived in cities and along major trade routes • Religious authority and fear of heresy in Medieval Judaism and Islam o Jewish rabbis and Islamic scholars and rulers did denounce certain beliefs and practices as heresy, and certain people as heretics o Rabbis faced some people who denied their authority and right to interpret Jewish law. Some rabbis worried about wild mystics o Islamic scholars drew up long lists of heresies; some denounced the Sufis as dangerous lawbreakers o Jewish and Islamic communities did not form inquisitions; no single religious leader had enough coercive authority o Jewish and Muslim mystics thrived despite foes