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Unit 9 - 12th-13th c. Medieval Transformations

by: Margot Clary

Unit 9 - 12th-13th c. Medieval Transformations HIST 101 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > History > HIST 101 001 > Unit 9 12th 13th c Medieval Transformations
Margot Clary
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Thorough outline of unit 9 podcasts including podcasts 9a-9d.
European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century
Dr. Schor
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margot Clary on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Schor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 11/02/15
Podcast Outline, section 9 Christendom and Islam in the Era of the Crusades Question: How deep do the changes in 12th -13th c. Christendom appear, in wider context? Podcast 9a: Reorganization of Medieval Christendom in the 11 -12th c • Roots of transformation: climate change, farming and population growth o Ancient Roman farming (half of land for crops, half for pasture, switch every few years); worked best in Med. climate, worked poorly in colder, wetter climate of N & C Europe th o By 10 c., warmer climate: longer growing seasons in Europe o New farming methods suited to N. Europe: § 1/3 of fields for animal pasture (3 year rotation); more deep plows, windmills, and waterwheels, pasture in forests § Hence: higher crop yields, but need for tighter organization a nd more human labor • Rebuilding Western (Frankish) Christian kingdoms (making “vassals”) o Kings gained influence, rebuilt kingdoms. But these states differed sharply from Roman Empire o Kings oversaw 100s of warlords, who lived off serfs’ labor, and promise d their superiors military support, personal loyalty o Kings rebuilt kingdoms by mix of two processes: § A) Slow building of small conquests, marriage links to other lordly families, turning lords into “vassals” (subordinate lords) • Capetian kings of France § B) Quick conquests, distribution of lands to favorites, who became new vassals • Norman kings in England • Monasteries, monastic orders, and their growing influence o But kings built power on a foundation laid by religious leaders bishops and esp. monasteries o In 10-11 c. Monasteries grew more numerous, became big landowners (via donations). Drew 100,000s more monks o Monasteries stored “excess elite children”: landowning families wanted 1 male heir, few married daughters, (who needed dowries) o Most monasteries stayed small. Some formed chains of linked monasteries, with shared leaders o Cluniac chain of Benedictine monasteries: 1000s of monks, controlling 10,000s of serfs o Monasteries offered valued services: praying en masse for the souls of warlords who donated or won their favor o Monasteries launched “Peace of God: movement to reform society, to get warlords to limit fighting (no fighting monks, clergy, unarmed, or on Sundays, in church, etc.) o =Roots of codes of chivalry • Bishops as church officials and state v assals o Bishops also became key figures reshaping medieval W Chr. Society. Claiming greater holiness (like monks, clergy la rgely now celibate) o Bishops extra religious powers ( to excommunicate offenders) o Bishops’ greatest power = to mobilize support netwo rks across boundaries of lordships and kingdoms o Bishops often had real political power, too: often controlled local town government, plus church, personal lands o Kings and lords often drafted bishops as vassals, giving them more lands for promises to supply soldiers when needed • Struggles for leadership in Christendom: The “Byzantine” system of church and state o Kings, wathords, leading monks, bishops often cooperated, but all competed for authority o In mid 11 c. biggest Christian power was still Byzantium o In Constantinople, emperors led central bureaucracy, dozens of military governors, a vast paid army, millions of taxpaying citizens o The church in Byzantium was led by the patriarch of C -ple, who really worked for the emperor (Church part of the state) o In 1060, C-ple was still the largest Christian city (500,000) largest trade center, and biggest center of higher learning • The Holy Roman Emperor and his new authority o New competitor for Christian Authority: Holy Roman Emperor o In mid 11 c. German emperors created a new system: each new emperor was “elected” by main princes of Germany (really still a loose hierarchy of warlords) o Holy Roman Emperors lacked Byzantine tax money, but sought funds by turning bishops into vassals, selling church offices o Holy Roman Emperors (briefly) took over papacy, named new popes from Germany in 1040’s-1050’s • The reform popes and their struggles for new authority th o In mid 11 c. the pope (bp of Rome) made claim to greater authority (not just talk of higher honor) o German “reform popes” hired dozens of secretaries and advisors o Popes changed the way new popes were chosen (election by hand -picked cardinal bishops, no longer by kings) o Popes demanded all priests and bishops be celibate; all bishops were supposed to answer to the pope o New bishops were forbidden to pay any special favors to kings to be chosen as bishops o Popes claimed right to depose kings who disobeyed rules of faith Podcast 9b: Christian expansionism and the Crusades, and their Impact: • Christian Expansionism i n the Atlantic, E. Europe and Spain. o Between 1000 and 1300, Latin Christian warlords (mostly from France and Germany) conquered new lands from “outsiders” o The conquests were not usually led by kings, but by lesser warlords or their younger sons (who had to conquer to have own lands) o Offers to Latin Christian peasants, craftsmen to follow and colonize o Expansionism (except for crusades) not centrally planned, but driven by powerful forces o In NW Europe (Ireland, North Sea Islands); in Mediterranean (Sicily); in C Europe (Hungary); in NE Europe (Prussia, Baltic Sea) • Christian Reconquest in Spain: anti -Islamic holy war o In 1000, Spain was mostly under Islamic rulers. By 1250, all but the southern strip was ruled by Christian kings o Spain was wealthy, and well e ducated (as part of Islamic world) o Conquerors worked with local Christians, Jews, Muslims (at first); they also recruited colonizing peasants form outside Spain o Successes in Spain were touted as a holy war (NOT first Christian use of holy war idea, but big renewal of it) • Inspiration of Crusades: Seljuk Turks: the new Islamic sultan and his conquests o Inspiratiothfor crusade: renewed Islamic power in Mid East o In early 11 c., Islamic states were increasingly divided; Fatimids (Shiites) rules in Egypt o Then Seljuks (Sunnis) from C Asia, conquered Iran, Iraq, Syria; they kept Abbasid caliphs as figureheads, while ruling as “sultans” o Turkish warriors began expanding into formerly Byzantine Christian lands in Anatolia o Byzantine emperors lost a big battle in 1 071, lose land then and more amid civil wars o By 1090’s, Byzantine Empire reestablished with new dynasty o In 1094, the Byzantine emperor asked pope for help recruiting Christian warriors to defend Byzantium o Pope responded to Byzantine requests by calling a council and calling for Crusade to “take back” Anatolia and Israel/Palestine • The First Crusade and the crusader kingdoms o “Crusade” (taking up of the cross): war against Muslims for holy sites, supposedly “imitation of Jesus” o Pope Urban promised that all who joined in the crusade against the Muslims would have their sins forgiven (like a pilgrimage) o Crusading idea drew 100,000 (some unarmed, some warriors) o Crusade gathered in C -ple in 1097, passed through Anatolia over two years it conquered coastal Syria and Palestine o In 1099, Jerusalem taken in a slaughter of 10,000’s o 4 new E. Christian “crusader’ kingdoms created (esp. kingdom of Jerusalem); many non - Christians compelled to convert or leave • Follow-up crusades and the military orders o From the start, the crusader kingdoms faced hostile neighbors, required constant recruits from Latin Christendom o When crusader kingdoms lost land, the pope called for new crusade nd rd o So 2 Crusade in 1148 (after loss of NC Syria) and crusade in 1189 (after Saladin’s reconquests) o Crusaders (esp. younger sons of lords) came to win forgiveness of sins by fighting Muslims; but also for a chance to gain land, power o Crusaders were also recruited by military orders = trained warriors living like monks (Knights Templar) o Military orders received donations, became powerful land owners • Islamic reactions to the crusaders Saladin and the Islamic counter -crusade o Islamic world lost only limited territory in first crusade o But Muslims wondered about apparent loss of God’s support; Muslims often blamed Muslims’ hostile disunity, heresy or sins o Muslims generally saw crusaders (“Franks”) as barbarians (uncivilized, ignorant, severely violent) o But crusaders who stayed in MidE were seen to adapt: to pick up Islamic habits, to seek truces and trade o New crusader recruits were seen as dangerous zealots, even by long -time crusader leader sin the Mid-East o Muslims were organized to counter the crusaders most by Saladin o In 1170’s Saladin served the sultan of Syria; he led a revolution in Egypt , then became sultan there and in Syria o In 1180’s, Saladin led counter-crusade; in 1187, he recaptured Jerusalem and most other crusader lands o Saladin as a new sort Muslim (anti -Crusader) “jihadi” hero (similarities of Christian and Islamic ideas of Holy War) o BUT Saladin and later Mid East rulers (Christian and Muslim) then NEGOTIATED o From 1191-1242, control of Jerusalem went back and forth, but agreements were made to share Holy Land • Crusades and the Byzantine Empire: The “Fourth Crusade” o Crusades had deeper impact within Christendom, esp. Byzantium o Byzantines saw Crusaders as powerful warriors, but also barbarians. Byzantines distrusted crusaders’ pious claims o Crusaders distrusted Byzantines, as weak and corrupted by wealth; violent clashes with Byzantines increased o In 1202, a “Fourth Crusade” diverted to C-ple for support; when no support came, Crusaders sacked and conquered C -ple o A “Latin Empire” ruled in C -ple, 1204-1261 o Byzantine rulers went into exile in three corners of old empire; they retook C -ple in 1261, but not all lands o Permanent splitting of Christendom; Catholic W and Orthodox E • Impact of the crusades: Catholic vs. Orthodox Christendom o Disagreements between Byzantium and the Latin Kingdoms shared religious identity th until the 4 crusade o After 1204, disagreements of Christendom became a permanent split; Catholic W and Orthodox E § Latin Christians called themselves the Catholic Church (looked to Rome) § E. Chr., the Byzantines, Bulgarians, Russians called themselves “Orthodox Church” • Jews in W. Christian lands during the crusades o Crusades started off targeting Muslims, but ended up also targeting other people within Christian lands as enemies of faith. Esp. Jews. o Until 11 c. Latin Christians tolerated Jews in W. Europe (for trade conne ctions). Jewish population rose. o During crusades, Jews faced murderous attacks by crusaders o Jews were sometimes protected by rulers, and abused (forbidden to own land, Jews lent money at interest, heavily taxed by kings) o Some Jews stayed (esp. Italy, Spa in, Germany). Others were expelled or fled to E. Europe or Islamic lands Podcast 9c: 12-13th c Social and cultural transformations in Comparative Context: • Expansionism, trade growth and the rise of W. Christian cities o In 1000 AD, Latin Christendom = poorest part of the Mediterranean, with no cities over 20,000 people o By 1200, trade wealth and population growth increased total wealth of society, and demand for some goods (clothing) o Expansionism put Latin Christians into wider contact with (initially) we althier Byzantine and Islamic societies o Some port towns (Venice, Genoa) built (or took over) networks of trade in Mediterranean (spices, fancy cloth, other fine crafts) • Expansionism, trade growth and rise of Latin Christian cities o Cities in Netherlands (B ruges, Ghent) grew wool-cloth industry o Luxury trade and wool trade interconnected (seasonal fairs, permanent market towns) o Latin Christians puck up banking methods from Islamic world o Growth in non-farming economy led 100,000s to migrate to dozens of growi ng cities (to live freer as craft workers than as serfs) o Cities grew most in N. Italy (such as Genoa, Milan, Florence, and esp. Venice, with 100,000 residents) but also in Netherlands • Medieval Christian city charters and autonomous city governments o All the main Medieval Latin Christian leaders competed to control this urban trade wealth: (Lords/Kings’ taxes. Bishops’ tithes) o Power of bishops in town highest (at first), so wealth “tithed” and used to support more clergy, schools, fancy new churches o Cathedral building boom (Romanesque, then Gothic style) a sign of increasing wealth o Lords and kings also co mpeted for urban wealth (taxes), hired troops to form larger armies and hired lawyers, secretaries, other bureaucrats and launched castle building boom o BUT merchants worked to k eep wealth, avoid taxes, tithes; m erchants formed guilds to set up rules for labor, markets and to ix prices o Wealthy merchants took some power in cities, and worked with bishops, lords, kings to write “charters” (autonomy agreemen ts): § In N. Italy, by the late 1170’s, most towns had pushed further, to declare themselves nearly independent republics § Holy Roman Emperor was forced to accept these dozens of autonomous N. Italian republics § Power of N. Italian cities grew as cities grew (most small, but some much larger: Venice, Genoa, Milan, Florence • New Medieval W. Christian centers of learning: scholasticism and universities th o Robust small circles of 12 c. learned Latin Christians, their Latin writings: “scholastic culture” o At first, higher learning in W. Christendom was informal, and Latin Christian elites argued bitterly over what should be taught o As teachers (such as Peter Abelard) introduced new topics (more philosophy), feuds developed. Chaotic demands, varying fees, etc. o By the 14 c., fights over teaching standards and topics led to new charters (=universities). Rules about curriculum, fees. o By 1300, many universities existed in W. Christendom (but organized higher learning was not new to Byzantium or Islam) • Christian vernacular literature and courtly culture ( troubadour poetry) o Higher learning was in Latin, but no one spoke it as first language; plenty of culture aimedtht less learned elites and masses o 12-13 c. was the golden entertainments such as tournaments and reli gious feasts o More literature was written in vernacular languages, in English, French, German (not in universities) o Professional poets/singers (troubadours) frequented Lord’s courts, fairs, taverns, etc. o Troubadour poetry focused on military adventure tale s, and esp. courtly love (treating elite women as pure, illustrious objects) • Cities, Higher learning, and “secular” culture in 12th c Byzantium and Islam o How important were the economic, cultural shifts in Latin Christendom? § Historians used to say: lar ge impact. Rural areas less affected, but larger towns, more trade, use of coin, higher learning, vernacular lit • BUT: most of these trends only new to Latin Christendom th • Big cities in Byzantium and Islamic world already in 9 -11 c. • Trade networks and wealth in Byzantium and Islamic societies already: Italian cities gained wealth by tapping older trade networks Podcast 9d: 12-13th c. Religious Changes in Comparative Context • New pious movements in 12 -13th c. Christendom: Mystics, wanderers, and “her etics” o Religion changed with the rise in population, expansionism, and trade wealth: more interest in holiness, in new forms o Mysticism: practices to make believers gain special wisdom and feel direct contact with God § Many Christian mystics read Scripture very closely to find hidden meanings § E Christian mysticism popular among monks (breathing exercises to feel light of Holy Spirit) § Learned Christian monks (E and W) tried many mystical practices: (fasting, sleep deprivation, even hallucinogenic drugs) o Apostolic Wanderers: New Christian holy men § Some Latin Christians tried living like Apostles (as told in Acts): poor, celibate life, traveling the world and preaching (outside of monasteries) § Apostolic wanderers could be found in rural areas § BUT they were more common along major trade routes and in cities § As money and luxuries became more common sights, these deliberately poor men and women attracted attention as holy people • Examples of “heretical” pious movements: Bogomils/Cathars, Valdes o Old monastic leaders and clerics often saw the new Apostolic wanderers as rivals for religious authority th o In 12-13 c., more accusations of heresy among Christians § It is not clear if any given “heretic” clashed with church teachings, or simply bothered bishops and monks § Ex. Cathars (pure ones): accused of teaching 2 gods (good v. evil) and avoiding clergy as corrupted. And vegetarians! § Another “heretic”: Valdes: wealthy merchant from Lyons who gave away all his wealth, lived as a beggar, preached against greed • Franciscans and Dominicans: Apostolic wandering priests o By 1200, Church leaders had denounced “heretics” but the wandering preachers were still common and popular o Some tired to organize a more legitimate form of apostolic types: friars (aka mendicants) o Wandering poor preachers organized into orders, blessed by pope o First order of Friars by Francis of Assisi (son of wealthy merchant) § Francis gave away ALL his wealth live as a beggar, travel in Italy; his followers later called Franciscans § Pope Innocent III blessed Francis’ preaching, in Italy and even on a mission to the Sultan of Egypt o Second order of friars took form in the e 1c.: the Dominicans § Followers of Dominic, who stressed learning more than poverty § Franciscans and Dominicans continued long after t heir founders died, and Francis was named a (highly popular) saint • The Papal Inquisition as response to fear of heresy o Still, church leaders hunted some wanderers as heretics o Before 1200, church leaders had debated, then excommunicated scholars labeled “heretics” o But how to deal with ordinary lay people? Secret heretics? Those who saw clergy as corrupt? Or popular “heretics”? § In the early 13 c., popes tried calling for a crusade against Cathars; this proved hard to control § So in 1230’s, Papal Inquisit ion = traveling tribunal, which investigated those accused of heresy § Kings executed condemned heretics (inquisition mostly staffed by Dominicans) • Jewish and Muslim medieval mystical piety: Kabbalists and Sufis o All of these trends could be found in other Mediterranean communities, sometimes long before W. Christians took interest o Kabbalists § Mysticism popular among learned Jews. By the 10 thc. (Kabbalah) § Jewish Kabbalists read Scripture for hidden meanings about workings of the universe § Kabbalists sought to connect personality with God (by sleep deprivation, fasting, drugs, etc.) § Kabbalists best known for “bible number codes” (Hebrew letters stand for numbers, revealing hidden meanings) o Sufis th § Muslims had mystics by 10 c., before W. Christians – Sufis § Sufis sought hidden truth in Quran and the natural world, even in love poetry § Sufis sought contact with God, by meditation, sleep deprivation, drug use, and ecstatic dance § Sufis formed organized groups (organized) in the 12 -13ht c., which sponsored travel, preaching § Sufis, like friars, thrived in cities and along major trade routes • Religious authority and fear of heresy in Medieval Judaism and Islam o Jewish rabbis and Islamic scholars and rulers did denounce certain beliefs and practices as heresy, and certain people as heretics o Rabbis faced some people who denied their authority and right to interpret Jewish law. Some rabbis worried about wild mystics o Islamic scholars drew up long lists of heresies; some denounced the Sufis as dangerous lawbreakers o Jewish and Islamic communities did not form inquisitions; no single religious leader had enough coercive authority o Jewish and Muslim mystics thrived despite foes


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