German 56 - Figures Who Changed the World
German 56 - Figures Who Changed the World
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CLA COURSE READER PRINT DIGITAL MULTIMEDIA German 56 Figures Who Changed the World Professor Mccumber NO REFUNDS NO EXCHANGES SECTION II HE ESSENTIAL point of this contention a contention that atly contradicts an otherwise universally held principle I already attempted to set forth on a previ ous occasion Mr Dohm s excellent work On the Civil Improvement of the Jews led to the inquiry To what extent should a naturalized colony be permitted to retain its own juris diction in ecclesiastical and civil matters in general and the right of excommunication and expulsion in particular Legal power of the church the right of excommunicationif a colony is to have these it must have been enfeolfed with them as it were by the state or by the mother church Someone who possesses this right by virtue of the social contract must have ceded or relinquished a part of it to the colony insofar as it concerns the latter But what if no one can possess such a right What if neither the state nor the mother church herself can claim any right to use coercion in religious matters If according to the principles of sound rea son the divinity of which we must all acknowledge neither state nor church would be authorized to assume any right in matters of faith other than the right to teach any power other than the power to persuade any discipline other than the discipline of reason and principles If this can be proved and made clear to common sense no explicit contract much less usage or prescrip 77 78 JERUSALEM tion will be powerful enough to maintain a right that runs coun ter to it all ecclesiastical coercion will be unlawful all external power in religious matters will be violent usurpation and if this is so the mother church may not and cannot bestow a right which does not belong to it nor give away a power which it un justly arrogated to itself It may be that this abuse through some common prejudice or other has become so widespread and so deeply rooted in the minds of men that it would not be feasible or advisable to abolish it all at once without wise preparation But in that case it is at least our duty to oppose it from afar and first of all to set up a dam against its further expansion If we cannot eradicate an evil completely we must at least cut off its roots This was the result of my re ections and I dared to submit my thoughts to the judgment of the public even though I could not at that time state my reasons as fully as has been done in the pre ceding section I have the good fortune to live in a state in which these ideas of mine are neither new nor particularly striking The wise mon arch by whom it is ruled has from the beginning of his reign made it his constant purpose to put mankind in possession of its full rights in matters of faith He is the first among the monarchs of this century who has never lost sight of the total import of the wise maxim Men were created for each other Instruct your neighbor or tolerate him He certainly left intact with wise In the Preface to Menasseh ben Israel s Defense of the Jews These are the words of my late friend Mr Iselin in one of his last papers in Ephemerides of Mankind The memory of this truly wise man should be unforgettable to every one of his contemporaries who esteems virtue and truth It is therefore all the more incomprehensible to me how I could have over looked him when mentioning the bene cent men who rst sought to propagate the principles of unlimited tolerance in Germany It was he who taught them to their fullest extent indeed earlier and in a clearer voice than anyone else in our language It is with pleasure that I quote here a passage from his review of my Preface to Rabbi Menasseh in Ephemerides No 10 October 1782 p 429 where this subject is referred to in order to do justice after his death to a man who was so just to everyone in his lifetime The editor JERUSALEM 39 79 moderation the privileges of external religion he found installed It will perhaps still take centuries of culture and preparation be fore men understand that privileges on account of religion are neither lawful nor actually useful and that it would therefore be a veritable boon totally to abolish all civil discrimination on ac count of religion Nevertheless under the rule of this wise man the nation has become so much accustomed to tolerance and for of Ephemerides of Mankind agrees entirely also with what Mr Mendelssohn says about the legislative rights of the authorities concerning the opinions held by the citizens and about the agreements which individuals may enter into among themselves with regard to such opinions And he adopted this way of I thinking not only since Mr Dohm and Mr Lessing wrote but he already professed it more than thirty years ago By the same token he also acknowl edged long ago that what one calls religious tolerance is not a favor but a duty on the part of the government No one could have expressed himself more clearly than he did when he wrote in the following manner Dreams of a Friend of Mankind Vol II pp 12 and 13 If therefore one or more reli gions are introduced into his states a wise and just sovereign will not permit himself to infringe upon their rights to the advantage of his own Every church every association which has divine worship for its aim is a society to which the sovereign owes protection and justice To deny this to them even for the sake of favoring the best religion would be contrary to the spirit of true piety With respect to civil rights the members of all religions are equal with the sole exception of those whose opinions run counter to the principles of human and civil duties Such a religion cannot lay claim to any rights in the state Those who have the misfortune of being attached to it can expect toler ance only as long as they do not disturb the social order by unjust and harm ful acts If they perform such acts they must be punished not for their opinions but for their deeds What is said however in the preceding pas sage p 423 concerning some erroneous opinion about middlemen in com merce an opinion allegedly ascribedlby me without justification to the editor of Ephemerides stands in need of correction It was not Mr Iselin but an other otherwise judicious writer who had published a paper in Ephemerides in which he asserted the harmfulness of middlemen a View that was in fact refuted by the editor Mr Iselin The remarks made in the same article against my coreligionists I pass over in silence This is not the place to defend the latter and I leave this business to Mr Dohm who can do it with less partiality Besides one quite easily forgives the prejudice of a citizen of Basel against a people which he could have had an opportunity of knowing only from its vagrant section or from the Observations d un Alsacien 80 JERUSALEM bearance in matters of faith that coercion excommunication and the right of expulsion have at least ceased to be popular concepts But what must bring true joy to the heart of every honest man is the earnestness and the zeal with which several worthy mem bers of the local clergy endeavor to spread these principles of reason or rather of the true fear of God among the people In deed some of them have not hesitated to give full approval to the arguments advanced by me against the universally adored idol of ecclesiastical law and to applaud their conclusions in pub lic How lofty must be the notions these men have of their voca tion if they show such readiness to disregard all secondary con siderations What noble confidence they must place in the power of truth if they dare to set it squarely on its own pedestal with out any other prop Even though otherwise we should differ ever so much in our principles I could not help but express my wholehearted admiration and respect for them on account of these sublime convictions Some other readers and reviewers behaved quite strangely in this matter They did not indeed dispute my arguments but on the contrary allowed them to stand No one attempted to show the slightest connection between doctrinal opinions and rights No one discovered a flaw in the conclusion that my assent or fail ure to assent to certain eternal truths gives me no right over things no authority to dispose of goods and minds according to my own pleasure Yet nevertheless they were startled by the immediate conclusions of my arguments as if by an unexpected apparition What So there is no ecclesiastical law at all So everything that so many authors and perhaps we ourselves have written read heard and argued about ecclesiastical law is devoid of any foundation This it seemed to them was going too far but there must be some hidden flaw in the conclusion if the re snlt is not necessarily to be true In the Gottingtsche Anzeigen the reviewer quotes my assertion that there exists no right to persons and things which is connected with doctrinal opinions and that all the contracts and agreements JERUSALEM 81 in the world cannot make such a right possible and he then adds all this is new and harsh First principles are negated and all dispute comes to an end Indeed it is a question of first principles which one refuses to recognize But should there be an end to all dispute on account of this Must one never doubt principles If so men of the Pythago rean school could dispute forever how their teacher happened to come by his golden hip and no one would dare to ask Did Py thagoras actually have a golden hip L Every game has its laws every contest its rules according to which the umpire decides If you want to win the stake or carry away the prize you must submit to the principles But whoever wishes to reflect on the theory of games may certainly examine the quotfundamentals Just as in a court of law A criminal court judge who had to try a murderer induced him to confess his crime But the wicked fellow maintained that he knew no reason why it should not be just as permissible to murder a man as to kill an animal for his own advantage To this end the judge could justly reply You deny the basic principles ladl With you all dispute is at an end But you will at least comprehend that we too are permitted for our own advantage to rid the earth of such a monster Yet the priest charged with preparing him for death ought not to have answered him in this manner He was obligated to engage him in discussion about the principles them selves and toremove his doubts if he entertained them in ear nest It is no different in the arts and sciences Each one of them presupposes certain fundamental concepts of which it gives no further account Nevertheless there is not a single point in the entire sum of human knowledge that is to be placed beyond question not one iota that may not be subjected to investigation 39If my doubt lies beyond the limits of this tribunal I must be re ferred to another Somewhere I must be heard and directed along the right path The case which the reviewer cites as an example in order to refute me completely misses the mark Let us he says apply 82 JERUSALEM them the denied principles to a particular case The Jewish community in Berlin appoints a person who is to circumcise its male children according to the laws of its religion This person receives by agreement certain rights to such and such an in come to a particular rank in the community etc After a while he has doubts concerning the doctrine or law of circumcision he refuses to ful ll the contract Does he still retain the rights he ac quired by contract The same applies everywhere t And in what sense everywhere I will admit the possibility of the case which it is to be hoped will never occur What is this example adduced as it is ad hominem supposed to prove Surely not that according to reason rights over persons and goods are connected with doctrinal opinions and are based on them Or that positive laws and contracts can render such a right possible Ac cording to the reviewer s own statement it is chie y a question of these two points neither of which is found in the case he in vented For the circumciser would enjoy his income and rank not because he approves of the doctrinal opinion but because of the operation he performs in place of the fathers of the families Now if his conscience prevents him from continuing this labor he will of course have to give up the reward previously stipu lated But what does this have in common with the privileges granted to a person because he assents to one or another doctrine or because he accepts or rejects this or that eternal truth The only case which might bear some resemblance to this ficti tious example is the one in which the state employs and remuner ates teachers who are supposed to propagate certain doctrines in quot Among the Jews one receives neither a remuneration nor a speci c rank in the community for the oflice of circumcision On the contrary whoever possesses the requisite skill performs this meritorious act with pleasure In deed the father who properly speaking is obliged to perform the duty of circumcising his son usually has to choose among several competitors who apply for it The only reward which the circumciser can expect for his per formance consists in his being seated at the head of the table at the festive meal following the circumcision and in his saying the blessing after the meal According to my seemingly new and harsh theory all religious offices ought to be lled in like manner JERUSALEM 83 such and such a manner but who later feel consciencebound to depart from the doctrines prescribed to them In the preceding section I dealt at length with this case which so often has occa sioned loud and heated disputes and I sought to discuss it in ac cordance with my principles But it seems to me to accord just as little with the paradigm mentioned One may recall the distinc tion I made between actions which are demanded as actions and those that merely signify convictions A foreskin is cut 0H the cir cumciser may think and believe whatever he pleases of the prac tice itself just as a creditor who obtained satisfaction through the courts is repaid no matter what the debtor may think of his obli gation to pay But how can one apply the same standard to a teacher of religious truths whose teachings can certainly bring but small pro t if mind and heart do not agree with them if they do not flow from inner conviction In the passage cited I already indicated that I would not dare to prescribe to a hardpressed teacher who nds himself in such a predicament how to behave as an honest man or to reproach him if he acted otherwise and that in my opinion everything depends on the time the circum stances and the state in which he nds himself Who can in this matter adversely judge the conscientiousness of his neighbor Who can force him to use a criterion which he may not consider appropriate for such a critical decision However this investigation does not lie entirely in my path and has little in common with the two questions on which every thing depends and which I shall repeat here once more 1 Are there according to the laws of reason rights over per sons and things that are connected with doctrinal opinions and are acquired by giving assent to them 2 Can contracts and agreements produce perfect rights en gender compulsory duties where in the absence of any contract imperfect rights and duties are not already in existence One of these propositions must be shown to follow from nat J ural law if I am to be found guilty of error The fact that one 39 nds my assertion new and harsh is of no consequence as long as 84 JERUSALEM it does not contradict the truth I still do not know of any author who has touched upon these questions and examined them as they apply to ecclesiastical power and the right of excommunica tion They all start from the point of view that there is a fus circa sacra only everyone fashions it in his own way and enfeoifs with it sometimes an invisible person sometimes this or that visible person Even Hobbes who ventured to move in this respect far ther than anyone else from the established concepts could not completely disengage himself from this idea He concedes such a right and only searches for the person to whom it may be en trusted with the least harm All believe that the meteor is visible and only strive to fix its altitude by different systems It would not be an unheardof occurrence if an unprejudiced person look ing straight at the place in the sky where it was supposed to ap pear were to convince himself with the aid of much weaker ca pacities of the truth that no such meteor could be seen I come now to a far more important objection that has been raised against me and which has chie y caused me to write this work Once more without refuting my arguments one has op posed to them the sacred authority of the Mosaic religion which I profess What are the laws of Moses but a system of religious government of the power and right of religion Reason may agree says an anonymous author in reference to this subject that all ecclesiastical law and the power of an ecclesiastical court by which opinions are enforced or constrained is absurd that no case can be conceived in which such a law is well founded and that art can create nothing for which nature has not produced the seed But as reasonable as everything you say on this subject may be he apostrophizes me it directly contra dicts the faith of your fathers in the strict sense and the princi ples of the Jewish church which are not simply assumed by the commentators but are expressly laid down in the Books of Moses themselves According to common sense there can be no worship The Searching for Light and Right iri a Letter to Mr M Mendelssohn Berlin 1782 j JERUSALEM A 85 without conviction and every act of worship resulting from coer cion ceases to be one The observance of divine commandments from fear of the punishment attached to them is slavery which according to puri ed concepts can never be pleasing to God Yet it is true that Moses connects coercion and positive punishment with the nonobservance of duties related to the worship of God His statutory ecclesiastical law decrees the punishment of stoning and death for the sabbath breaker the blasphemer of the divine name and others who depart from his laws The whole ecclesi astical system of Moses he says elsewhere did not consist only of teaching and instruction in duties but was at the same time connected with the strictest ecclesiastical laws The arm of the church was provided with the sword of the curse Cursed be he it is written who does not obey all the words of this law to do them etc And this curse was in the hands of the first ministers of the church Ecclesiastical law armed with power has always been one of the principal cornerstones of the Jewish religion it self and a primary article in the credal system of your fathers How then can you my dear Mr Mendelssohn remain an adher ent of the faith of your fathers and shake the entire structure by removing its cornerstones when you contest the ecclesiastical law that has been given through Moses and purports to be founded on divine revelation This objection cuts me to the heart I must admit that the no tions given here of Judaism except for some indiscretion in the terms used are taken to be correct even by many of my coreli gionists Now if this were the truth and I were convinced of it I would indeed shamefully retract my propositions and bring rea son into captivity under the yoke of but nol Why should I dis simulate Authority can humble but not instruct it can suppress reason but not put it in fetters Were it true that the word of God so manifestly contradicted my reason the most I could do would be to impose silence upon my reason But my unrefuted argu ments would nevertheless reappear in the most secret recesses of my heart be transformed into disquieting doubts and the 86 doubts would resolve themselves into childlike prayers into fer vent supplications for illumination 1 would call out with the Psalmist 39 JERUSALEM Lord send me Thy light Thy truth that they may guide and bring me unto Thy holy mountain unto Thy dwelling place It is in any event harsh and o ensive to impute to me as do the anonymous Searcher for Light and Right and Mr Morschel the nonanonymous author of a postscript to the work of the Searcher the odious intention of overthrowing the religion I profess and of renouncing it surreptitiously as it were though not expressly Imputative inferences like these ought to be ban ished forever from the intercourse of learned men Not everyone who holds a certain opinion is prepared to accept at the same time all the consequences owing from it even if they are ever so correctly deduced Imputations of this kind are hateful and lead only to bitterness and strife by which truth rarely gains anything Indeed the Searcher goes so far as to address me in the follow ing manner Is it possible that the remarkable step you have now taken could actually be a step toward the ful llment of the wishes which Lavater formerly addressed to you After that appeal you must undoubtedly have reflected further on the subject of Chris tianity and with the impartiality of an incorruptible searcher after truth weighed more exactly the value of the Christian sys tems of religion which lie before your eyes in manifold forms and modi cations Perhaps you have now come closer to the faith of the Christians having torn yourself from the servitude of iron churchly bonds and having commenced teaching the liberal sys tem of a more rational worship of God which constitutes the true character of the Christian religion thanks to which we have es caped coercion and burdensome ceremonies and thanks to which we no longer link the true worship of God either to Samaria or Jerusalem but see the essence of religion in the words of our JERUSALEM 87 teacher wherever the true adorers of God pray in spirit and in truth This suggestion is advanced with sufficient solemnity and pathos But my dear sir shall I take this step without rst de liberating whether it will indeed extricate me from the confusion in which you think I nd myself If it be true that the corner stones of my house are dislodged and the structure threatens to collapse do I act wisely if I remove my belongings from the lower to the upper oor for safety Am I more secure there Now Chris tianity as you know is built upon Judaism and if the latter falls it must necessarily collapse with it into one heap of ruins You say that my conclusions undermine the foundation of Judaism and you offer me the safety of your upper floor must I not suppose that you mock me Surely the Christian who is in earnest about light and truth will not challenge the Jew to a ght when there seemsto be a contradiction between truth and truth between Scripture and reasonHe will rather join him in an efforte toquotdis cover the groundlessness of the contradiction For this is their com mon concern Whatever else they have to settle between them selves may be postponed to a later time For the present they must join forces to avert the danger and either discover the paralogism or show that it is only a seeming contradiction that has frightened them I could in this way avoid the trap without engaging in any further discussion with the Searcher But what advantage would I derive from such a subterfuge His associate Mr Morschel without knowing me personally has seen all too deeply into my game As he avers he discovered in the rebuked preface slight indications which lead him to conclude that I am as far removed from the religion into which I was born as from the one which he received from his fathers To substantiate his assumption after referring to p IV 1 21 where I mention together in one line pagans Jews Moslems and adherents of natural religion and ask for tolerance for all of them p V 1 8 in which I speak again of tolerance for naturalists and nally p XXXVII 1 13 88 jEBUSALEM where I speak of eternal truths which religion should teach he literally quotes the following passage Reason s house of wor ship needs no locked doors It does not have to guard anything inside nor does it have to prevent anyone from entering Who ever wishes to be a quiet observer or to participate is most wel come to the devout in his hour of edi cation One sees that in Mr M61schel s opinion no adherent of revelation would plead so openly for toleration of naturalists or speak so loudly of eternal truths which religion should teach and that a true Christian or Jew should hesitate before he calls his house of prayer reason s house of devotion I certainly do not know what could have led him to these ideas yet they contain the entire ground of his assumption and induce him as he says not to invite me to profess the religion he pquotro fesses or to refute it if I am unable to join it but to entreat me in the name of all who have the cause of truth at heart to express myself clearly and distinctly with respect to what must always be the most important thing for man His intention he assures me p is certainly not to convert me nor does he wish to be the cause of objections against the religion from which he expects contentment in this life and unlimited felicity thereafter Nevertheless he would very much like What do I know of what the dear man I does not want and nevertheless still wants In the rst place therefore in order to calm the kindhearted author of this letter let me state I have never publicly contested the Christian reli gion nor shall I ever engage in dispute with its true adherents And lest one should again accuse me of having wished by this declaration to intimate as it were that I have in my hands tri umphantweapons with which to combat this faith if I were so inclined that the Jews possess secret information hidden docu ments which throw a different light on the facts than the one in which the Christians present them or other such pretenses the likes of which one considered us capable of inventing or actually imputed to us in order to remove any suspicion of this kind once and for all I hereby testify before the eyes of the public that I JERUSALEM 89 at least have nothing new to advance against the faith of the Christians that as far as I know we are not acquainted with any other accounts of the historical facts and can present no other documents than those which are universally known that I there fore for my part have nothing to advance that has not already been stated and repeated countless times by Jews and naturalists and to which the opposite party has not replied time and again It seems to me that in the course of so many centuries and par ticularly in our own which is so fond of writing enough has been said and resaid in this matter Since the parties have nothing new to adduce it is high time to close the books Let him who has eyes see let him who has reason examine and live according to his conviction What is the use of champions standing by the road side and offering battle to every passerby Too much talk about a matter does not render it any clearer but rather obscures what ever faint light of truth there is Take any proposition you please and talk write or argue about it for or against it often and long enough and you can be sure that it will continue to lose more and more of whatever clearness it may once have possessed Too much detail obstructs the view of the whole Mr Morschel has therefore nothing to fear Through me he shall certainly not be come the cause of objections against a religion from which so many of my fellow men expect contentment in this life and un limited felicity thereafter I must however also do justice to his searching eye What he saw was in part not wrong It is true that I recognize no eternal truths other than those that are not merely comprehensible to human reason but can also he demonstrated and veri ed by hu man powers Yet Mr Morschel is misled by an incorrect concep tion of Judaism when he supposes that I cannot maintain this without departing from the religion of my fathers On the con trary I consider this an essential point of the Jewish religion and believe that this doctrine constitutes a characteristic difference between it and the Christian one To say it brie y I believe thatquot Judaism knows of no revealed religion in the sense in which go JERUSALEM Christians understand this term The Israelites possess a divine legislation laws commandments ordinances rules of life instruc tion in thejwill of God as to how they should conduct themselves in order to attain temporal and eternal felicity Propositions and prescriptions of this kind were revealed to them by Moses in s a miraculous and supernatural manner but no doctrinal opinions no saving truths no universal propositions of reason These the Eternal reveals to us and to all other men at all times through nature and thing but never through word and script Iquot I fear that this may be astonishing and again seem new and harsh to some readers Invariably little attention has been paid to this difference one has taken supernatural legislation for a supernatural revelation of religion and spoken of Judaism as if it were simply an earlier revelation of religious propositions and doctrines necessary for man s salvation I shall therefore have to explain myself more fully In order to avoid being misunderstood I must ascend to prior fundamental ideas so that my reader and I will set out from the same position and be able to proceed at the same pace One calls eternal truths those propositions which are not sub ject to time and remain the same in all eternity They are either necessary in themselves immutable or contingent that is their permanence is based either on their essence they are true in this and no other way because they are conceivable in this and no other way or on their reality they are universally true they exist in this and no other way because they became real in this and no other way because of all the possible truths of their kind they are the best in this and no other way In other words necessary as well as contingent truths ow from a common source the source of all truth the former from the intellect the latter from the will of God The propositions of necessary truths are true be cause God represents them to himself in this and no other way the contingent because God approved them and considered them to be in conformity with his wisdom in this and no other way Examples of the rst kind are the propositions of pure mathe JERUSALEM 91 matics and of the art of logic examples of the second are the gen eral propositions of physics and psychology the laws of nature according to which this universe the world of bodies and the world of spirits is governed The former are immutable even for the Omnipotent because God himself cannot render his in nite intellect changeable the latter however are subject to the quotwill of God and are immutable only quotinsofar as it pleases his holy will that is insofar as they are in accord with his intentions His om nipotence can introduce other laws in their place and can as often as it may be useful allow exceptions to occur Besides these eternal truths there are also temporal historical truths things which occurred once and may never occur again propositions which have become true at one point in time and space through a con uence of causes and effects and which there fore can only be conceived as true in respect to that point in time and space Of this kind are all the truths of history taken in its broadest sense things of remote ages which once took place and are reported to us but which we ourselves can never observe a Just as these classes of propositions and truths differ by nature so too do they di er in respect to their means of persuasion or in the manner in which men convince themselves and others of them The doctrines of the rst kind or the necessary truths are founded upon reason that is on an immutable coherence and a essential connection of ideas according to which they either pre suppose or exclude one another All mathematical and logical proofs are of this kind They all show the possibility or impossi bility of thinking certain ideas in association with others VVho ever wishes to instruct his fellow man in them must not commend them to his belief but should force them as it were upon his reason He should not cite authorities and invoke the credibility of men who maintained exactly the same thing but dissect the ideas into their essential elements and present them to his pupil one by one until his internal sense perceives their junctures and connec tions The instructions which we may give others is in Socrates 92 JERUSALEM apt phrase but a kind of midwifery We cannot put anything into their minds which is not actually contained there already yet we can facilitate the effort it would cost to bring to light what was hidden that is to render the unperceived perceptible and evident Besides reason the truths of the second class require observa tion as well If we wish to know what laws the Creator has pre scribed for his creation and according to what general rules the changes in it take place we must experience observe and test individual cases that is we must in the rst place make use of V 39 the evidence of the senses and next determine by means of rea son what many particular cases have in common Here we shall a indeed be obliged to accept many things on faith and authority from others Our life span is not su icient for us to experience everything ourselves and we must in many cases rely on credi ble fellow men we must assume that their observations and the experiments they profess to have made are correct But we trust them only insofar as we know and are convinced that the objects themselves still exist and that the experiments and observations may be repeated and tested by ourselves or by others who have the opportunity and the ability to do so Indeed if the result is important and has a considerable in uence on our own felicity or on that of others we are far less satis ed with the report of the most credible witnesses who tell us of the observations and experiments but we seek an opportunity to repeat them ourselves and to become convinced of them by their own evidence Thus the Siamese for instance may by all means trust the reports of the Europeans that in their part of the world water becomes solid and bears heavy burdens at certain times They may accept this on faith and at all events present it in their physics text books as an established fact on the assumption that the observation can always be repeated and veri ed But should there be any danger of lives being lost should they have to entrust themselves or their kith and kin to this solidi ed element they would be far less satis ed with the testimony of othersand would seek to convince themselves of its truth by various experiences observations and experiments of their own JERUSALEM p Historical truths however those passages which as it were occur but once in the book of nature must be explained by them selves or remain incomprehensible that is they can only be per ceived by means of the senses by those who were present at the time and place of their occurrence in nature Everyone else must accept them on authority and testimony Furthermore those who live at another time must rely altogether on the credibility of the testimony for the thing attested no longer exists The object itself and the direct observation of it to which they may wish to appeal are no longer to be found in nature The senses cannot convince them of the truth In historical matters the authority and credi bility of the narrator constitute the only evidence Without testi mony we cannot be convinced of any historical truth Without authority the truth of history vanishes along with the event itself As often therefore as it accords with the intentions of God that men39be convinced of any particular truth his wisdom grants them the most appropriate means of arriving at it In the case of a nec essary truth it grants them the requisite degree of reason If a law of nature is to be made known to them it gives them the spirit of observation and if a historical truth is to be preserved for posterity it con rms its historical certainty and places the nar rator s credibility beyond all doubt It seems to me that only where historical truths are concerned does it be t the supreme wisdom to instruct men in a human manner that is through words and writing and to cause extraordinary things and miracles to occur in nature whenever this is required to confirm authority and credibility Eternal truths on the other hand insofar as they are useful for men s salvation and felicity are taught by God in a manner more appropriate to the Deity not by sounds or written characters which are comprehensible here and there to this or that individual but through creation itself and its internal rela tions which are legible and comprehensible to all men Nor does He confirm them by miracles which effect only historical belief but He awakens the mind which He has created and gives it an opportunity to observe the relations of things to observe itself 94 A JERUSALEM and to become convinced of the truths which it is destined to understand here below I therefore do not believe that the powers of human reason are insu cient to persuade men of the eternal truths which are indis pensable to human felicity and that God had to reveal them in a supernatural manner Those who hold this view detract from the omnipotence or the goodness of God on the one hand what they believe they are adding to his goodness on the other He was in their opinion good enough to reveal to men those truths on which their felicity depends but not omnipotent or not good enough to grant them the powers to discover these truths themselvgsi More over by this assertion one makes the necessity of a supernatural revelation more universal than revelation itself If therefore mankind must be corrupt and miserable without revelation why has the far greater part of mankind lived without true revelation from time immemorial Why must the two Indies wait until it pleases the Europeans to send them a few comforters to bring them a message without which they can according to this opin 39 ion live neither virtuously nor happily To bring them a message which in their circumstances and state of knowledge they can neither rightly comprehend norproperly utilize According to the concepts of true Judaism all the inhabitants of the earth are destined to felicity and the means of attaining it are as widespread as mankind itself as charitably dispensed as the means of warding off hunger and other natural needs Here men are left to brute nature which inwardly feels its powers and uses them without being able to express itself in words and speech except in the most defective manner and as it were stammer ingly In another place they are aided by science and art shining brightly through words images and metaphors by which the perceptions of the inner sense are transformed into a clear knowl edge of signs and established as such As often as it was useful Providence caused wise men to arise in every nation on earth and granted them the gift of looking with a clearer eye into them selves as well as all around them to contemplate God s works and 95 communicate their knowledge to others But not at all times is this necessary or useful Very often as the Psalmist says the babbling of children and infants will su ice to confound the enemy The man who lives simply has not yet devised the objections which so greatly confuse the sophist For him the word nature the mere sound has not yet become a being that seeks to supplant the Deity He still knows but little of the difference between direct JERUSALEM and indirect causality and he hears and sees instead the allvivify ing power of the Deity everywhere in every sunrise in every rain that falls in every ower that blossoms and in every lamb that grazes in the meadow and rejoices in its own existence This mode of conceiving things has in it something defective but it leads directly to the recognition of an invisible omnipotent being to whom we owe all the good which we enjoy But as soon as an Epicurus or a Lucretius a Helv tius or a Hume criticizes the in adequacy of this mode of conceiving things and which is to be charged to human weakness strays too far in the other direction and wants to carry on a deceptive game with the word nature Providence again raises up other men among the people who sep arate prejudice from truth correct the exaggerations on both sides ar1dshow that truth canendure even if prejudice is rejected At bottom the material is always the samethere endowed with all the raw but vigorous juices which nature gives it here with the re ned good taste of art easier to digest but only for the weak On balance men s doings and the morality of their conduct can perhaps expect just as good results from the crude mode of con F ceiving things as from these re ned and puri ed concepts Many a people is destined by Providence to wander through this cycle of ideas indeed sometimes it must wander through it more than once but the quantity and weight of its morality may perhaps remain on balance about the same during all these various epochs I for my part cannot conceive of the education of the human race as my late friend Lessing imagined it under the in uence of Idon t knowwhich historian of mankind One pictures the collec tive entity of the human race as an individual person and believes 96 JEIRUSALEM that Providence sent it to school here on earth in order to raise it g from childhood to manhood In reality the human race is if the metaphor is appropriate in almost every century child adult and old man at the same time though in different places and regions of the world Here in the cradle it sucks the breast or lives on cream and milk there it stands in manly armor consuming the meat of cattle and in another place it leans on a cane once again without teeth Progress is for the individual man who is destined by Providence to spend part of his eternity here on earth Everyone goes through life in his own way One man s path takes him through owers and meadows another s across desolate plains or over steep mountains and past dangerous gorges Yet they all proceed on their journey making their way to the felicity for which they are destined But it does not seem to me to have been the purpose of Providence thatmankind as a whole advance steadily here below and perfect itself in the course of time This at least is not so well settled nor by any means so necessary for the vindication of God s providence as one is in the habit of thinking That we should again and again resist all theory and hypothe ses and want to speak of facts to hear nothing but of facts and yet should have the least regard for facts precisely where they matter most You want to divine what designs Providence has for mankind Do not frame hypotheses only look around you at what actually happens and if you can survey history as a whole at what has happened since the beginning of time This is fact this must have been part of the design this must have been decreed or at least admitted by Wisdom s plan Providence never misses its goal Whatever actually happens must have been its design from the beginning or part of it Now as far as the human race as a whole is concerned you will find no steady progress in its development that brings it ever closer to perfection Rather do we see the human race in its totality slightly oscillate it never took a few steps forward without soon afterwards and with redoubled speed sliding backto its previous position Most nations of the JERUSALEM 97 earth live for many centuries at the same stage of culture in the same twilight one which seems much too dim for our pampered eyes Now and then a dot blazes up in the midst of the great mass becomes a glittering star and traverses an orbit which now after a shorter now after a longer period brings it back again to its starting point or not far from it Individual man ad vances but mankind continually fluctuates within xed limits while maintaining on the whole about the same degree of mo rality in all periods the same amount of religion and irreligion of virtue and vice of felicity and misery the same result if one compares like with like of all these goods and evils as much as is required for the passage of the individual man in order that he might be educated here below and approach as closely as pos sible the perfection which is apportioned to him and for which he is destined S I return to my previous remark Judaism boasts of no exclusive revelation of eternal truths that are indispensable to salvation of no revealed religion in the sense in which that term is usually un derstood Revealed religion is one thing revealed legislation an other The voice which let itself be heard on Sinai on that great day did not proclaim39 I am the Eternal your God the necessary independent being omnipotent and omniscient that recompenses men in a future life according to their deeds This is the univer sal religion of mankind not Judaism and the universal religion of mankind without which men are neither virtuous nor capable of felicity was not to be revealed there In reality it could not have been revealed there for who was to be convinced of these eternal doctrines of salvation by the voice of thunder and the sound of trumpets Surely not the unthinking brutelike man whose own reflections had not yet led him to the existence of an invisible being that governs the visible The miraculous voice would not have instilled any concepts in him and therefore would not have convinced him Still less would it have convinced the sophist whose ears are buzzing with so many doubts and rumina tions that he can no longer hear the voice of common sense He 98 JERUSALEM demands rational proofs not miracles And even if the teacher of religion were to raise from the dust all the dead who ever trod the earth in order to con rm thereby an eternal truth the skeptic would say The teacher has awakened many dead yet I still know no more about eternal truth than I did before I know now that someone can do and pronounce extraordinary things but there may be several suchlike beings who do not think it proper to reveal themselves just at this moment And all this is still far removed from the in nitely sublime idea of a unique eternal Deity that rules the entire universe according to its unlimited will and discerns men s most secret thoughts in order to reward their deeds according to their merits if not here then in the hereafter Anyone who did not know this who was not imbued with these truths indispensable to human felicity and was not prepared to approach the holy mountain could have been stunned and over whelmed by the great and wonderful manifestations but he could not have been made aware of what he had not known before No All this was presupposed it was perhaps taught explained and placed beyond all doubt by human reasoning during the days of preparation And now the divine voice proclaimed l I am the Eternal yoursGod who brought you out of the land of Mizrayim who delivered you from bondage etc A historical truth on which this people s legislation was to be founded as well as laws was to be revealed here commandments and ordinances not eter nal religious truths I am the Eternal your God who made a covenant with your fathers Abraham Isaac and Jacob and swore to make of their seed a nation of my own The time for the ful llment of this promise has nally come To this end I redeemed you from Egyptian slavery with unheardof miracles and signs I am your Redeemer your Sovereign and King I also make a cove nant with you and give you laws by which you are to live and become a happy nation in the land that I shall give you All these are historical truths which by their very nature rest on historical evidence must be veri ed by authority and can be con rmed by miracles REPRINTED VVITH PERMISSION OF Cambridge University Press Herder Plzilosopzical Writings Letters For The Advancement Of Humanity 1 7937 by Von Herder transed Michael N Forster 2002 Cambridge University Press Pgs 380424 Letters for the Advancement of Humanity 17937 tenth collection Letter 1142 But why must peoples have effect on peoples in order to disturb each other s peace It is said that this is for the sake of progressively growing culture but what a completely different thing the book of history says Did those peoples of the mountains and steppes from northern Asia3 the eternal troublemakers of the world ever have it as their intention or were they ever in a position to spread culture Did not the Czaldaeans precisely put an end to a great part of the ancient majestic glory of western Asia Attila so many peoples who preceded or followed after him did they mean to advance the progressive formation lFortl7z39ldung of the human species Did they advance it Indeed the Phoenicians the Carthaginians with their renowned colo nies the Greeks themselves with their offshoot cities the Romans with their conquests did they have this purpose And if through the friction be tween peoples there perhaps spread here this art there that convenience do these really compensate for the evils which the pressing of the nations Herder intersperses his philosophical argument in this text with long stretches of poetry from various sources This poetry is omitted here both for reasons of space and because it is in a sense inessential to the philosophical argument though it is and is conceived by Herder to be quite im portant as an underscoring of his ethical sentiments and an instrument for their communication to the reader concerning which see my introduction The poetry s contents are brie y summarized in footnotes instead 2 This numbering continues from the previous nine collections of the work It is retained here for the convenience of readers comparing different editions etc 3 Ie the Huns and Mongols K380 Tenth Collection upon one another produced4 for the victor and the vanquished Who can depict the misery that the Greek and Roman conquests brought indirectly and directly5 for the circle of the earth that they encompassed Even Christianity as soon as it had effect on foreign peoples in the form of a state machine oppressed them terribly in the case of several it so mutilated their own distinctive character that not even one and a half millennia have been able to set it right Would we not wish for example that the spirits of the northern peoples of the Germans of the Gaels6 the S law and so forth might have developed without disturbance and purely out of themselves And what good did the crusades do for the Orient What happiness have they brought to the coasts of the Baltic Sea7 The old Prussians are destroyed Livonians Estonians and Latvians in the poorest condition still now curse in their hearts their subjugators the Germans What nally is to be said of the culture that has been brought by Spaniards Portuguese Englishmen and Dutchmen to the Eastand West Indies to Africa among the negroes into the peaceful islands of the southern world Do not all these lands more or less cry for revenge All the more for revenge since they have been plunged for an incalcu lable time into a progressively growing corruption All these stories lie open to View in travel decriptions they have also in part received vocal expression in connection with the trade in negroes About the Spanish cruelties about the greed of the English about the cold impudence of the Dutch of whom in the frenzy of the madness of conquest hero poems were written books have been written in our time which bring them so little honor that rather if a European collective spirit lived else where than in books we would have to be ashamed of the crime of abusing humanity before almost all peoples of the earth Let the land be named 3 The French work by F de Chastellux De laf licite publique ou considerations sur le sort des hommes dans les d1 e39rentes poques de l histoire On Public Happiness or Considerations on the Fate of M en in the Di hrent Epoch of History Amsterdam 1772 treats a theme to which enough attention cannot be paid What is the point of history if it does not show us the image of happy or unhappy of declining or ascending humanity 4 Reading gal for gahen 5 The phrase indirectly and directly is a form of hysteron proteron 6 Ie the Irish and Scottish Celts 7 This is an allusion to the Christianizing of the Prussians and the peoples of the Baltic in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries by German knightly orders 381 Political Philosophy T to which Europeans have come without having sinned against defense less trusting humanity perhaps for all aeons to come through injurious acts through unjust wars greed deceit oppression through diseases and harmful gifts Our part of the world must be called not the wise but the presumptuous pushing tricking part of the earth it has not cultivated but has destroyed the shoots of peoples own cultures wherever and however it could What generally is a foisted foreign culture a formation Bildung that does not develop out of a people s own dispositions and needs It oppressesand deforms or else it plunges straight into the abyss You poor sacri cial victims who were brought from the south sea islands to England in order to receive culture you are symbols of the good that Europeans communicate to other peoples generally It was there fore no otherwise than justly and wisely that the good Ch ienlung acted when he had the foreign vice king rapidly and politely shown the way out of his realm with a thousand res of celebration8 If only every nation had been clever and strong enough to show the Europeans this way If now we even blasphemously pretend that through these acts of injury to the world is ful lled the purpose of Providence which in deed we assert has given us power and cunning and tools precisely in order to become the robbers troublers agitators and destroyers of the whole world who is there who would not shudder at this misan thropic impudence To be sure we are even with our stupidities and deeds of vice tools in the hands of Providence however not to our credit but perhaps precisely in order that through a restless and hellish b See among a hundred others the humane Levairllan s recent journeys into the interior of Africa original French edition Serena voyage dans l inte39rieur de l Afrique alans les ann es I 78 35 Berlin 1796 with Reinhold Forster 395 notes Not only on the Cape of Good Hope this worthy scholar says vol I p 69 but also in North America on the Hudson Bay in Senegal on the Gambia in India in short everywhere whither Europeans reach they cheat the poor natives in trade Especially England the new Carthage makes the name of the Europeans detested in all other parts of the world Thus Forster And if only this cheating alone were the end of it The yeast from Europe has caused fermentations and preserves ferrnentations in all parts of the world Editor s note Such editor s notes are Herder s own so labeled by him in keeping with the literary ction of a diversity of letter writers writing the main text Unbiased and unexaggerated remarks about this are to be found in Reinhold Forster s notes as on several so on Hamilton s Voyage Around the World Berlin 1794 3 The Chinese troops of the emperor Ch ien Iung 173696 defeated the English who had come to Tibet expelled them and pursued them over the Himalayas to Nepal 382 Tenth Collection activity poor amidst the greatest Wealth tortured by desires enervated by luxurious sloth we may die in a nauseating and slow way from the stolen poison V And if several moderns stain all the sciences with presumptions of such a sort if they nd the whole history of humanity to be aiming at the situation that on no other path than this can the nations experience salvation and solace should one not here feel most painfully sorry for our whole species One human being goes the saying is for the other a wolf a god an angel a devil What are the human peoples that affect each other for each other The negro depicts the devil as white and the Latvian does not want to enter into heaven as soon as there are Germans there Why are you pouring water on my head said that dying slave to the missionary So that you enter into heaven I do not want to enter into any heaven where there are whites he spoke turned away his face and died Sad history of humanityl9 9 At this point in the text there follow several pages of Negro Idylls so titled with bitter irony based on J de Crevecoeur Letters of an American Farmer London 1782 and in keeping with the spirit of Herder s preceding critical observations concerning slavery The Fruit of the Treequot tells the sorry story of some whites cruel killing of a negro slave who had dared to defend his fiancee against a white seducer The Right Hand tells the sad story of a noble negro slave verbally intervening to prevent his white master from unjustly killing another slave receiving in punishment the command that he should perform the execution himself and cutting off his own right hand rather than do so The poem is conceived as an example against collaboration Herder in a footnote likens this noble negro s stance to that of certain Frenchmen who nobly resisted the royal order to kill during the I 572 St Bartholomew s Day Massacre of Protestants in France The Brothers tells the moving story of a negro slave who was reared with a white man like his brother and loves him dearly but who in later years is treated callously by him and attacked by him and who in the resulting struggle though winning the upper hand kills not the white man but in his hurt himself A nal verse of the poem notes that similar consequences of hurt and even death also result from the imperious treatment of social inferiors by social superiors in Europe Zimeo tells the story of a noble negro slave Zimeo who during a slave revolt against whites in Jamaica plays a bloodless just and moderating role He comes to a plantation owned by whites to whose goodness their negro slaves testify and whom Zimeo therefore warmly praises He then recounts the pitiful story of having been taken from his home in Africa by slave traders along with his guardian and the latter s daughter who was by then his own wife and pregnant and of subsequently being brutally separated from them However it turns out that they are on the very plantation in question and so the poem ends with a joyous and grateful reunion The poem told from a white man s standpoint concludes with his benevolent wish that the reunited family might nd their way back home to Africa The Birthday tells of a kindly Quaker who celebrates his birthday by freeing a longserving negro slave of his on generous terms and who in the process makes noble remarks about freedom about God being the father of all men and against the slave trade The loyal slave is reluctant to leave his good master and so the latter proposes that now free he should continue to work for him but now as a well paid worker and friend a proposal which the slave gratefully accepts The poem ends stressing that the Quaker considered his actions to be not a gift but simple duty 383 Political Philosophy Letter I I 5 Certainly a dangerous gift power without kindness inventive slyness without understanding The corruptedly cultivated human being wants only to be able to have to rule to enjoy without considering to what end he is able what he has and whether what he calls enjoyment does not eventually turn into a killing of all enjoyment What philosophy will free the nations of Europe from the stone of Sisyphus from the wheel of Ixion to which a greedy politics has damned them In novels we cry for the butter y whose wings get wetted by the rain in conversations we bubble over with great sentimental dispositions and for this moral corruption of our species from which all evil arises we have no eye We slaughter to greed to pride to our slothful boredom a thousand sacri cial victims who do not cost us a single tear One hears of thirty thousand human beings left dead on the battle eld for nothing as one hears of cockchafers that have been shaken down of a eld of crops ruined by hail and one will perhaps feel sorrier about the latter disaster than about them Or one expresses disapproval of what happened in Peru Ismail Warsaw while as soon as our prejudice our greed for gain nds a role in the matter one wishes something similar and worse with grim anger This is indeed how it is It is a well known and sad saying that the human species never appears less deserving of love than when it affects one another by notions But are the machines that affect one another in this way even nations or does one misuse their name Nature begins from families Families combine with each other they form a tree with twigs stem and roots Each root digs its way into the ground and seeks its nutrition in the earth just as each twig right up to the top seeks it in the air They do not separate from each other they do not fall over each other Nature has divided peoples through language ethics customs often through mountains seas rivers and deserts it so to speak did everything This refers to the conquest and plunder of Peru by the Spaniards under Pizarro in 15313 quot Ismail is a port city on an arm of the Danube that was attacked three times by the Czar s troops during the 176874 and 17901 Russian Turkish Wars and destroyed 2 During the eighteenth century Warsaw passed from Swedish control to several periods of Russian control then after a bloody uprising against the Russians in 1794 passed back into Russian control later that same year before in 179 5 becoming a Prussian possession 384 Tenth Collection in order that they should for a long time remain separated from each other and become rooted in themselves Precisely contrary to the World unifying plan of that Nimrod the languages got confused as the old legend says the peoples divided from each other The diversity of languages ethics inclinations and ways of life was destined to become a A bar against the presumptuous lz nhz39ng together of the peoples a dam against foreign inundations for the steward of the world was concerned that for the security of the whole each people and race preserved its impress its character peoples should live beside each other not mixed up with and on top of each other oppressing each other Hence no passions are as mightily effective in everything living as those that aim at self o efense At the risk of her life with manyfold multiplied forces a hen protects her young against vulture and goshawk she has forgotten herself has forgotten her wealcness and feels herself only as the mother of her race of a young people Thus all nations which get called savages whether they defend themselves against foreign visitors with cunning or with violence It is a poor manner of thought that holds this against them indeed even classi es peoples according to the passivity with which they allow themselves to be deceived and capturedd Did their land not belong to them And is it not the greatest honor that they can accord the European when they consume him at their feast I do not see why they should believe themselves created in order to stand more precisely recorded in Bz39isehz39ng s Geography in order to delight the idle European in copper engravings and to enrich the greed of a trading company with the products of their land It is hence unfortunately true that a series of works English French Spanish and German authored in this presumptuous covetous con ceit are indeed written in a European manner but certainly not humanely The nation that expresses itself in this without any doubts at all is well known Rule Britannia rule the waves 4 many people believe that with this slogan there is given to them the coasts the lands the nations and the riches of the world The captain and his sailor are it is believed the main wheels of creation by means of which Providence effects its d It seems to me that the letter here takes aim at a passage in Henry Home 395 history of humanity ie Sketches on the History of Man I774 which despite a great wealth of empirical evidence in several respects may be lacking in rm rst principles In most expeditions of commerce and conquest peoples get ranked in the same way Editot s note 3 See Genesis to It 4 Herder writes this in English 385 Political Philosophy 532 eternal work exclusively to the honor of the British nation and for the advantage of the East India Company Such calculations and self eva luations may serve politically and for the parliament but to the sense and feeling of humanity they are intolerable Absolutely so when we poor innocent Germans echo the British in this respect lamentation and misery What is a measuring of all peoples by the measure of us Europeans sup posed to be at all Where is the means of comparison That nation which you call savage or barbaric is in essentials much more humane than you and where it perished under the pressure of its clime where its senses were unhinged by an organization peculiar to it or by special circumstances in the course of its history then however let each of us beat his own breast and look for the beam in his own brain 5 All works which nourish the already in itself intolerable pride of the Europeans through distorted G unproved or manifestly unprovable assertions the genius of humanity throws them back with contempt and says An unhuman Unmensch wrote them You nobler human beings to whichever people you belong Las Casas F nelon you two good St Pierres many an honest Qualeer Vlontesquieu Filangieri whose rst principles aim not at contempt for but at the valuing and happiness of all human nations you travelers who like Pages 6 and others knew how to place yourselves into the ethics and mode of life of several indeed all nations and found it not without value to consider our earth as a sphere on which along with all the climes and their products there also must be and will be many kinds of peoples in every condition representatives and guardian angels of humanity who is there from your midst with your bene cent manner of thought who will give us a history of them of the sort that we need When Dunbar by whom several contributions to the history of humanity are also well known among us Germans read the True Basis of Civil Government by D Tucker a zealous author for the state he said When the benevolence of this writer is exalted into39charity when the spirit of his religion he was a priest Dean of Bristol corrects the rumor of his philosophy he will acknowledge in the most untutored tribes some glimmerings of humanity and some decisive indications of a moral nature One might wish for many an author this spirit of acknowledging humanity in the human being Eolitorls note Irmischer suggests plausibly that the reference here should in fact be to J Tucker Dean of Gloucester A Treatise of Civil Government London 1781 5 This is of course an echo of Matthew 7 339 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother s eye but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye 6 P M F de Pages 174893 French explorer The other men just listed are all discussed by Herder below and some supplementary information about them will be given in footnotes there 386 Tenth Collection Editor s 7 afterward Since it might be pleasant for various readers to know something more about the advocates of humanity just mentioned than merely their names I therefore add this little towards elucidation of the letter De Las Cosos Brother Bartolom 8 bishop of Chiopos was the noble man who not only in his short narrative of the destruction of the Indian nation 9 but also in writings to the highest courts and to the king himself exposed to light the atrocities that his Spaniards perpetrated against the natives of the Indian nation People accused him of exaggeration and a heated imagination but no one convicted him of lying And why should what gets called heated imagination not rather have been a noble re of sympathy with the unfortunate without which he would indeed not have written and also not thus Time has justi ed him and convicted his opponent Sepulvedo more than himself of untruth That he did not achieve much with his representations does not reduce his merit let peace be with his ashes gtllt F nelon s2 just and loving manner of thought is universally known Zealously as he was devoted to his church and therefore passed harsh judgment on the Protestantsf because he did not know them equally did he loathe even as a missionary for their conversion their persecution Above all he says to the knight St George never force your subjects to change their manner of religious service A human power is not able to overcome that impenetrable rampart freedom of the heart It only produces hypocrites When kings instead of protecting it interfere with commands in the worship of God then they reduce it to serfdom In his I nstruetion for Guiding the Conscience of ct Kingg he gives counsels which if they were followed would forestall every revolution I quote only a few of them merely as the preceding letter requires them f This is visible partly in his pastoral writings partly in the essays of his pupil the duke of Burgundy 3 Directions pour la conscience d un roi reprinted in the Hague 1747 Originally printed in 1734 with the different title Examen de lo conscience of 341 mi 7 The editor here is again Herder himself this being part of the overall literary ction of multiple independent letter writers 398 Bartolom de Las Casas 1474I566 Spanish priest and historian quot9 De Las Casas Brevisima relation de la destruction tie 15 Indies Short Account of the Destruction of the Indian Nation 1552 2 F de Salignac de la Mothe F nelon 16511715 387 P0lz39tz ml Philosophy Did you thoroughly investigate your state s true need and Compare it with the unpleasantness of the levies before you burdened your people with them Did you not call necessity of the state what only served to atter your craving for honor Need of the state what was merely your personal presumption You must realize personal pretensions only at your own private expense and at most expect what your people s pure love voluntarily contributes thereto When Charles VIII went to Naples in order to lay claim to the succession of the house of Anjou he undertook the war at his own expense the state did not believe itself obligated to take this on I Have you done no injustice to foreign nations A poor unfortunate comes to the gallows because in deepest desperation he robbed a few talers on the highway and a conqueror that is a man who unjustly takes away lands from his neighbor gets praised as a hero To exploit a meadow or a vineyard without permission is seen as an unforgivable sin unless the harm is compensated for to usurp cities and provinces is assessed as nothing To take a eld away from an individual neighbor is a crime to take a land away from a nation is an innocent glory yielding deed Where is justice here Will God judge thus Dost thou believe that I will he like thee Must one only be just in small things not in big Millions of human beings who constitute a nation are they less our brothers than a single human being May one do an injustice to millions concerning a province that one might not do to an individual concerning a meadow If because you are the stronger you force a neighbor to sign the peace dictated by you in order to avoid greater evils then he signs as the traveler reaches his purse to the highwayman because he has the pistol before his chest Peace treaties are null and void not only when the dominant power has extorted injustices in them but also when they get cunningly composed in an ambiguous way in order when the occasion arises to exploit a favorable ambiguity Your enemy is your brother you cannot forget that without renouncing humanity itself In peace treaties it is no longer a matter of weapons and war but of peace of justice humaneness good faith To deceive a neighboring people in a peace treaty is more dishonorable and punishable than to cheat a private person in a contract With ambiguities and insidious expressions in a peace treaty one already prepares the seed for future wars that is one brings powder lltegs under houses which one inhabits 388 Tenth Collection When the question of war arose did you investigate and have inves tigated and this indeed by those with the greatest understanding who least atter you what sort of right to war you had Or did you not have in View in the matter your personal honor that of nally having undertaken something that would distinguish you from other princes As though it were an honor for princes to disturb the happiness of peoples whose fa thers they are supposed to be As though a paterfamilias earned quotrespect for himself through actions that make his children unhappy As though a king should have hopes of glory from any other source but virtue that is from justice and from good government of his peoplel These are a few of F nelon s tl2z rty sz39x articles which should be a morn ing and evening lesson for all fathers of a people His Conversations his Telemacl2us 3 indeed all his works are written in the same purpose the genius of humaneness speaks in them without arti ciality or ornamenta tion I love my family says the noble man more than myself more than my family my fatherland more than my fatherland humanity The Abb St Pz39erre24 is unjustly known for almost nothing but his project for etermzlpeace 25 a very goodnatured indeed noble weakness which though is not as entirely weakness as people think In this proposal as in some others he was deliberately somewhat pedantic he repeated himself so that as he said if he had gone unheard ten times he would be listened to the eleventh time he wrote drily and did not want to give pleasure There can hardly be a more decent manner of thought than that which the Abb St Pierre expresses in all his writings Universal reason and justice virtue and bene cence were for him the rule the tendency of our species and its slogan donner et pardonner give and forgive For this did 1 Generally he did not think much of mere works of delight he believed that with our great grandchildren they would be completely out of fashion When such a poem was read out to great applause and he was asked what he thought of this work of art he answered Eh mais cela est encore fort beau But indeed that is still very ne and meant that this encore still would not last for ever See the Eloge de St Pierre Eulogy of St Pierre by d Alembert 2 The above title of and quotations from F nelon s work are here translated from Herder s German not from the French The same is true of the quotations from other French authors that follow 392 Dialogues divers entre les Cardimzux Richelieu et M azarin et autres I700 23 Les aventures dc T l maque I699 24 CI Caste Abb de Saint Pierre 16581743 25 Projet pour rendre la paix perp tuelle en Europe I7I3 I7 389 Political Philosophy f he read for this did he look and hear without presumption An inaugural speech on entering the Academy he said deserves to have at most two hours devoted to it I devoted four to it and think that is decent enough our time belongs to the bene ting of the state Concerning bodily pain he did not think like a Stoic but considered it a true indeed perhaps the only evil which reason could neither avert nor weaken Most other evils he believed were avertable or merely of an imagined value To free one s fellow human beings from pain was in his view the richest act of bene cence One is not obligated to amuse others but indeed to deceive no one and thus he strove most strictly for the truth Solely occupied with removing what harmed the common good he was an enemy of wars of war glory and of every oppression of the people but he nevertheless believed that the world had suffered less through the terrible wars of the Romans than through the Tiheriuses the Neros I do not know he says whether Caligula Domitian and their kind were gods only this do I know that they were not human beings I indeed believe that they may have been suf ciently praised during their lifetimes for the good that they produced it is only a shame though that their peoples perceived nothing of this good He often expressed the beautiful maxim of Francis the F irst26 Regents dictate to the peoples the laws to the regents Since he was not permitted to marry he educated children without any vanity solely for usefulness for bene t He looked forward to a time when free of prejudices the simplest Capuchin monk would know as much as the most skilled Jesuit and considered this time however long it might be postponed to be unpreventable He accused human beings sloth and bad habits but especially despotism as willful causes of this delay for even the sciences he believed were loved only on the condition that they not bene t the people Thus did that Carthusian monk when a stranger praised his Carthusian monastery for its beauty say For passersby it is certainly beautiful St Pierre saw another cause of the postponement of good in the world in the fact that so few human beings knew what they wanted and among these still fewer had the courage to know that they know it to want what they want Even concerning the most indifferent things in literature people he holds follow received alien opinions and lack the courage to say what 26 Francis the First 151547 king of France 390 Tenth Collection they themselves think To counteract this he believes there is only one means that each man of science should compose a testament and at least have the courage to be truthful after his death He wrote an essay concerning how even sermons could become use ful and was especially hostile to the Mohammedan religion because it favors ignorance as a matter of basic principle and makes the peoples animalistic abrutz39ert27 Christian persecutors he believed ought to be brought onto the the atrical stage as fools if people were unwilling to lock them up as lunatics At the end of his essays he often put the motto Paradis aux bienfaisantslzg And it is certain that this man who thought equally glez39chclenkena e29 and well zz7olzlderzleemle3 right up to his last moment enjoyed this inner paradise When in his last breaths he was asked whether he did not have anything more to say he said Agdying man has little to say unless he speaks from vanity or from weakness During his life he never spoke from these motives and oh might every letter of what he then wrote in a narrow national horizon one day be ful lled in the widest of scopes According to his conviction it will be gtllt His namesake Bernardin de St Pierre3 a genuine pupil of F nelon wrote every one of his works right down to the smallest narrative in the spirit of love of humankind and simplicity of heart He likes to combine nature with the history of human beings whose goodness he narrates so gladly and whose badness he everywhere narrates with leniency I will think he saysl that I have bene ted the human species if this weak depiction of the condition of the unfortunate blacks can spare them a single crack of the whip and the Europeans they who in Europe campaign against tyranny and compose such beautiful moral essays cease in India to be i Oeuvres de morale et de politique de l Abb de St Pierre Charles Ir n e Castel vols 116 Rotterdam 1741 Journey to the Islands France and Bourbon Altenburg 1774 preface p 3 Original French title Voyage a I isle de France 1773 27 The German word abrutiert comes from French abrutir to make stupid like a beast une brute 28 Paradise for those who do good 29 The adjective gleztzdenkend could mean either I thinking the same way or 2 thinking in an egalitarian way or 3 most likely both 3 The word well here is meant not only in the sense properly but also in the sense bene cially mohldenkend in a sense modeled on molzltueml blen zisant 3 J H Bernardin de St Pierre 17371814 French poet 391 Political Philosophy the cruellest tyrants Written in an equally noble spirit are hisPaul and Virginia the Co eehouse of Surat the Indian Straw Hat and the Studies of Naturequot One lives so gladly with souls of this sort and rejoices that there still exist a few of them The Quakers whom the letter mentions bring to mind a series of mer itorious men from Penn on who have done more for the benefit of our species than a thousand heroes and pompous world improvers The most active efforts for the abolition of the shameful trade in negroes and slavery are their work in which connection still though quite gen erally Methodists and Presbyterians all the weak or strong voices from every land when they made some appeal about this to the deafest of ears and the hardest of human hearts to greedy traders retain their merit also A history of the abolition of the trade in negroes and of the discon tinuation of slavery in all parts of the World will one day be a beautiful monument in the courtyard before the temple of universal humaneness whose construction awaits future times several names of Quakers will shine on the columns of this courtyard with quiet glory In our century it seems to be the rst duty to banish the spirit of frivolity which destroys everything truly good and great This the Quakers did gtllt lIontesquieu deserved to be named among the advancers of the good of humankind for his rst principles have beyond fashion spread good even given that he may not have attained the level of the entire eulogy that Voltaire devoted to him It was not due to the noble man s will many chapters of his work are as its motto says ores sine semine nati owers which lacked a ground and genuine seeds but many of them are salutary owers and fruits His Persian Letters his Treatise on the Greatness and the Decline of the Romans indeed even his smallest essays are not lacking 39 Etudes de la nature Paris 1776 There is now expected from him a work Harmonie de la nature pour servir aux l ments de la morale The Harmony of Nature as Serving the Elements of Morality which can only be written in a good spirit He behaved wisely during the Revolution 39 The eulogy is well known L humanit avait perdu ses titres Montesquieu les a retrouv s Humanity had lost its titles Montesquieu found them again Whatever may be said to the contrary humanity owes much to Voltaire himself A series of essays on history on philosophy and legislation on the enlightenment of the understandinghetc sometimes in a mocking and sometimes in 1 didactic tone are written for humanity His Alzire Zaire etc likewise Editor s note 392 Tenth Collection in this either Several chapters of his work On the Spirit of the Laws are in everyone s memory Montesquieu had many and great pupils the good F ilangieri32 is among their number too Since the preceding letter does not mention the Scots and English a Bacon Harrington Milton Sidney Locke Ferguson Smith Vlillar and others doubtless because it did not want to repeat a much praised glory but by contrast names several Neapolitan authors let it be permitted to renew the rather forgotten remembrance of a man who in his town before others laid the foundation for a school of human science in the true sense of the word Giamhattista Vico An expert on and admirer of the ancients he followed their footsteps by seeking common rst principles in physics moral theory law and international law Plato Tacitus and among mod erns Bacon and Grotius were as he says himself his favorite authors In his New Science he sought the principle of the humanity of peoples dell umanita delle nazioni and found this in foresight provvidenza and wisdom He located all the elements of the science of divine and human things in cognition volition capacity nosse velle posse their sole princi ple being the understanding whose eye is reason illuminated by the light of eternal truth He founded the chair of these sciences in Naples which was later occupied by Genooesi Galantif We have received splendid works from this region about the philosophy of humanity about the economy of the peoples since the coast of Naples more than any other lands in Italy blesses and values freedom of thought Letter 116 You wish a natural history of humanity written in a purely humane spirit I wish it too For we are in agreement that a gatheredtogether description of peoples according to so called races Rassen33 varieties modes of play 39 System of Legislation Anspach 1784 Original Italian title La scienza della legislazione quot Prinzipi di una scienza nuova rst published 72 5 Antonio Genovesi Political Economy is familiar in German through a translation Galanti Description of the Two Sicilies likewise The former s Storia del commercio della gran Brettagna by Cary and his textbooks show just as much knowledge as philosophical and active citizenly spirit He also published an edition of Montesquieu with notes Editor s note 3 G Filangieri 1752 8398 Italian jurist 33 Herder here uses the same word Kant had used in his 1775 essay Von den verschicdenen Rassen der Menschen a founding work in the dubious modern science of racial typology This is quite striking because when Herder himself talks about races as he has sometimes been translated as doing in this volume zute de mieux he virtually always uses the quite different word Geschlechter 393 Political Philosophy jne ways of mating etc does not yet deserve this name Let me pursue the dream of such a history 1 Above all let one be unbiased like the genius of humanity itself let one have no pet tribe no favorite people on the earth Such a preference often seduces one into ascribing too much good to the favored nation and too much bad to others If in the extreme case the beloved people were merely a collective name Celts Semites Cushites34 etc that has perhaps nowhere existed whose origins and perpetuation cannot be proved then one would have written at sheer wild random ins Blame des Himmels35 2 Let one still less contemptuously insult any people that has never insulted us Even if authors may not hope that the good rst principles which they spread will everywhere nd quick acceptance caution against giving rise to dangerous rst principles is their greatest duty People read ily draw support from contemptuous judgments about other peoples in order to justify dark deeds savage inclinations Pope Nicholas the Fifth already a long time ago gave away the unknown world he ponti cally gave permission to the white and nobler human beings to turn all unbe lievers into slaves We arrive too late with our papal bulls Kakistocracy3quot maintains its rights in practice without us having to authorize it to do so theoretically and therefore having to invert the history of human ity Should for example someone express the opinion that if it can be demonstrated that no coffee sugar rice or tobacco plantations can survive without negroes then the legitimacy of the trade in negroes is simultane ously proved in that this trade bene ts more than harms the whole human species that is the white nobler human beings then a rst principle of this sort would immediately destroy the whole history of humanity Ad maiorem Dei gloriam37 it would privilege the most impudent presump tions the cruellest usurpations Rather let one not put into the hands of any people on earth on grounds of innate superiority the scepter over other peoples much less the sword and the slave whip 3 The nature investigator presupposes no order of rank among the crea tures that he observes all are equally dear and valuable to him Likewise the natureinvestigator of humanity The negro has as much right to a word which points to common ancestry and culture rather than to racial type There is therefore in all probability a critical allusion to Kant s essay here 34 For the Cushites see Genesis 10 35 Literally into the sky s blue 36 Ie rule by the worst This is presumably another Herderian neologism 37 For the greater glory of God 394 Tenth Collection consider the white man a degenerate a born albino freak as when the white man considers him a beast a black animal Likewise the native American likewise the Mongol In that period when everything was take ing form nature developed the form of the human type as manifoldly as her workshop required and allowed She developed in form not various seeds a word which is empty and which contradicts the formation of humankind but various forces in various proportions as many of them as lay in her type and as the various climes of the earth could develop in form The negro the native American the Mongol has gifts talents preformed dispositions that the European does not have Perhaps the sum is equal 7 only in different proportions and compensations We can be certain that what in the human type was able to develop on our round earth has developed or will develop for who could prevent it from doing so The original form the prototype of humanity hence lies not in a single nation of a single region of the earth it is the abstracted concept from all exemplars of human nature in both hemispheres The Cherokee and the Husrz2ana38 the ongol and the Gonaqua39 are as much letters in the great word of our species as the most civilized gehildetste Englishman or Frenchman i 4 Each nation must therefore be considered solely in its place with everything that it is and has arbitrary separatings slingings into a con fused iumble of individual traits and customs yield no history With such collections one enters into a charnel house an equipment and clothes closet of peoples but not into living creation into that great garden in which peoples grew up like plants to which they belong in which everything air earth water sun light even the caterpillar that creeps4 upon them and the worm that consumes them belongs to gehoquotrtzu4 them Living domestic management Haushaltung is nature s concept as P The author of this letter has sketched on this subject a special essay which does not belong here however Editor s note See Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanity bk 7 9 That collections of separate peculiarities of the human species can here and there in this respect and that be used as inventories as repertoires the author of this letter did not mean to deny only as such they are still no history Editor s note 38 It is uncertain to whom this word refers but presumably an African tribe 39 This is a tribe of Hottentots in south and southwest Africa described by Levaillant 4 Reading hrieeht for hriegt The latter would mean wages war 4 This last occurrence of the expression gehiiren zu in contrast to the previous one in this sentence adds to the idea of partieipatz39on in which is present in both cases also the ideas that everything is owned by and required for peoples the expression being able to bear all three of these senses 395 Political Philosophy in the case of all organizations 0rgam39satz39onen4 likewise in the case of multiform humanity Suffering and joy lack and possession ignorance and consciousness stand beside each other in the great domestic man ager s Hausha5lterz39n43 book and are calculated to balance each other 5 Least of all therefore can our European culture be the measure of universal human goodness and human value it is no yardstick or a false one European culture is an abstracted concept a name Where does it exist entirely With which people In which times 44 Moreover who can deny it there are so many shortcomings and weaknesses so many twistings and horrors bound up with it that only an unkind being could make these occasions of higher culture into a collective condition of our whole species The culture of humanity is something different it shoots forth everywhere in accordance with place and time here more richly and more luxuriantly there more poorly and meagerly The genius of human natural history lives in and with each people as though this people were the only one on earth 6 And it lives in it in a human way All separatingsoff and dissec tions through which the character of our species gets destroyed yield semiconcepts or delusive ones speculations The Pescherah 45 is a human being too likewise the Alhz39no46 Manner ofliving habitus is what de nes a kind in our diverse humanity it is extremely various And yet in the end everything is linked to a few points in the greatest variety the simplest order shows itself The negro reveals himself in his footstep as does the p Hindu in his ngertip likewise both of them in love and hate in the smallest and the greatest occupation A penetratingly perceptive being who knew every possible alteration of the human type according to situa tions on our earthly sphere in a genetic manner would easily discover from a few given characteristic marks the totality of the entire conformation and of the entire manner of living habitus of a people of a tribe of an z39nclz39vz39clual Faithful travel descriptions lead to this recognition of the humanity in the human being much more surely than do systems I was happy that your letter named among those who have transposed themselves 39 Letter I15 4 In Herder as here this word usually connotes the physical constitution of an organism 43 Ie nature s hence feminine like die Natur 44 The closing emphatic quotation mark is omitted in Irmischer s text Its position here is therefore coniectural T 45 This is a name given to the native tribes of Tierra del F uego by the French explorer Bougainville 46 This name was applied by the Portuguese to white negroes on the coast of Africa 396 Tenth Collection deeply into the ethics of foreign peoples Pag s too Let one read his de pictions of the characters of several nations in America of the peoples in the Philippines and the judgments that he passes here and there on the behavior of the Europeans towards them how he sought to so to speak incorporate into himself the manner of thought of the Hindus of the Arabs of the Druse etc even through participating in their manner of living Travel descriptions of such a sort of which let us be thankful to humanity we have many expand our horizon and multiply our sensi tivity for every situation of our brothers Without losing a word about this they preach sympathy tolerance forgiveness praise pity many sided cul ture of the mind satisfaction wisdom Certainly in travel descriptions too as on travels each person seeks his own thing The base person seeks bad company and of course among a hundred nations one will be found there that favors his prejudice that nourishes his delusion The noble human being everywhere seeks the better the best just as the drawer chooses pic turesque regions This person will notice originally good but misused rst is principles even behind the veil of bad habits and will garner even from the abyss of the ocean not slime but pearls A classification of travel descrip tions not as might be entertained only according to noteworthy features of natural history but also according to the inner content of the travel descrihers IZ 77 lS639l39U Sl to what extent they had a pure eye and in their breast universal natural and human sensz39tz39vz39ty such a work would be very useful for the distracted ock of readers who do not know right from leftquot47 5 De Pages Voyage autour du monde Journey Around the World Berne 1783 I Pp 17 1862 Pp 13748 15595 quot Vol2 Among many others I name G Forster and Levaillanfs by the latter especially his more recent travels The rst principles which rule in them concerning how human beings and animals should be considered and treated provide a hadopaea39iai education in journeying which especially the English seem to lack Their judgments about foreignnations always betray the divisum toto orbe Britannum the Briton divided from the whole sphere of the earth if not indeed the monarchic merchant whereas a describer of travels ought actually to have no exclusive fatherland Editor s note quot Who could provide this work better than Reinhold Forster even if he only wanted to add his judgments to an alreadyaprinted list of travel descriptions Editor s note 47 Herder at this point inserts in the main text a longish poem The Forest Hut Die Waldh tte explanatorily subtitled a missionnarrative from Paraguay based on a narrative by the Austrian missionary M Dobritzhofer In the poem a missionary comes upon a remote family of native Americans mother son and daughter who are living in idyllic isolation He persuades them to come with him After some initial resistance from the mother they do so But they suffer from the loss of their home The two women die The son is then visited at night by visions of his mother and sister telling him to be baptized because they will fetch him to them soon To his delight the missionary promises to baptize him On the very day that he is baptized he dies The poem concludes with a verse reproaching the missionary for having uprooted the family contrary 397 Political Philosopizy Letter 117 Certainly it is not a matter of indifference according to which rst principles peoples take effect on each other and yet is there not a history of peoples which lacks all rst principles about the behavior of the nations towards each other Is there not another history in which the most harmful rst principles are set up as just and praiseworthy measures It is precisely for this reason that some people do not know why they should only condemn the behavior of the Europeans towards the negroes and savages because after all similar first principles seem to govern in the whole history of peoples with more or less modi cations Most wars and conquests in all parts of the world on what bases did they rest which rst principles guided them Not as might be as sumed only those rovings of the Asiatic hordes but also most of the wars of the Greeks and Romans of the Arabs of the barbarians Most de nitely the persecutions of heretics and the crusades the Europeans behavior towards witches and Jews their undertakings in both Indias48 How one regrets in all this many a great man who performed almost su perhuman deeds as a man deceived as a madman With the noblest soul he became a stormer and robber of the world who for the most part also harvested a poor reward for his deeds from courts that were as ungrateful towards him as they were barbaric towards the peoples One is astonished at the presence of mind that Vasco da Gama Albuquerque 49 Cortes Pizarro and many under them displayed in circumstances of the greatest danger pirates and highwaymen often displayed the same thing But who that is not a Spaniard or Portuguese will dare to make the deeds of these heroes of Cortes of Pizarro or of the great Albuquerque before Suez Ormuz Calicut Goa Malacca into the subject of a heropoem and to praise still now the rst principles that were in force tlzen3 The eulogists of St Bartholomew s N ight5 of the murders of Jews are covered with re proach and shame it is to be hoped that the robbers and murderers of the peoples too will despite all their demonstrated heroic deeds merely Y One of our poets ie J F W Zachariii tried it with Cortes but he wisely stopped to the mother s initial resistance and enioins Oh let though each plant bloom where it blooms 48 Ie India and America the land of American Indians 1 49 A d Albuquerque 14531515 Portuguese navigator and Viceroy in India 5 On St Bartholomew s Day in 1572 there occurred in France a governmentinstigated massacre of Protestants 398 Tent2 Collection and solely in accordance with the rst principles of a pure human history some day stand covered with the same The same thing applies to the rst principles concerning what one con siders permitted to oneself in War If plundering mutilating raping poi soning of wells and of one s weapons are recognized as dishonorable means of warfare are not domestic incitements of subjects who do notvbelong to the army Vend e wars plans for the starvation of nations faithless pretenses just as much so Everyone loathes the plans of A lbnquerque who wanted to turn the whole of Egypt into a desert by having it deprived of the Nile who Wanted to plunder Mecca and Medina lands that were involved in no war with the Portuguese Such atrocities against foreign peace ful peoples implantings of faithlessness in the hearts of one s enemy etc in the end punish themselves He who conducts simultaneously both an open and a secret war usually relies so much on the ef cacy of his secret T means that the open ones go awry for him as well Instigation and betrayal rarely rewarded their authors otherwise than with loss and shame He who pushes aside rst principles on which alone still rests what remains of peo ples honor and good name in war poisons the wells of history and of the international law of peoples right down to the last drop It would yield a sad overview if one went through each written history of peoples in their wars and conquests in their negotiations in their plans for action acoordz39ng to tze rstpr239ncz39ples on which their action and writing took place How much more honorable were our ancestors the ancient barbarians who in their duels not only saw to equality of weapons but also shared position light and sun without bias How much more honorable are the savages in their negotiations and peace treaties in their barter and trade Force and arbitrariness may command concerning things over which they have power but not concerning first principles of right and wrong in human history252 T Concerning the Romans manner of thinking about this in their best times let one read Lipsius Doctrina politica ie Politicorum sive civilis doctrine 1747 with its commentary Grotius De jure belli et pacis I625 or even the good Montaigne Essais 1580 bk 1 chs 5 6 It is very shaming for our times Editor s note 5 On 10 March 1793 there erupted in the Vend e region of southwest France a royalist rebellion against the revolutionary regime in Paris a 5 Herder at this point inserts in the main text several poems on themes related to the points just made which are omitted here The Hun Prince tells of a prince of the Huns from whom the Tatars demand his best horse His captains want to ght but he says that it is not worth it for a horse and gives up the horse The same thing happens with his fairest woman Then the Tatars demand his land and while the captains are by now ready to give this up as well the prince says 399 Political Philosophy Letter II8 Since presently during the most accursed war in which an early peace proves so dif cult there is much talk of plans for etermzlpeoce I commu nicate to you a real attempt made with this purpose in the words of the man who reports it53 On etornalpeace cm Iroquois arrrmgomem The Delawares formerly lived in the region of Philadelphia and beyond that towards the sea Thence did they often conduct attacks on the vil lages of the Cherokees mingle unrecognized in their dances at night and suddenly murder many during these Still more severe and older were that this affects not only himself but also the state and consequently calls for battle Battle takes place and the prince and his captains not only keep the land but also win back his horse and woman The War Prayer tells of a sheikh and his vizier who go off to ght a war with the former s brother On the way they stop and pray at a saint s grave The sheikh asks the vizier what he prayed for and the latter says that it was for the sheikh s victory The sheikh replies that he himself prayed that God should give victory to his brother if He considers the latter more deserving of it than himself Kahira tells of aqueen of the Berbers Kahira who intuiting the imminent fall of her realm laments the failure of her previous generosity to appease the enemy and tells her people to bury their treasure which is attracting the enemy in the ruins of their houses and so achieve peace through poverty Her people obey but in vain The enemy returns even stronger than before She sends off their leader whom she has captured asking him to treat her sons as well as she has treated him and then she calls to battle She and her Berber realm perish however not her generosity in return for which the enemy leader honors her in his good treatment of her sons Law in War tells a story about Mahmud Ghashnawi the leader of a Turkish Persian state who conquered and plundered in Iran Afghanistan and northern India in the eleventh century A poor Indian comes to Mahmud complaining that a powerful man from Mahmud s army has come to him demanding his wife and house Mahmud tells the poor Indian to come back when the man returns which eventually happens Mahmud then goes to the poor Indian s house with his bodyguards and orders that the lights be put out and the man killed Afterwards he calls for light again and then falls down in prayer and asks for food He explains he had thought that only one of his own sons or favorites would have been bold enough to be so unjust and it was for this reason that he had had the lights put out so that they would not blind the judge s eye but fortunately the guilty party was not one of those and so having fasted for days out of anxiety he can now at last eat again The poem concludes with praise of Mahmud s strict justice humanity and piety Law at Sea tells the story of a ship facing disaster in a stormy sea The ship s captain sails into the enemy s harbor and surrenders in order to save his men s lives The commander of the harbor says that they have come to him as unfortunate human beings and that they should repair their ship and leave freely only if captured at sea would they be his captives The Deceived Negotiator tells the story of an invitation extended by the leader of the French forces in Canada to the chiefs of the Iroquois to attend peace talks A missionary in good faith urges the chiefs to attend which they do But the French leader has them chained and sent to the galleys The Iroquois nation is outraged Their elder goes to the missionary and tells him that he knows him to be innocent but that because others in the nation think otherwise he should ee to safety He then gives him an escort to accompany him over the border to safety The poem concludes with the warm judgment on this elder Noble man 53 Ie G H Loskiel 17401814 a bishop in Pennsylvania 40o Tentz Collection the wars of the Delawares with the Iroquois According to the Delawares assertions they were always the victors over the Iroquois so that the latter eventually realized that if the war continued longer the inevitable conse quence must be their complete destruction So they sent representatives to the Delawares with the following mes sage It is not good that all the nations conduct war for that will even tually lead to the destruction of the Indians We have therefore thought up a means for preventing this evil namely that one nation should be the woman This one we plan to put in the middle but the other warring nations should be the men and live around the woman No one should touch the woman or do her any harm and if anyone did so then it is our plan to speak to him immediately and say to him Why are you hitting the woman Then all the men should attack him who has hit the woman The woman should not go to war but as far as possible try to preserve peace Hence if at some time the men around her are at blows with each other and the war threatens to become severe then the woman should have the power to address them and say to them You men what are you doing that you I belabor each other about with blows in this way Just remember that your wives and children are bound to die if you do not stop Do you then want to be responsible for your own annihilation from the face of the earth And the men should then pay heed to the woman and obey her The Delawares put up with becoming the woman Now the Iroquois put on a great celebration invited the Delaware nation to it and gave an emphatic speech to the Delaware nation s authorized representatives which consisted of three main propositions In the rst proposition they declared the Delaware nation to be the woman which they expressed through the sayings We dress you in a long woman s skirt that reaches down to the feet and ornament you with earrings and thereby let it be known to them that from now on they should no longer occupy them selves with weapons The second proposition was formulated as follows We hang a gourd bottle with oil and medicine on your arm With the oil you should clean the ears of the remaining nations so that they pay heed to good and not to evil but the medicine you should use on such peoples as have already entered on foolish paths so that they come to their senses again and turn their hearts to peace The third proposi tion in which they assigned the Delawares agriculture as their future occupation was expressed as follows We hereby give into your hand a maize stalk and a hoe Each proposition was reinforced by means of a belt 401 Po lz39tz39eal Philosophy of wampum54 belt of musselshells Since then these belts have been carefully preserved and their meaning has been repeated from time to time Since this strange peace treaty the Delawares have been called sister ehildren by the Iroquois the three Delaware tribes call each other fellow amalpe playmates But these titles are only used in their councils andwhen they have something important to say to each other From the time in question the Delaware nation has been the woman who preserves peace into whose care the great belt of peace is given and to whom the chain of friendship is entrusted It is her duty to watch over this so that it is preserved unharmed According to the Indians representation the middle of the chain rests on her shoulder and is held rm by her the remaining Indian nations hold onto the one end and the Europeans onto the other quotquot Thus the Iroquois There were times in Europe when hierarchy was supposed to play the role of this woman55 Hierarchy too wore the long dress oil and medicine were in her hand People blame her for instead of administering her of ce of peace often herself having stirred up and fanned wars between the men at least her oil has not yet cleaned the ears of the peoples her medicine has not yet cured the sick Should we instead of this hierarchy put women s clothes on a real nation in the middle of Europe and bestow on it the of ce of a judge over peace Which nation 5 But how could this nation administer the of ce when worlddevastating wars often get waged over a few furs on the Hudson Bay over a few villages on the Paraguay river about whose position even those waging the war themselves have sometimes been in error over a harbor location in the Paci c ocean over governors teasings of each other Indeed how often did these wars result from a whim of the monarch from a base cabal of the minister A history of the true origins of the wars in Europe since the crusades would be a sevenfold Hudz39l2ras56 the basest satirical poem that could be written In a world where dark cabinets initiate and continue wars all the efforts of the peace woman would be lost 9 Loskiel s Missionsgeschichte in Nordamerika Mt39ss onhistory in North America p 160 Ie Geschichte a39er M issiorzen der evangelischerz Brzider zmter den Irzdianem in N ordameriha I789 54 Herder writes belt of wampum in English 55 Herder is referring to the hierarchy of the Catholic church in the middle ages 56 Herder is alluding to S Butler s comic epic Hudihras i66378 4oz Tenth Collection Unfortunately even with the savages themselves this arrangement did not achieve its purpose for long When the Europeans pressed closer at the demand of the men even the woman was supposed to participate along with them in the defense It was their intention as they expressed it rst of all to shorten her skirt then to take it away entirely and put the war ax in her hand A foreign unforeseen dominant force disturbed the beautiful project of the savages for peace among each other and this will always be the case as long as the tree of peace does not bloom for the nations with rm inextirpable roots from within to outside How many other means human beings have already tried to put a stop to warthirsty nations and to block their paths Huge walls were erected between mountain ranges57 intervening lands were turned to desert intimidating fables were thought up and planted in this desert In Asia a holy realm was supposed to set a limit to the rovings of the Mongols58 the great Lama was supposed to be the peace woman In Africa obelisks and temples became the sanctuaries of trade the mothers6 of legislations and colonies In Greece oraeles6Ilmphz39letyonie Councils the Panionlum63 the Panaetolzan League the Aehaean League65 etc were supposed to effect if not an eternal then at least a long peace with what success time has taught It would be best if as in that wellknown trading in the interior of Africa the nations were not themselves allowed to see each other at all They set down their wares and move off offer and exchange Catching sight of each other deception and quarreling are unavoidable My great peace woman has a different name Her medicine takes effect late but surely Allow me for this another letter 57 Herder is referring to the Great Wall of China 58 Irmischer plausibly interprets this as an allusion to the introduction of Lamaism in Tibet and Mongolia in the sixteenth century 59 Ie those of Pharaonic Egypt 6 Reading Mzitter for Mutter 6 Herder is thinking especially of the oracle of A Apollo at Delphi 6 The Amphiktyonic Council was a league of Greek tribes and cities responsible for the shrines at Delphi and Delos 63 The Panionium was a shrine of Poseidon at Priene center of the twelve Ionian city states 64 The Panaetolian League was a political league among the Aetolians 65 The Achaean League was a league of twelve cities of the Achaeans in the northern Peloponnese 66 Herder at this point inserts in the main text a poem based on M Rauhfrost Reden Al Hallils I78 I Al Ilallil s Address to his Shoe Al Hallils Rede an seinen Sehuh This is omitted here In the poem the man Al IIallil goes with his people into a bloody battle But he has misgivings about killing which he expresses to God He treads in a bog and his shoe will not come out again As the battle rages around him he addresses his shoe He recalls how it had avoided with him the paths of violence and wickedness instead going gentler ways in particular at night to his beloved He says that he follows his shoe s present advice to continue now too avoiding the path of violence 403 Political Philosophy Letter 119 My great peace woman has only a single name she is called universal justice humaneness active reason I have read a very ingenious manuscript67 in which the following propo sitions formed the basis of human history 1 Human beings die in order to make room for human beings 2 And since fewer of them die than are born nature makes space by violent means 3 To these belong not only plague bad harvest earthquakes earth revolutions but also people revolutions devastations wars 4 Just as one animal species reduces the other so the human species sets itself in proportion and wards off over population 5 Hence there are in it preserving and destroying characters Terrible system which instills in us horror and fear at our own species in that according to it we have to look everyone in the face at his gait and at his hands to see whether he is a carnivorous or a herbivorous animal whether he bears in himself a preserving or a destroying character Nature has certainly not denuded us of means for securing ourselves against this destroying kind of our own species only she gave us these means not as weapons in our hands but in our heads and hearts Universal human reason and justice is the matron who bears oil and medicine on her arm a harvest stalk in her hand not as might be thought only as symbols but as the quietly effective means if not for an eternal peace then certainly at least for a gradual diminution of wars Let us68 since we here nd our way onto the honorable St Pierre s paths also not be ashamed of his method and direct the great peace woman pax sempiterna69 to her of ce with rm rst principles Her function in accordance with her name and her nature is to inculcate dispositions of peace First disposition Horror of mar War when it is not forced selfdefense but a mad attack on a peaceful neighboring nation is an inhuman worsethananimal thing to start in that it not only threatens the nation that it attacks in its innocence with murder and devastation but also sacri ces the nation which conducts it With bitter irony he wishes the violent heroes well in their violence may lions roar in honor of these heroes victories may the tiger sharpen his claws killed armies sing snakes hiss in ruined homes But he also asks the quiet moon and the peaceful night which these heroes disturb not to shine on themor embrace them 67 This has not been identi ed 63 Omittin Herder s redundant and un rammatical miclz W 69 Eternal eace E 3 P 404 Tenth Collection just as undeservedly as terribly Can there be a more horrible sight for a higher being than two armies standing in opposition to each other which without having suffered abuse murder each other And in the train of war more terrible than war itself come diseases military hospitals starvation plague robbery violence desolation of lands degeneration of minds into savagery destruction of families spoiling of ethics for long generations All noble human beings should spread this disposition with warm human feeling fathers and mothers should imbue their children with their own experiences on the subject so that the terrible word war which people articulate with such ease not only becomes hateful to human beings but people with the same horror as in the case of St Vitus s Dance plague famine earthquake the black death hardly dare to name it or to write it Second dz3 oosz39tz on Reduced respect for heroic glory The disposition must spread more and more that the land conquering heroic spirit is not only an angel of death for humanity but also in its talents does not remotely deserve the respect and glory that get paid to it due to tradition from the Greeks Romans and barbarians on down However much presence of mind however much comprehensive carefulness and foresight and rapid vision it may require the noblest hero will before and after battle not only lament the business to which he sacri ces his gifts but also readily confess that in order to be afather of a people there are required if not more then certainly nobler gifts in ongoing e hrt and a character a character that neither owes its battle prize to a single day nor shares it with chance or blind luck All men of understanding should unite to blow away the false sparkle that dances around a Marius Sulla Attila Genghis Khan Tamerlane until in the end songs to them and to Lips Tullian seem to every educated gebildeten soul to be equally heroic7 Third disposition Horror of false sta tecraft More and more there must be an unmasking of the false statecraft that places a regent s glory and his government s fortune in expansion of borders in capturing or seizing foreign provinces in increased income sly negotiations in arbitrary power cunning and deception The Mazarins 7 Lips Tullian was the leader of a notorious band of robbers that plagued Germany in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries He was executed in I715 405 Political Philosophy Louvois s du Terrai s7 and their kind must appear as they are not only in the eyes of the decent people but also in those of the weaklings themselves so that it becomes as clear as one timesone that every deception of a false statecraft in the end deceives itself The universal voicevote must be victorious over the value of mere state rank and of its emblems even over the most seductive tricks of vanity even over early imbibed prejudices It seems to me that already now people have advanced far and perhaps too far in contempt for some of these things the crucial thing is that people also properly respect what deserves to be valued in everything that the state imposes on us and all the more highly so the more it advances the humanity of human beings Fourth disposition Puri ed patriotism Patriotism must necessarily more and more clean and purify itself of dross Every nation must learn to feel that it becomes great beautiful noble rich Well ordered active and happy not in the eyes of others not in the mouth of posterity but only in itself in its own self and that both foreign and late respect then follows it as the shadow follows the body With this feeling there is necessarily bound up horror and contempt for every empty invasion of your people into foreign lands for useless interference in foreign quarrels for every empty aping and participation that disturbs our business our duty our peace and welfare It must become ridiculous and contemptible when native inhabitants quarrel with each other hate each other persecute each other vilify each other and slander each other over foreign affairs which they neither know not understand in which they can change nothing and which are none of their business at all They must appear as foreign bandits and assassins who from mad passion for or against a foreign people undermine the peace of their fellow brothers People must learn that they can be something only in the place in which they stand where they should be something Fifth disposition Feeling of justice towards other nations On the other hand every nation must gradually come to feel it as unpleas ant when another nation gets disparaged and abused there must gradually 7 These were all politicians under French absolutism who were notorious for their unscrupulous exercise of power 39 39 4o6 Tenth Collection awaken a common feeling so that every nation feels itself into the position of every other one People will hate the impudent transgressor of foreign rights the destroyer of foreign welfare the brazen abuser of foreign ethics and opinions the boastful imposer of his own advantages on peoples who do not want them Under whatever pretext someone steps over the bo rder in order to cut off the hair of his neighbor as a slave in order to force his own gods upon him and in order in return to steal from him his national sacred objects in religion art manner of representation and mode of life he will nd in the heart of every nation an enemy who looks into his own breast and says What if that happened to me If this feeling grows then there will arise imperceptibly an alliance of all civilizecl gebildeten nations against every individual presumptuous power One can certainly count on this quiet league earlier than on a formal agreement between cabinets and courts in the manner envisaged by St Pierre One may expect no steps of progress from cabinets and courts but even they must in the end without knowing it and against their will follow the voice vote of the nations Sixth a isposition Concerning presumptions in trade Humane feeling grows loudly indignant against impudent presumptions in trade as soon as innocent slavish nations get sacri ced to it for a pro t which they do not even receive Trade should even if not from the noblest motives uni z human beings not divide them it should teach them to know their common and individual interests at least as children even if not in the noblest pro t That is Why the ocean is there that is why the winds blow that is why the rivers ow As soon as a single nation wants to shut off the sea from all others take the wind away from them for the sake of its proud greed then the more insight into the relation of peoples to one another increases there must awaken the indignation of all nations against such a subjugator of the freest element against the robber of every highest pro t the presumptuous possessor of all the treasures and fruits of the earth No foreign drop of blood will willingly ow to serve this nation s pride its greed the more that an excellent man s true proposition gets acknowledged that the interests of the traclingpozvers do not conflict with each other and that on the contrary these powers would 7 Herder is again using brachylogy here there must awaken is really short for the more there must awaken 407 Political Pzilosoplzy have the greatest advantage vm a reciprocal universal prosperity and from the preservation of an uninterrupted peate bb Seventh disposition Activity Finally the maize stalk in the Indian zvoman s hand is itself a weapon against the sword The more human beings come to know the fruits of a useful activity and learn to realize that by the war ax nothing is won but much devastated the more the shaming prejudices about a caste born for war with a divine calling a caste in which from father Cain Nimrod and Og to Bashan73 and on hero s blood is said to flow become contemptible and ridiculous then the more respect will the corn wreath the apple and the palmtwig receive in preference to the sad laurel that grows beside dark cypresses and along with nettles and thorns loves only lizards and owls74 among it The gentle spreading of these rst principles is the oil and the medicine of the great peace goddess Reason from whose language no one can in the end escape Imperceptibly the medicine takes effect gently the oil ows down Reason steps up softly to this people and that and speaks in the language of the Indians Brother grandson father here I bring you a sign of alliance and oil and medicine With this I want to purify your eyes so that they see clearly with it I want to clean your ears so that they hear rightly I want to smooth your throat so that my words go down uidly for it is not for nothing that I come I bring words of peace bl Pinto Uber die Handelsei ersurhvt 0nealousy in Trade translated in the Sammlung van Aujizitzen die gro tenteils wielztige Punkte der Staatswissrenseza betre en Liegnitz I776 The author of the aforementioned essay prefaced it with the following passage from Buj m These times in which the human being loses his inheritance these barbaric centuries in which everyone perishes always have war as their harbinger and begin with famine and depopulation The human being who is only able to accomplish anything en masse who is strong only in unity and combination with others of his kind who is happy no otherwise than through peace is insane enough to arm himself for his disaster and to ght for his destruction Stimulated by an insatiable greed blinded by a still more insatiable craving for honor he renounces the sensations of humaneness applies all his forces against himself strives the one to ruin the other and in the end causes his actual destruction And after these days of blood and murder when the fog of glory has disappeared he with a sad eye sees the earth laid waste the arts buried the nations weakened his own happiness in ruins and his true power destroyed 73 These are all characters in the rst four books of the Old Testament 74 The unusual words which Herder employs here Laeerten and Bubonen are in part chosen in order to conjure up images of military hospitals Lazarette and bubonic plague 408 Tenth Collection And the addressee will answer Sister this string of mampum75 is meant to welcome you I want to extract from your feet the thorns which may possibly have penetrated for your distress I want to dispel the fatigue that has come upon you on your journey so that your knees become strong and courageous again The red war ax and the club should beburied in the earth and we mean to plant over them a tree that should grow right up to the heavens Our friendship should last for as long as sun and moon shine and rise and set for as long as the stars stand in the heavens and the rivers ow with water r If as I almost believe an eternal peace will only be formally made at the day of judgment then nonetheless no rst principle no drop of oil is in vain that prepares for it even if only at the remotest of distances Letter 120 Every encouragement to good dispositions without taking anxious consid eration of the ormality of their execution is a mere sermon of consolation Often the stupid man says When will when can this happen and does nothing at all about it Often he commits himself too early and too exactly to the de nition of the formalities of the outcome and in the process for gets the essential factor of the means for helping to promote this outcome Many historical examples show this clearly For example in the old writings of the Hebrew nation beautiful wishes and plans for the future were planted Hopes of a great light that should shine for all peoples of a bond of friendship that should encompass all nations of a religion that would be written into the heart of a golden peace in which everyone would participate shone like a rosy dawn As soon as the spirit of the prophet his purpose and the ruling disposition of his speech went unrecognized in these plans and presentiments when people clung to the letter and de ned the ful llment formally then stupidities came to light reveries with each one of which people deviated that much further from the meaning of the prophecy the more formally they de ned It was no different in Christianity when people hoped for the visible coming of the Lord In all fanatical sects that wanted to bring about the Sheer expressions used by the American Indians in their peace treaties and in the consecration of their peace woman 75 Herder uses English for the words italicized 409 Political Philosophy thousand year realm it was no different With many a new philosophy I fear it is precisely the same way How close to the ful llment people have believed themselves to be with some systems and how terribly they were deceived The shining peak that people saw close in front of them moved further and further off Then in that case the deluded person gives up all hope and lets his hands sink Spreaders of good dispositions do not harm them do not harm your selves through designation of something external that can only be de ned by time and by circumstances Plant the tree it will grow of itself earth air sun will afford it ourishing Secure good rst principles they will take effect through their own force but not otherwise than with modi cations which only time and place can give them and will give them76 Letter I21 If human menschliche77 dispositions should govern in a single eld of science then it is in the eld of history For does this not narrate human actions And do these not decide the value of the human being Do these not form our species happiness and unhappiness People say History narrates events Begebenzeiten and are almost inclined to look upon these as involuntary indeed as inexplicable as they in the darkest centuries did not look upon but wondered at natural events78 A stirredup war or revolt is for common history like a storm like an earthquake those who stirred it up are considered as scourges of the deity as mighty wizards and that is enough A history of this kind can prove the cleverest or the stupidest depending on the spirit of the author It proves the stupidest when it admires everything in a so called great and divine man and does not venture to bring any of his undertakings to 76 Herder at this point includes in the main text three poems again based on material from the book Reden AI Hrzllils which are omitted here The Prince is a poem in praise of a noble God sent prince who seeks the happiness of peoples as a father not wealth or praise whom the wicked avoid and who has only wisdom and love of humankind near his throne in uencing him Glory and Contempt is a meditation on the rapid change that befalls people in the valley of human error red imagination turns cold admiration turns into contempt the lucky conqueror loses his luck and his following idols engender enthusiasm but then fall into neglect By contrast the pious man seeks only God s unchanging glory and good Al Hallil s Lament is a lament to a pure angelic man Humane the name is of course signi cant who took care of princes and poor alike but who has now died 77 Or humane 7398 This sentence is another example of Herder using deliberate anacoluthon 410 Tenth Collection 21 measuring gauge of human reason Several Oriental histories of Nadir S zah79 Tamerlane8 etc are written in this way we read aloud eulogistic epic happily woven through with a barren or horrible series of deeds Europe has warmly sympathized with this Oriental taste not as one might think only in the times of the crusades but also in most biographies of individual heroes in the history of whole sects dynasties and dynastic wars One is astonished when one perceives the author s reverence and devotion to his honored subject and one can only say He has drunk from the cup of oblivion demons wine has befogged his senses The cleverest history of this kind is the coldest as Machiavelli practiced and regarded it for example This too forgets about right and wrong vice and virtue in that cleanly like a geometer it measures out the result of given forces and moving forward calculates a plan That there is much to learn from this Machiavellzian history when it sees sharply and calculates correctly there is no question Does it not occupy itself with the most tangled important problem that our species faces That is lzumanforces in relation to theeir e lacts and consequences And if only this problem could be cleanly solved On the stage of the earth even in its narrowest corners so much runs confusedly to gether opposed forces disturb each other and circumstances time for tune thousand armed coincidence interfere in everything The cleverest got cheated the coolest head missed his goal Hence this school of instruc tion often becomes a novelzstlc school in which people lend the fortunate hero a cleverness that he did not possess and calculate backwards from dazzling successes by a false calculation or it becomes when the best forces fail through a coincidence a depressing lesson 21 school of despair Quite generally though this Whetstone of cleverness easily makes the mind too sharp too nicked Who can read llacziavellzquots Prince without horror Even if he were successful in everything would he be a worthy prince Would he be happy in his breast It is terrible to consider humanity only as a line that one may bend cut lengthen and shorten to a goal as one wishes so that a plan gets achieved so that the task just gets solved Hence we cannot cut ourselves off from lzamanfeelzng when we write or read history history s highest interest its value rests on this human sen sibility the rule of right and wrong Whoever writes merely for cleverness 79 Nadir Shah I688I747 Shah of Persia 8 Tamerlane 13361405 Mongolian conqueror 411 Political Philosophy easily falls into delusive conceit whoever writes only for curiosity writes for children But what de nes this rule of right Here also there is a history that is too warm and one that is too cold The overheated kind claims to effect everything for the honor of God and permits itself wickedness and nonsense in the interest of this sup posed goal Thus did Tamerlane subjugate half a world in order to spread the Mohammedan faith and at the most advanced old age wanted in ad dition to wage war on peaceful China Thus did the nations of Europe march to the holy grave thus did the Spaniards strangle in America thus did the Inquisition torture and persecute Terrible passions of hu man beings covered themselves with the cloak of God and destroyed and tormented The cold history calculates under the rule of an alleged positive law according to reasons of state and in its observation of this rule it too often becomes very warm In it good of the fatherland honor of the nation becomes the battle cry and in deceptive negotiations the state s slogan The Athenians the Romans what did they not include in the good of atheirfatzerland in their glory and hence in their right What did the pope the clergy the Christian kings not permit themselves in the interest of the alleged good of their realms If history narrates all this indifferently or even trustingly credulously then with it one enters into a labyrinth of the most tangled most loathsome state interests of personal presumptions and of state trickeries A large part of the events of our last two centuries the so called memorabilia m moires biographies political testaments are written in this cast of mind in the spirit of Richelieu of Mazarin and still earlier of Charles K Philip 1 Philip the Fair Louis XI XIII and XIV in short in the spirit of S panish F rench policy of state An awful spirit that considered everything permitted to itself for the good of the state that is for the glory and the greater power of kings for the security and greatness of their ministers In whatever history this spirit shows through it blackens what is most brilliant with the shadow of vanity of deceptive cunning of presumption of waste Forgotten in this spirit is humanity which according to it lives merely for the state that is for kings and ministers We have gradually escaped from this fog too but another dazzling phantom rises in history namely the calculation of undertakings towards a 412 Tenth Collection future better republic towards the best form of the state indeed of all states8 This phantom is uncommonly deceptive in virtue of the fact that it obvi ously introduces into history a nobler yardstick of merit than the one that those arbitrary reasons of state contained indeed even blinds with the names of freedom enlightenment highest happiness of the peoples Would God that it never deceived The happiness of one single people can not be imposed onto talked onto loaded onto the other and every other The roses for the wreath of freedom must be picked by a people s own hands and grow up happily out of its own needs out of its own desire and love The so called best form of government which has unfortunately not yet been discovered certainly does not suit all peoples at once in the same way with the yoke of badly imported freedom from abroad a foreign people would be incommoded in the worst possible way Hence a history that calculates everything in the case of every land with a view to this utopian plan in accordance with unproved rst principles is the most dazzling deceptive history A foreign varnish that robs the forms of our world and the preceding world of their true stance even of their out lines Many works of our time will be read twenty years later as well or badlyiintentioned fever fantasies maturer minds already now read them that way Thus history is solely and eternally left with nothing but the spirit of its oldest author Herodotus the unstrained gentle sense of humanity Without bias he regards all peoples and sketches each one in its place in accordance with its ethics and customs Without bias he narrates the events and observes how everywhere only moderation makes peoples happy and every arrogance has its Nemesis following behind it This measure of Nemesis applied according to subtler or greater conditions is the sole and eternal yardstick of all human history What you do not want to have happen to you do unto no other revenge comes indeed it is present with every erring with every wickeda ness All bad relations and injustices every proud presumption every hostile incitement every faithlessness has its punishment with or after it the later the more terrible and strict The guilt of fathers piles up with crushing weight on children and grandchildren God has not permitted human beings to be vicious except under the hard law of punishment 8 As lrmischer suggests this is probably an allusion to Kant s Idea yr a Universal History om a Cosmopolitan Point of View 1784 473 Political Philosopzy On the other hand in history the smallest good wins its reward too No reasonable word that a wise man ever spoke no good example no ray even in the darkest night was ever lost Unnoticed it had continuing effect and did good No blood of the innocent man got spilt in vain every groan of the oppressed man rose towards heaven and found in its time a helper Tears too are in time s sowing seeds of the happiest harvest The human species is a single whole we work and suffer sow and harvest for one another How compassionate how gently encouraging but also how strict and tallyingtogether zusczmmenzaltend this spirit of human history is It leaves each people right where it is for each has its rule of right its measure of happiness in itself It spares all and spoils none If the peoples sin then they atone and atone as long and heavily as it takes until they sin no longer If they are unwilling to be children then nature raises them as slaves This spirit of history steps destructively in the way of no political constitution It does not cave in the peaceful man s house over his head before another better one exists but with a friendly hand shows the overly secure man mistakes and inadequacies in his house and with quiet industry delivers materials for supporting the old house or for building a better one It does not touch national prejudices for many good dispositions must grow within them as husks or hard shells It lets them grow When the fruit is ripe then the husk withers the shell splits open It is ne by this spirit if the Frenchman and the Englishman depict their humanit and humanity82 for themselves in English and French83 all the less will the foreigner chase after them to his own ruin From his heart must proceed forth a beloved who is appropriate for him Holiest to the spirit of human history are good natured fools and dreamers for they stand under the most special divine protection With out enthusiasm nothing great or good happened on earth those whom people considered dreamers have performed the most useful services for the human species Despite all mockery despite every persecution and contempt they made their way ahead and when they did not reach their goal still they reached further and brought others zrtzer They were living winds over the stagnant marsh or they dammed it 82 Herder gives this word in English 39 83 Note that with the third pairing here Herder once again uses the rhetorical gure of chiasmus 414 Tenth Collection and made it yield a harvest The spirit of history never permits itself empty mockery of them at most it will feel sorry for them not stigmatize them All excessively subtle taxonomies of human beings according to prin ciples from which they are supposed to act exclusively are quite foreign to the spirit of history It knows that in human nature the principles of sensuality of imagination of sel shness of honor of sympathy with others of godliness of the moral sense of faith etc do not dwell in separated compartments but that in a living organization that gets stimulated from several sides many of them often all cooperate in a living manner It allows each of them its value its rank its place its time of development convinced that all of them even unconsciously are operating towards a single purpose the great principle of humaneness Vlenschlichheit Hence it lets all of them bloom in their time right where they are sensuality and the arts of the imagination intellect and sympathy honor moral sense and holy worship It as little forces the stomach to think as the head to digest and torments no one with the analysis whether even each bite of bread that he puts in his mouth yields a universal basic moral law of all rational beings in chewing and digesting Let each person chew as he can history treats human beings not as word mongers and critics but as agents of a moral law of nature which speaks in all of them which initially warns gently then punishes harder and richly rewards every good disposition through itself and its consequences Does this spirit of human history not appeal to you84 Letter 122 You seem to believe that no history of humanity takes place as long as the result of things is not known or as people are wont to put it the day of judgment has not yet been experienced I am not of this opinion Whether the human species improves or worsens whether it some day turns into angels or demons into sylphs or gnomes we know what we must do We consider the history of our species in accordance with firm rst principles in our conviction about right and wrong let our species nal act end as it will 84 This paragraph is of course a critique of Kant s moral philosophy and in particular its doctrine of the categorical imperative 415 Political Philosophy For example Monboiddo in his history and philosophy of the human being regards him as a system of living forces in which the elemental aspect the plant life the animal life and the life of the understanding are distinct The animalistic life he opines was in its best condition when human beings lived in an animallike manner He still nds a similarity to this in the case of children He considers the ages that the human being passes through as an individual to be also the course taken by the whole species He therefore traces the species back to its rst naked condition in the open air in rain in cold and shows what effects clothing living in houses the use of re language have had on the human creature He shows the abilities that this creature had to swim to walk upright to undertake forms of training and discerns in this condition the basis of that longer life of that greater form and strength of which the legend of the primal world tells us He demonstratesfrom examples and reports how the human being s body got weakened shrunk and his life shortened through change in his way of life through the eating of meat and the drinking of alcoholic beverages through his sedentary mode of life in arts trades games through ner foods pleasures and pastimes On the other hand he shows how the human being s understanding has increased through society and arts how the sagacity of a natural human being differs from the cleverness of the civilized man how all arts arose from imitation and the idea of the beautiful belongs solely to the civilized condition He nds nations families and individuals distinguished in both ages of humanity but our species overall in the course of a reduction of animallstzic forces and he has given reminders about this which each person should apply as he wishes and can If we acquiesce in all this since in truth Monhoddo s system certainly does not deserve to be ridiculed on account of a few idiosyncrasies of the author if we assume what history teaches us as well that almost all peoples on earth once lived in a more primitive condition and culture was brought only by a few to others then what follows from this I That on our round earth all epochs of humanity still live and function There exist there peoples in childhood youth manhood and will proba bly do so for a long time to come before the seafaring old men of Europe succeed in advancing them to old age through brandy diseases and slaves dd Ancient Metaphysics vol 3 LondonI784 This part of the great work would certainly deserve a German epitome for the sake of its collected facts Editor s note 416 Tenth Collection arts Now just as every duty of humaneness commands us not to disturb for a child for a youth his age in life the system of his forces and pleasures likewise it also commands nations such a thing vis a vis nations In this regard several conversations of Europeans especially missionaries with foreign peoples for example Indians Americans35 please me greatly the naivest answers full of good heart and sound understanding were almost always on the side of the foreigners They answered with childish per l tinence and correctness whereas the Europeans with the imposing of their arts ethics and doctrines for the most part played the role of worn out old men who had completely forgotten what was appropriate to a child 2 Since the distinction between elemental animalistic vegetative and understanding s forces is only a thought in that every human being con sists of all these albeit in different proportions let one beware of considering this or that nation to be entirely animalistie in order to use them as beasts of burden The pure intellect needs no beast of burden and hence just as little as even the most intellectual European can do without plant and animal forces in his lifesystem does any nation completely lack understanding Certainly the understanding is multiform in regard to the sensuality that stimulates it in accordance with peoples varying organizations however in all forms of humankind it is and remains only one and the same The law of justice is foreign to no nation all nations have atoned for the transgression of this law each one in its own way 3 If intellectual forces in greater development are Europeans advan tage then they can demonstrate this advantage in no other may than through understanding and goodness the two are at bottom but one If they act impotently in raging passions from cold greed in basely insolent pride then they are the animals the demons against their fellow human be ings And who guarantees the Europeans that things cannot and will not go for them at several ends of the earth as they did in Abyssinia China apan87 The more their forces and states in Europe age the more unhappy Europeans some day leave this part of the world in order to make common cause with the oppressed in this place and that then 85 Ie native Americans 86 By organizations Herder here again means something like physical constitutions of human organisms 87 Herder is here referring to the persecutions of Christians that occurred in the countries mentioned in the sixteenth century 417 Political Philosophy intellectual and animalistic forces can unite together in a way that we now hardly suspect Who has insight into the seed of the future that is perhaps already planted Cultured states can arise where we hardly believe them possible cultured states which we considered immortal can wither 4 If in Europe on paths that we are unable to identify reason should at some point gain so much value that it united with human goodness what a beautiful season ir the members of the society of our whole species All nations would participate in this and rejoice in this autumn of sensihleness As soon as in trade and treatment Handel und Wandel 89 the law of justice governs everywhere on earth all nations are brothers the younger will gladly serve the older the child the old man possessed of understanding with what he has and can a 5 And is this time unthinkable It seems to me that even on the path of necessity and calculation it is bound to appear Even our excesses and deeds of vice must advance it There would have to be no rule governing in the conditions and relations Verhaltnissen of the human species no nature governing in its nature9 if this period were not brought about through inner laws of this species itself and the antagonism of its forces Certain fevers and stupidities of humanity must cease their ferment with the advance of the centuries and the life ages9 Europe must give compensation for the debts that it has incurred make good the crimes that it has committed not from choice but according to the very nature of things For reason would be in a bad way if it were not reason everywhere and the universal good were not also the universally most useful The magnetic needle of our efforts seeks this pole after all wanderings and oscillations it will and must nd it e Among many others I remind the reader here once again of Levaillant s more recent journey The distinction which he notes between nations that have been corrupted or are mistreated by Europeans and autonomous peoples is sharply incisive His first principles concerning how one should deal with the latter are applicable on the whole earth 38 This sentence is another example of Herder using anacoluthon 89 The idiomatic phrase Handel und Wandel generally means either trade or general behavior Here Herder combines both senses In addition though he seems to be reetymologizing the phrase to connote a bit more elaborately I trade Handel 2 behavior Wandel and 3 travel Wandel again cf the verb ioandeln 9 This is another example of Herder using deliberate oxymoron the super cial inconsistency mask ing a deeper consistency as usual 9 Ie the lifeages of humanity the latter s history being viewed as like a single human life writ large as in This Too a Philosophy of History for the Formation of Humanity 418 Tenth Collection 6 S 0 let no one augur from the greying of Europe the decline and death of our whole species What harm would it do to the latter if a degenerated part of it perished if a few withered twigs and leaves of the sap rich tree fell off Others take the place of the withered ones and bloom up more freshly Why should the western corner of our northern hemisphere alone possess culture And does it alone possess it 7 The greatest revolutions in the human species so far depended on inven tions or on revolutions of the earth Who knows these in the unforeseeable sequence of times Climates can change many an inhabited land can become uninhabitable many a colony canbecome the motherland from several causes A few new inventions can cancel many older ones and since in general the greatest effort undeniably the character of almost all European statecraft must necessarily relax or trip who can calculate the 7 consequences of this Our earth is probably an organic being we creep about on this orange like small scarcely noticeable insects torment each other and settle here and there The proverb says When the sky falls what happens to the sparrows If the orange goes rotten here or there perhaps another generation makes its appearance without it therefore being the case that the rst one perished precisely due to the intellectual part of its system due to understanding What was rather able to kill it was excess vice misuse of its understanding Certainly the periods of nature are calculated with an eye to each other in regard to all species so that when the earth can no longer warm and feedhuman beings human beings will also have ful lled their destiny on it The bloom withers as soon as it has nished blooming but it also leaves behind fruit Thus if our destiny were the highest expression of intellectual force then pre cisely this destiny would demand of us that we leave behind a good seed to the future aeon unknown to us so that we might not die as weakly murderers Monhoddo regards our earth as an educational institution from which our souls get saved The individual human being can and may regard it no differently for he comes and passes In the place where without his own volition he makes his appearance he must cope as well as he can and learn to order the system of his elemental and vegetative his animalistic and intellectual forces Gradually they die for him until the developed spirit ies off Here too Monhoddo s system is consistent a system which incomplete as it is I prefer to many another mercantilepolitical history of 419 Political Philosophy humanity Mercantilepolitical considerations belong to a history of our species only as a fragment this history s spirit is sensus humanitatis92 sense and sympathy ir the whole of humanity93 Letter 12 3 From early years I have tried to put myself into the position of even the most alien hypotheses and I returned from almost all of them with the gain of a new side of the truth or of its reinforcement But I must confess that I can extract nothing good at all from the hypothesis94 of a radical miched basic force in the human mind and will ff I leave it to everyone who is fond of it it brings no light to my understanding no happy stirring to my heart The hypothesis of two mutually hostile basic causes of things is usually traced back to the Persians95 but its bad application should not be traced back to them In physics it was obviously the childhood of science when night was declared to be bad day to be good the laws that produce both are good and extremely simple In morals they are so just as much and the philosophy of the Persians aimed directly at explaining this Darkness it said is formlessness light according to its nature forms illuminates and warms Despite all his resistances Ahriman96 is weak Ormazd97 will and must overcome him Their religion consequently called on people to join this battle for victory as the real work of human life in thoughts words and deeds To create and spread forth light to be effective in every N It is not here a question of socalled original sin for this is an illness Editor s note 9 Sense of humanity 93 Herder at this point includes in the main text three more poems based on the book Reden Al Hallils which are omitted here The Spirit of Creation tells the story of a pilgrim suffering in the desert who prays to God for help An oasis appears he drinks and cats and then falls asleep The spirit of creation comes to him in a dream and tells him to arise so that a doe can now in her turn enjoy the same relief He arises and sees the doc a mother which then happily jumps to feed The poem ends with the pilgrim praising God for caring for all things great and small The Sequence of Time reassures the dissatisfied man that God created his creatures to live in bliss After the creation the angels wondered at this hopeful scheme The poem concludes enjoining human beings to have con dence in it and to enjoy the fairest gift of a satis ed heart The Antidote praises God s gifts and the wisdom with which he distributed them The earth was given to imperfect human beings not to angels and so vice thrived But God provided an antidote work industriousness By contrast idleness leads to vice and unhappiness 94 The hypothesis was Kant s in his Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone 1793 95 Ie to Zoroastrianism in the rst instance and then later Manichaeism Cf IIerder s Oldest Document of the Human Species 1774 96 Ahriman is the spirit of evil in Zoroastrianism 97 Ormazd is the supreme deity creator of the world and spirit of ghod in Zoroastrianism 420 1 Tenth Collection good to purify to gladden is our work Precisely for this reason do we stand between lightand dark Christianity continued on this path with motives that reached deeper down According to Christianity the human species is supposed to be no slavish people that eternally bends beneath the yoke and turns at chains but a free happy species which without fear of a ruling executionepspirit does good for the sake of good from inner desire from innate character and higher nature whose law is a sovereign law of freedom indeed to which in fact no law is given because the dz39vz39ne nature within us pure humanity has no need of W law This is unmistakably the spirit of Christianity its native form and character Only dark barbaric times gave back the great feudal lord of evil of whom we are allegedly the innate inherited people and from whom customs atonements and gifts can allegedly free us not indeed really but super cially to stupidity and brutality in an anti Christian way Who would want to return into this Miltonian hell of palpable night and solid darkness On the surface of the earth we see nothing of this massive primal hell Where there is evil the cause of the evil is the corrupted character of our species not its nature and character Sloth impudence pride error callousness carelessness prejudices bad education bad habit through and through evils that are avoidable or curable if new life diligence for good reason modesty justice truth a better education better habits from youth on arrive individually and universally Humanity calls and groans that this might happen since clearly every unvirtue and unsuitability punishes itself by granting no true enjoyment and piling a mass of evils on itself and on others We see clearly that we are here in order to destroy this realm of night in that no one can or should do it for us Notonly do we bear the burden of our misfortune but our nature is arranged for this and no other work it is the purpose of our species the goal of our destiny to free ourselves of this corrupted character When the fruits of the work do not entice us the whole universe drives us with nettles and thorns So what is the meaning of despair as though under a yoke that could never be cast off P What use is the dream of a humanity from its very roots beyond restoration No hypothesis can be dear to us which moves our species out of its position which now puts it in the place of the fallen angels now abases it under their guardianship and sovereignty We are not acquainted with 421 i Polz39tical Philosophy the fallen angels but we are acquainted with ourselves and know when and why we fell fall and will fall The existence of each human being is woven together with his whole species If our concepts concerning our destiny are not pure what is the point of this or that small improvement Do you not see that this sick person lies in infected air save him from out of it and he will get better automatically In the case of radical evil attack the roots they bear the tree with its top and twigs The work is great but it should also be continued for as long as hu manity lasts it is the most properly own and sole the most rewarding and happiest business of our species And how does this business get conducted Merely through expansion and re nement of the forces of the understanding Intelligence is the human being s noble advantage the indispensable tool of his destiny Scienti c knowledge of everything that deserves to be known understanding of everything usable beautiful and noble is illuminating sunshine in the dark mist sphere of the earth it may and must extend as far as it can extend from the last hazy star over the whole of nature to the borders of creation in becoming Understanding is the common treasure of the human species we have all received from it we should all contribute to it our best thoughts and dispositions We calculate with combinations belonging to earlier times posterity should calculate with our combinations and certainly this calcu lation proceeds forth on a large broad and in nite scale Who would un dertake to say whither the human species can reach and perhaps will reach in its continued efforts building on one another Every newly reached power is the root for a countless series of new powers However understanding alone does not do the job even to demons do we ascribe a demonic understanding let ours be human accompanied by active goodness Look around How much true and genuine science is unused in the worldl how much understanding lies suppressed and buried how much other understanding gets misused Pseudo truth rigid prejudice hypocritical lying slothful atmosphere irrational arbitrariness confuse our species Hence a strengthened great and good will trainings from youth on ghtingprizes and habituation so that what is most dif a cult becomes quoteasiest for us and above all that indispensable striving for the necessary which our species requires with neglect of everything dispens able and bad these things alone can make the understanding telling for the 422 Tenth Collection good help it to its feet and advance the work How long have we not oc cupied ourselves with what is useless Do not millennia of human history show us our lack of understanding our childish triviality and cowardice The unity of our forces therefore the uni cation of the forces ofseveral for the advancement of a single whole in the interest of all it seems to me that this is the problem that should be our heart s concern because each person s innermost consciousness and need says it to him both quietly and aloud i Legislators educators friends of humanity says a noble man of our nation3g let us unite our forces in order to prove to the human being that he will nowhere nd inner happiness in the in nitely various situations of life except in the e iective and active unity of his character If he strivesquot for his own perfection freely and resolutely observes the ordinances of a universal and bene cent reason he will escape errings crimes inner reproaches As a human being and citizen he will nd happiness in the testimony of his conscience Thus does the human being bring the in nite variety of his sensations thoughts aha e forts to the unity of a true pure e ective moral character And if I may develop this noble image further then there lies in the human species an in nite variety of sensations thoughts and efforts to wards the unity of a true effective purely moral character which belongs to the whole species Just as each class of natural creatures constitutes a realm of its own which builds on other realms and is involved in others likewise the human species with the special and highest distinguishing mark that the happiness of all depends on the efforts of all and occurs in the human species despite the greatest variety only in this very exalted unity We can not be happy or entirely worthy and morally good as long as for example a single slave is unhappy through human beings guilt for the vices and bad habits that make him unhappy have effect on us as well or derive from us The presumption the greed the weakliness that deceive and devastate all parts of the world reside with and in us it is the same heartlessness that keeps Europe as well as America under the yoke Whereas on the other 35 Essai sur la science Essay on Science Erfurt 1796 by the gentleman coadjutor von Dalherg In this sketch as also in the work Vom Bezzruj sein als allgiemeinem Grumle aler Weltweisheit On Consciousness as the Universal Basis of Philosophy Erfurt 1793 in the Betrachtungerz ber alas Universum Observations on the Universe Erfurt 1777 and in every smallest essay the theme of this work l unit compos e de l in ni the composite unity of the in nite is the content and symbol and le caract re vrai pur nergique et moral the true pure energetic and moral character is the character 423 REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION OF Greenwood Publishing Group A1 I resses To The German Nation By Jg F ichte Fourth Address Pp 5271 by Fichte trans Jones Tumbull 1979 Greenwood Publishing Group P83 523971 FOURTH ADDRESS THE CHIEF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE GERMANS AND THE OTHER PEOPLES OF TEUTONIC DESCENT quot 41 WE have said that the means of educating a new race of men which is being put forward in these addresses must rst be applied by Germans to Germans and that it concerns our nation in a special and peculiar way This statement also requires proof and here as before we shall begin with what is highest and most general showing what is the characteristic of the German as such apart from the fate that has now befallen him showing too that this has been his characteristic ever since he began to exist and pointing out how this characteristic in itself gives him alone above all other European nations the capacity of responding to such an education 42 In the rst place the German is a branch of the Teutonic race Of the latter it is sufHcient to say here that its mission was to combine the social order established in ancient Europe with the true religion preserved in ancient Asia and in this way to develop in and by itself a new and different age after the ancient world had perished Furtherit is sufficient to distinguish the German particularly in contrast only to the other Teutonic peoples who came into existence with him Other neoEuropean nations as for instance those of Slav descent do not seem as yet to have developed distinctly enough in comparison 52 GERMANS amp OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 53 with the rest of Europe to make it possible to give a de nite description of them whereas others of the same Teutonic descent as for instance the Scandinavians although the main reason for differentiation which will be stated immediately does not apply to them are yet regarded here as indisputably Germans and included in all the general consequences of our observations 43 But at the very outset the special observations which we are now on the point of making must be pre faced by the following remark As the cause of the differentiation that has taken place in what was originally one stock I shall cite an event which considered merely as an event lies clear and incontestable before the eyes of all I shall then adduce some manifestations of the differentiation that has taken place and these manifesta tions considered merely as events could perhaps be made just as clear and obvious But with regard to the connection of the latter as consequences with the former as their cause and with regard to the deduction of the consequences from the cause I cannot speaking generally reckon upon being equally clear and con vincing to everyone It is true that in this matter also I am not making entirely new statements which no one has heard of before on the contrary there are among us many individuals who are either well prepared for such a view of the matter or perhaps already familiar with it Among the majority however there are in circulation ideas about the subject of our discussion which differ greatly from our own To correct such ideas and to refute all the objections to single points that might be raised by those who are not practised in taking a comprehensive View of a subject would far exceed the limits of our time and our intention I must content myself with placing before such people merely 54 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION as a subject for their further consideration what Ihave to say in this connection remarking that in my system of thought it does not stand so separate and39detached as it appears in this place nor is it without a foundation in the depths of knowledge I could not omit it entirely partly on account of the thoroughness of treatment demanded by my whole subject and partly because of its important consequences which will appear later in the course of our addresses and which are intimately connected with our present design 44 The first and immediately obvious difference between the fortunes of the Germans and the other branches which grew from the same root is this the former remained in the original dwellingplaces of the ancestral stock whereas the latter emigrated to other places the former retained and developed the original languageof the ancestral stock whereas the latter adopted a foreign language and gradually reshaped it in a way of their own This earliest difference must be regarded as the explanation of those which came later eg that in the original fatherland in accordance with Teutonic primitive custom there continued to be a federation of States under a head with limited powers whereas in the foreign countries the form of government was brought more in accordance with the existing Roman method and monarchies were established etc It is not these later differences that explain the one rst mentioned 45 Now of the changes whichhave been indicated the rst the change of home is quite unimportant Man easily makes himself at home under any sky and the national characteristic far from being much changed by the place of abode dominates and changes the latter after its own pattern Moreover the variety of natural in uences in the region inhabitated by the Teutons is GERMANS 8 OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 55 not very great Just as little importance should be attached to the fact that the Teutonic race has inter mingled with the former inhabitants of the countries it conquered for after all the victors and masters and makers of the new people that arose from this inter mingling were none but Teutons Moreover in the mothercountry there was an intermingling with Slavs similar to that which took place abroad with Gauls Cantabrians etc and perhaps of no less extent so that it would not be easy at the present day for any one of the peoples descended from Teutons to demonstrate a greater purity of descent than the others 46 More important however and in my opinion the cause of a complete contrast between the Germans and the other peoples of Teutonic descent is the second change the change of language Here as I wish to point out distinctly at the very beginning it is not a question of the special quality of the language retained by the one branch or adopted by the other on the contrary the importance lies solely in the fact that in the one case something native is retained while in the other case something foreign is adopted Nor is it a question of the previous ancestry of those who continue to speak an original language on the contrary the importance lies solely in the fact that this language continues to be spoken for men are formed by language far more than language is formed by men 47 In order to make clear so far as explanation is possible and necessary in this place the consequences of such a difference in the creation of peoples and to make clear the particular kind of contrast in national character istics that necessarily follows from this difference I must invite you to a consideration of the nature of language in general 56 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION Language in general and especially the designation of objects in language by sounds from the organs of speech is in no way dependent on arbitrary decisions and agreements On the contrary there is to begin with a fundamental law in accordance with which every idea becomes in the human organs of speech one particular sound and no other Just as objects are represented in the senseorgans of an individual by a de nite form colour etc so they are represented in language which is the organ of social man by a de nite sound It is not really man that speaks but human nature speaks in him and announces itself to others of his kind Hence one should say There is and can be but one single language Now indeed and this is the second point language in this unity for man simply as man may never and no where have arisen Everywhere it may have been further changed and formed by two groups of in uences rstly those exerted on the organs of speech by the locality and by more or less frequent use and secondly those exerted on the order of the designations by the order in which objects were observed and designated Never theless in this also there is no chance or arbitrariness but strict law and in an organ of speech thus affected by the conditions mentioned there necessarily arises not the one pure human language but a deviation therefrom and moreover this particular deviation and no other If we give the name of People to men whose organs of speech are in uenced by the same external conditions who live together and who develop their language in continuous communication with each other then we must say The language of this people is necessarily just what it is and in reality this people does not express its knowledge but its knowledge expresses itself out of the mouth of the people GERMAN S 8 OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 57 48 Despite all the changes brought about as the language progresses by the circumstances mentioned above this conformity with law remains uninterrupted and indeed for all who remain in uninterrupted com munication and who all hear in due course whatever any individual for the first time expresses there is one and the same conformity with law After thousands of years and after all the changes undergone in that time by the external manifestation of the language of this people it ever remains nature s one same living power of speech which in the beginning necessarily arose in the way it did which has owed down through all conditions without interruption and in each necessarily became what it did become which in the end necessarily was what it now is and in time to come necessarily will be what then will be The pure human language in conjunction rst with the speech organ of the people when its rst sound was uttered and the product of these in conjunc tion further with all the developments which this rst sound inthe given circumstances necessarily acquired all this together gives as its nal result the present language of the people For that reason too the language always remains the same language Even though after some centuries have passed the descendants do not understand the language of their ancestors because for them the transitions have been lost nevertheless there is from the beginning a continuous transition without a leap a transition always imperceptible at the time and only made perceptible when further transitions occur and the whole process appears as a leap forward There has never been a time when contemporaries ceased to understand each other for their eternal go between and interpreter always was and has continued to be the common power of nature speaking through them all Such is the con 58 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION dition of language considered as the designation of objects directly perceived by the senses and in the beginning all human language is this When the people raises itself from this stage of sensuous perception to a grasp of the supersensuous thenif this supersensuous is to be repeated at Will and kept from being confused with the sensuous by the rst individual and if it is to be39 com municated to others for their convenience and guidance the only way at rst to keep rm hold of it will be to designate a Self as the instrument of a supersensuous World and to distinguish it precisely from the same Self as the instrument of the sensuous World to contrast a soul a mind etc with a physical body As all the various objects of this supersensuous World appear only in and exist for that supersensuous instrument the only possible Way of designating them in language would be to say that their special relation to their instrument is similar to the relation of suchandsuch particular sensuous objects to the sensuous instrument and in this relation to compare a particular supersensuous thing with a particular sensuous one using this comparison to indicate by language the place of the supersensuous thing in the supersensuous instrument In this sphere language has no further power it gives a sensuous image of the supersensuous thing merely with the remark that it is an image of that kind he who wishes to attain to the thing itself must set his own mental instrument in motion according to the rule given him by the image Speaking generally it is evident that this designation of the super sensuous by means of sensuous images must in every case be conditioned by the stage of development which the power of sensuous perception has reached in the people under consideration Hence the origin and pro gress of this designation by sensuous images will be very GERMANS amp OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 59 different in different languages and will depend on the di 39erence in the relation that has existed and continues to exist between the sensuous and intellectual develop ment of the people speaking a language 49 We shall next illustrate this observation clear though it is in itself by an example Anything that arises according to the conception of the fundamental impulse explained in the preceding address directly in clear perception and not in the rst place in dim feeling anything of this kind and it is always a supersensuous object is denoted by a Greek word which is frequently used in the German language also it is called an Idea German I deg and this word conveys exactly the same sensuous image as the word Gesicat in German which occurs in the following expressions in Luther s translation of the Bible Ye shall see visions Gexicate ye shall dream dreams Idea or Vision in its sensuous meaning would be something that could be perceived only by the bodily eye and not by any other sense such as taste hearing etc it would be such a thing as a rainbow or the forms which pass before us in dreams Idea or Vision in its supersensuous meaning would denote rst of all in conformity with the sphere in which the word is to be valid something that cannot be perceived by the body at all but only by the mind and then something that cannot as many other things can be perceived by the dim feeling of the mind but only by the eye of the mind by clear perception Further even if one were inclined to assume that for the Greeks the basis of this sensuous designation was certainly the rainbow and similar phenomena one would have to admit that their sensuous perception had already advanced to the stage of noticing this difference between things viz that some reveal themselves to all or several senses and others to 6o ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION the eye alone and that besides if the developed conception had become clear to them they would have had to desig nate it not in this way but in some other Also their superior mental clearness would then be evident as compared say with that of another people which was not able to indicate the di erence between the sensuous and the supersensuous by an image taken from the deliberate waking state but had gone to dreams to nd an image for another world It would at the same time be plain thatthis difference was not based on the greater or smaller strength of the sense for the supersensuous in the two peoples but solely on the difference between their sensuous clearness at the time when they sought to desig39 nate supersensuous things 50 Thus all designation of the supersensuous is con ditioned by the extent and clearness of sensuous percep tion in him who gives the designation The image is clear to himiand expresses to him in an entirely com prehensible way the relation of the thing conceived to the mental instrument because this relation is explained to him by another direct and living relation to his sensuous instrument The new designation which thus arises together with all the new clearness which sensuous perception itself acquires by this extended use of the sign is now deposited in the language and the supersensuous perception possible in the future is now designated in accordance with its relation to the total supersensuous and sensuous perception deposited in the whole language So it goes on without interruption and so the immediate clearness and comprehensibility of the images is never broken off but remains a continuous stream More over since language is not an arbitrary means of com munication but breaks forth out of the life of under standing as an immediate force of nature a language GERMANS amp OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 61 continuously developed according to this law has also the power of immediately affecting and stimulating life Just as things immediately present in uence man so must the words of such a language influence him who understands them for they too are things and not an arbitrary contrivance Such is the case first in the sensuous world Nor is it otherwise in the supersensuous foralthough in the latter the continuous process of observ ing nature is interrupted by free contemplation and reflection and at this point God who is without image appears yet designation by language at once inserts the Thingwithoutimage in the continuous connection of things which have an image So in this respect also the continuous progress of language which broke forth in the beginning as a force of nature remains uninter rupted and into the stream of designation no arbitrari ness enters For the same reason the supersensuous part of a language thus continuously developed cannot lose its power of stimulating life in him who but sets his mental instrument in motion The words of such a language in all its parts are life and create life Now if in respect of the development of the language for what is supersensuous we make the assumption that the people of this language have continued in unbroken communica tion and that what one has thought and expressed has before long come to the knowledge of all then what has previously been said in general is valid for all who speak this language To all who will but think the image deposited in the language is clear to all who really think it is alive and stimulates their life 0y is the case I say with a language which fri i the time the rst sound broke forth among the same people has developed continuously out of the actual common life of this people and into which no element 62 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION has ever entered that did not express an observation actually experienced by this people and moreover an observation standing in a connection of widespread reciprocal in uence with all the other observations of the same people It does not matter if ever so many individuals of other race and other language are incorpora ted with the people speaking this language provided the former are not permitted to bring the sphere of their observations up to the position from which the language is thereafter to develop they remain dumb in the com munity and Without in uence on the language until the time comes when they themselves have entered into the sphere of observation of the original people Hence they do not form the language it is the language which forms them 52 But the exact opposite of all that has so far been said takes place when a people gives up its own language and adopts a foreign one Which is already highly developed as regards the designation of supersensuous things I do not mean when it yields itself quite freely to the in uence of this foreign language and is quite content to remain Without a language until it has entered into the circle of observation of this foreign language but When it forces its own circle of observation on the adopted language which when it develops from the position in which they found it must thenceforward proceed in this circle of observation In respect of the sensuous part of the language such an event indeed is without con sequences For among every peopleithe children must in any case learn that partof the language just as if the signs were arbitrary and thus recapitulate in this matter the Whole previous linguistic development of the nation But in this sphere of the senses every sign can be made quite clear by directly looking at or touching the thing GERMANS amp OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 63 designated At most the result of this would be that the rst generation of a people which thus changed its language would be compelled when adults to go back to the years of childhood with their descendants however and with subsequent generations everything would doubtless be in the old order again On the other hand this change has consequences of the greatest impor tance in respect of the supersensuous part of the language For the rst possessors of the language this part was formed in the way already described but for those who acquire the language later the verbal image contains a comparison with an observation of the senses which they have either passed over long ago without the accom panying mental development or else have not yet had and perhaps never can have The most that they can do in such a case is to let the verbal image and its mental signi cance explain each other in this way they receive the flat and dead history of a foreign culture but not in any way a culture of their own They get symbols which for them are neither immediately clear nor able to stimulate life but which must seem to them entirely as arbitrary as the sensuous part of the language For them this advent of history and nothing but history as expositor makes the language dead and closed in respect of its whole sphere of imagery and its continuous onward ow is broken off Although beyond this sphere they may again develop the language as a living language in their own way and so far as this is possible from such a startingpoint nevertheless that element remains a dividing wall at which without exception language in its original emergence from life as a force of nature and the actual language s renewal of contact with life are broken Although such a language may be stirredon the surface by the wind of life and thus present the appearance of 64 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION having a life of its own nevertheless it has a dead element deeper down and by the entrance of the newcircle of observation and the breach with the old one it is cut off from the living root 53 We proceed to illustrate the foregoing by an example remarking incidentally that such a language at bottom dead and incomprehensible very easily lends itself to perversion and to misuse in glossing over every kind of human corruption and that this is not possible in a language which has never died I take as my example the three notorious words Humanity Popularity and Liberality When these words are used in speaking to a German who has learnt no language but his own they are to him nothing but a meaningless noise which has no relationship of sound to remindquot him of anything he knows already and so takes him completely out of his circle of observation and beyond any observation possible to him Now if the unknown word nevertheless attracts his attention by its foreign distinguished and euphonious tone and if he thinks that what sounds so lofty must also have some lofty meaning he must have this meaning explained to him from the very beginning and as some thing entirely new to him and he can only accept this explanation blindly So he becomes tacitly accus tomed to acknowledge as really existing and valuable something which if left to himself he would perhaps S never have found worth mentioning Let no one believe that the case is much different with the neoLatin peoples who utterzthose words as if they were words of their mothertongue Without a scholarly study of antiquity and of its actual language they understand the roots of those words just as little as the German does Now if instead of the word Humanity H untan ita t we had said to a German the word Memcblic9eeit GERMANS 8 OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 65 which is its literal translation he would have understood us without further historical explanation but he would have said Well to be a man Meme9 and not a wild beast is not very much after all Now it may be that no Roman would ever have said that but the German would say it because in his language manhood M emcb7 bait has remained an idea of the senses only and has never become a symbol of a supersensuous idea as it did among the Romans Our ancestors had taken note of the separate human virtues and designated them symboli cally in language perhaps long before it occurred to them to combine them in a single concept as contrasted with animal nature and that is no discredit to our ancestors as compared with the Romans Now anyone who in spite of this wished to introduce that foreign and Roman symbol arti cially and as it were by a trick into the language of the Germans would obviously be lowering their ethical standard in passing on to them as distinguished and commendable something which may perhaps be so in the foreign language but which the German in accord ance with the ineradicable nature of his national power of imagination only regards as something already known and indispensable A closer examination might enable us to demonstrate that those Teutonic races which adopted the Latin language experienced even in the beginning similar degradations of their former ethical standard because of inappropriate foreign symbols but on this circumstance we do not now wish to lay too great a stress Further if in speaking to the German instead of the words Popularity Popularit tjr and Liberality Liber alit t I should use the expressions striving for favour with the great mob and not having the mind of a slave which is how they must be literally translated 5 66 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION 391 he would to begin with not even obtain a clear and vivid senseimage such as was certainly obtained by a Roman of old The latter saw every day with his own eyes the exible politeness of an ambitious candidate to all and sundry and outbursts of the slave mind too and those words vividly represented these things to him Even from the Roman of a later period these sights were removed by the change in t he form of government and the introduction of Christianity and besides his own language was beginning to a great extent to die away in his own mouth This was more especially due to Christianity which was alien to him and which he could neither ward off nor thoroughly assimilate How was it possible for this language already half dead in its own home to be transmitted alive to a foreign people How could it now be transmitted to us Germans 3 More over with regard to the symbolic mental content of both those expressions there is in the word Popularity even at the very beginning something base which was perverted in their mouths and became a virtue owing to the corruption of the nation and of its constitution The German never falls into this perversion so long as it is put before him in his own language But when Liberality is translated by saying that a man has not the soul of a slave or to give it a modern rendering has not a lackey s way of thinking he once more replies that to say this also means very little Moreover into these verbal images which even in their pure form among the Romans arose at a low stage of ethical culture or designated something positively base there were stealthily introduced during the development of the neoLatin languages the idea of lack of seriousness about social relations the idea of selfabandonment and the idea of heartless laxity In order to bring these GERMANS 8 OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 67 things into esteem among us use was made of the respect we have for antiquity and foreign countries to introduce the same words into the German language It was done so quietly that no one was fully aware of what was actually intended The purpose and the result of all admixture has ever been this rst of all to remove the hearer from the immediate comprehensibility and de niteness which are the inherent qualities of every primitive language then when he has been prepared to accept such words in blind faith to supply him with the explanation that he needs and nally in this explanation to mix vice and virtue together in such a way that it is no easy matter to separate them again Now if the true meaning of those three foreign words provided they have a meaning C had been expressed to the German in his own words and within his own circle of verbal images in this way M enscbenfreeundlic2wit friendliness to man Leut5elig eeit condescension or affability and Edelmut noble mindedness he would have understood us but the base associations we have mentioned could never have been slipped into those designations Within the range of German speech such a wrappingup in incomprehen sibility and darkness arises either from clumsiness or evil design it is to be avoided and the means always ready to hand is to translate into right and true German But in the neoLatin languages this incomprehensibility is of their very nature and origin and there is no means of avoiding it for they do not possess any living language by which they might examine the dead one indeed when one looks at the matter closely they are entirely without a mothertongue 54 This single example will serve to demonstrate what could with ease be followed up throughout the whole range of the language and found present everywhere 68 ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION It is intended to explain to you as clearly as is here possible What has so far been said We are speaking of the supersensuous part of the language and not immediately or directly of the sensuous part This super sensuous part in a language that has always remained alive is expressed by symbols of sense comprehending atevery step in complete unity the sum total of the sensuous and mental life of the nation deposited in the language for the purpose of designating an idea that like wise is not arbitrary but necessarily proceeds from the Whole previous life of the nation From the idea and its designation a keen eye looking back could not fail to reconstruct the Whole history of the nation s culture But in a dead language this supersensuous part Which while the language was still alive Was What We have described becomes With the death of the language a tattered collection of arbitrary and totally inexplicable symbols for ideas that are just as arbitrary and with both idea and symbol there is nothing else to be done but just to learn them 55 With this our immediate task is performedWhich was to nd the characteristic that differentiates the German from the other peoples of Teutonic descent The difference arose at the moment of theseparation of the common stock and consists in this that the German speaks a language which has been alive ever since it rstgissued from the force of nature Whereas the other Teutonic races speak a language which has movement on the surface only but is dead at the root To this circumstance alone to life on the one hand and death on the other We assign the difference but We are not in any Way taking up the further question of the intrinsic value of the German language Between life and death there is no comparison the former has GERMANS amp OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 69 infinitely more value than the latter All direct com parisons between German and neoLatin languages are therefore null and void and are obliged to discuss things which are not Worth discussing If the intrinsic value of the German language is to be discussed at the very least a language of equal rank a language equally primitive as for example Greek must enter the lists but such a comparison is far beyond our present purpose 56 What an immeasurable in uence on the Whole human development of a people the character of its lan39 guage may have its language which accompanies the in dividual into the most secret depths of his mind in thought and will and either hinders him or gives him Wings Which unites Within its domain the Whole mass of men who speak it into one single and common understanding which is the true point of meeting and mingling for the World of the senses and the World of spirits and fuses the ends of both in each other in such a fashion that it is impossible to tell to which of the two it belongs itself hoW different the results of this in uence may prove to be Where the relation is as life to death all this in general is easily perceived In the rst place the German has a means of investigating his living language more thoroughly by comparing it with the closed Latin language which differs very widely from his own in the development of verbal images on the other hand he has a means of understanding Latin more clearly in the same way This is not possible to a member of the neoLatin peoples who fundamentally remains a captive in the sphere of one and the same language Then the German in learn ing the original Latin at the same time acquires to a certain extent the derived languages also and if he should learn the former more thoroughly than a foreigner does which for the reason given the German Will very likely 7o ADDRESSES TO THE GERMAN NATION be able to do he at the same time learns to understand this foreigner s own language far more thoroughly and to possess it far more intimately than does the foreigner himself who speaks it Hence the German if only he makes use of all his advantages can always be superior to the foreigner and understand him fully even better than the foreigner understands himself and can translate the foreigner to the fullest extent On the other hand the foreigner can never understand the true German without a thorough and extremely laborious study of the German language and there is no doubt that he will leave what is genuinely German untranslated The things in these languages which can only be learnt from the foreigner himself are mostly new fashions of speech due to boredom and caprice and one is very modest when one consents to receive instruction of this kind In most cases one would be able instead to show foreigners how they ought to speak according to the primitive language and its law of change and that the new fashion is worth less and offends against ancient and traditional good usage 57 In addition to the special consequence just men tioned the whole wealth of consequences we spoke of comes about of itself It is however our intention to treat these consequences as a whole fundamentally and comprehensively from the point of view of the bond that unites them in order to give in this way a thorough description of the German in contrast to the other Teutonic races For the present I brie y indicate these consequences thus I VVhere the people has a living language mental culture in uences life where the contrary is the case mental culture and life go their way independently of each other 2 For the same reason a people of the former kind GERMANS 3 OTHER TEUTONS COMPARED 71 is really and truly in earnest about all mental culture and Wishes it to in uence life Whereas a people of the latter kind looks upon mental culture rather as an ingeni ous game and has no wish to make it anything more 3 From No 2 it follows that the former has honest diligence and earnestness in all things and takes pains Whereas the latter is easygoing and guided by its happy nature 4 From all this together it follows that in a nation of the former kind the mass of the people is capable of education and the educators of such a nation test their 39 discoveries on the people and Wish to influence it whereas in a nation of the latter kind the educated classes separate themselves from the people and regard it as nothing more than a blind instrument of their plans The further discussion of the characteristics indicated I reserve for the next address WWTH F Hm1gil1 mn t hiii ITi nu C0 L 39 snrIIta fH39Hpf Pp 3ee17 534t3J9iquot inf H Mer b p 2 939 IjieLugE1tea 1 5 IifTliI1 mu Fees 0 3 at It is a futile enterprise to argue 8 race or races were the original bearers ef cueltuere and wi it the ac A teal founders of what slim up P wrd 9 manki11 d7 It is siimepler to put this quiestien to eneself regard 10 the present and here the enswer fellows easiely and die tinit13r Neat we see efore us of humenic u1tuerie today ereisuilte of art science and techiniquee isa1111ost 39EXC1ll5iV iy the creative prod net of the Aryan But ust this fact aidimiete ef three not unfemlded con e1ueien p he alone was the muinder of higher humanity as a whole thus he prototype A4 0 of V rehietoryi is intereating because of the de mitiein of culture that is inmivred For culture 39 in 0 sense is once again become ithe principal concem efi fEumpe The Aryan siueeeedse in puehingi Lhis ewe ionwiard an uipwaridf by conquering lesser peoples and using 1 as 4 helping fercesii sieves Then however master and sleeve intermarry and the cuiture decays Perhaps this is only an aneilei berr ewed from some pizzterial history of Eumpeain eeileniizing effort perhaps it is more pil1ile5ophiicel Spengler had teuht in pD Q MEIN KAMPF G of P We understand the weird man is the ll Premeatlmue of mainland eut of bright 1ferel1eacl l spain the 0 spark of genius at all times ferevler ree l kindling re in the farm of knowledge lightened up the night of eilerlt secrets and thus P man the a path tewards the peeitien of master of time other beings an u this earth Ellxelutle land dee dazrlmesle will again fall rupee the earth perhaps eVeu alter a thlaueacnd years 0b lliulman culture P urieh and the WWDI ld weuld intro la deserts lt5 lf me were to divider mankind int three groups eulture feuatllelrel eulturlebealrexe laurel culturrecl eetrerers then as relpreleentaltiv pB the first kind e11l the Aryan wzuld came in qules39tieu t its from pr that the feuudatien and the walls of all q ereatiene erir1ate and enly the eaternal farm and color daleVpend an r ehtalraeterietiee ef the various peepea involved He furnishes the gigantic buillldilngtstenee 0 also the plane fer all human progress and only the EXE eutien cerr espe11cle ate the c1haraeter ef the people and races in varieus instances In a few decades fer iuetlamzel the E tiffl east ef Asia willl call a culture its lewn the ultimate baeee ef will be Hellenic spirit and 0 teel1 nique just as is the ease ue Only the exlierlael iDI5 1 Willi at least partly bear the lfeaturee ref Aeiatie ellaraeter It lie not the ease ae eeme people claim that Japan p6 Eurepean techniques to her culture but European eciertee etechniquee are trimmed with Japanese cl1aractertistiee the Decline of the Want that cultures arise and fall eylclicaTlly and Hiltlelr here prevides a eerwenienitr illustratin fl why tfl1E jf39fBll Theerewlrth the riddle prepesled by Spengler selved the 39eult ure makiag felk is that which ebeying the law that early the tteet survive elmblarlee ea eenqusest arud expileitaltien and the elulturellde str39e3ring fellz is the slave breed which tempts lZl 1E arieteeratie group irate ir1termarriage Thus is Nietzsel1e materiafllized H y 1 I39 II II F I A r aagi 1 ll Ill II l I ll S 6 deal not p originally crlelitiere ereezieg but rather always mitere sepper reg peoples It is always about the fellewitng picture ef their clevelop ment presents itself njvaln tribes ef ten 6 a really ridiculously small number ef their own peeplel subj utgete ferei peepellets and new lttstimuleted by the special living conditions of the new terri tery fertility cenditierms etc and favored by the mess of the helping lmeene the form ref people of infe er kind new at their disposal they devellep the mental and 400 erge nizetory ebilitiee elumbering N pH Of ten in thequot course of at p millenniume er even centuries they ereeter cultures erigtitnally cempletterly letterquot the inner features ref their ehereet er adapted he the elreecl3r mentioned special queltiltriee emf the soil as well lets of the subjected people Finally herwever the eenqurerere deeielte from the prurity ef their ble which they 111eir1teimed originally they hegixzm te with the sulject e inhabitants end thee they end their Own exietelnee fer the fall oft main in Paradise has always been followed by erxpulsien f rem 1 F 1 Often after 3 Z and mre ryeers the leettl visible trace of the er1e tirr1e everlercle is shown in the fairer cem plexien which etheir bleed has left in the form of the C l r tn the subjected race and in e petri eozl eulttIr e which they X hed feunded as the original etreetere Fer just RS the eetuell etncl spiritual eerlquerer lest htimeelf 4W the bleed Of the euth jected thus else the fuel for the torch of human reulteurie progress was lest p Z through the bleed the celerr ef the former rneetere keeps a faint S merr es ea memery of them three also the mK of the cultural life is faintly hrihtened by the ereelitilensx that rremreitned ef the erstwhile beererre of i pwG These new slherret threugl1 all the berberism that has returned and N the theuhtless ebeerver of the rnernent 4 they ewalten 01113 tee frequently the epaimien eC he sees the plilcture ef the present peeple whererae 0 is only the rer ef PC past at A he is leekrimg NATION 401 Then it a happen that such a people for C second tiayee neyer even more often in 7 0e history memes inte tench with 0M race of enetime suppliers of culture 1 re f former meetinrs rneeessarilrye being present The rrezmeimder of the blood of 0 m1e time ters will uncnsciausly turn to the new epperietin and What h first was only pssible by cemprulsion new succeed with 1 a he of their own n 39I he n re Anew culture wave makes its enrtrsnrce and lisstrs until its bearers have once more been submerged in the bleed of iforeign peoples It will be the task of s uture culture and world history to make rresesrehres p this sense and net t stl feeste by re r ecting rexternarlr fscztrsr as this is unefortumatrel3r only too A efetenr the ease Q our prresezrrl science sf histmryer Llerely frrm sketch of the drevelepmrent of cultures 1 bearinrg nagtiens rresults also the picture of the origin the wrk end m the dercline If the true 1111eteurer rcrestm rsr sf this O 710 1 the Aryensr ther11selVes5 Just as sin clsily life the sewcelled genius requires a special pX v A A 2 n 5 No de nistiusm Def V werdr Aryltans 3 is sceeptsblxe GrE I391IIT1ELI 1 lreiregrspLhers wreree hard pressed to hit upon an sceurarte di escripteien The term itself is probably of Sanskrit migin rend seems tee have mreant friendsquot It was next assumed that 1hes e friends werre Irm1 G errn1ans who it was further es sumed had invrsvred India and subjugfated the lesser breeds Finally quotAr3rsn beeetrle just as synenjym fer IndeGeremsquotn39 LO 0 P rediretrien the encyeleedsis Der gm5 e s srdsr said R39ECEI1t339 some have used ethrmlogics y in an incorrect wary Ar rs1139 to indicate IndoGermsns in general In ethis esse 1he term is used es in the nature of a slogan in the srtrurle sever the se1f dfetrerr11instiren ermd preerservetien ef mu recsre ageienest Jeerry 39shic11 is of s di errent order 95 this grand simirler de nitienrsr surely discreet enough the ressriier volumes of this encyclspr were ordered withdrawn from cireulstirer11 In practice ethe word is of eiallly used eteday as as racial stem cause often even so real impetus in order to V made eon spieuous l enemies c also case the ingenious reee P the life f the peoples In the monoton3r of everyday life i even impolrtent people oftern seem unimportenrti and they hardly stand rout rover average of their surrourldings but es soon as they are faced a e situetilon in which others would despair or go wrong out of the plain everege ehilci the i11grenious neturre grows wrisribly not infrequently to the estonishmerrl of all those Z llitjh ft had an opportunity to observe him 5Y shed meenwhrile grown up in the smell mess of eoz r3geeis life aiI1d therefore in er1seqtL1er1ee of lthis process the prophet has rarely erlyl l1 or1r his own eounl O BR Nevr is there 3 better oppo39rtunintf to obserrve tlris ltrhen during In the hours of distressl when others de i spair out of e1rparently harmlress children there shoot s39ud l denly heroes of ldeelthdef39ying deterrninetion and 8E coroll ness ref re eetion If this hour of trial had I1ErVEI39CI Iquot1E then A her clly enyorle would ever have been able to guess that re young hero is hidden tlhe beerldless L 8 Nearly all such an iiI1 lLpElZ L1S is needed in order to cell genius linto eclioln exeluding Jews and r1egroes The second are frowrled upon ibeeeuse W they ere edrr1itteI1 into 1 l1e French army end because is hoped sympetlly for the Nazi cause imey be tr lmsl awakened 3 1GI lg SDl1ti1EIquot EI39S in the iUinited39 States Delegations of Bral1minsl39 halve however been cordiell3r weleoeerrrlerred to the New lGermeny 395 Pererllieils to lhiseeI1 be found in the wrltine of Pen Germans like Hierinrieh Class and Count Reven1ilow In an eddiress dlelliiwered during 1932 Hitler declared resell use in hurr1an I If we save Germlanyy we sfhell hevle done the greatest deed in the worl Let them call us unjust we save Gera mrsrnyt we shefll have repsir the gfreetsesvft injusltiee in the world Let their we are wiithoult morality If our people is lsevlerd we slielrl have paved the way for morality P L NATION AND RACE 403 Fate e hammer S7l1i39Gi E which err throws the one to the i gfreurld suddenljye strikes steel 0t another and while new the shell of everycieye life is brken the erstwhile nueleeeue lies eperl to the eyes of aeteniehedb wrld The letter new re eists and does not went to believe that the apere11tly2 quotidentiee139 0 new suddenly supposed to be e differr i rent i being a process 0 x itself eminent L human being 39 If Althouh invenhter for instance EStafbiLiSi1 S his fame 3 only on th day of T invention one must not that perhaps his geerliue in itself em tered the men only just 1 at this hour but the spark of genius twill phreeent in the fereiheamd of truly creatively gifted men frem the ihur of his birth although fer rneny years U er slumberrring eendit rtien and therefore invieibler to the rest of the world Pz ut 4 some dy tthrreugh an external eeuree er impetus of some the sperlc 39bECDII391ES re em39netthimg that enrly then beV L gins the stir the ett entien of other people The meet etupid f ef them ibeiietre new all sincerity that the person in queen 1 titlll has just become eleVer39 wherees reality the them 5 selves new begin at Last to retegniee his greetnress if l truer genius is eliweyeiinborn andr1ev39er acuihretd by iedueetiorn or etiill less by iEaI I1iI1g This hewievver they saicl as already stressed net erflly fer the irnidivideuel men but also for the rece lt Crretathrely I active peoples are createively from very hettm and forever aith0U h this may ramit be fECOg I1iZ7 iiiE39 to the eyes of the euper ciel ebeerverr Here to exterr1el recegrli tien is teiweys only possiible as 3 consequence of accom piished facts as rest of the world is not able the reeegnrize genius in iteel but eeee enlyts visible EXpI39ESSiUI1S in RY farm of rirwentiene ciieeevezries buildings pictures tct blilt even here it often takes a long time till is able to struggle through to this krnerrlede Exectlry as b life of the in dividual impmrterlt imen his egeni us or extreerdinery P W A 1 g 43 j Z MElNee KAMPF strives towards y practical refit titizatie I1 Only when urged en Q special OEC iSiO S tlmis also in the lifeef the peelee the reel 115 of ereetievie foireee and abilities are present een tke place Duly when certain preeumpitions einvite to this see this meet e1ieerI3r in that race that C t help haltie g been and beingi the eupportier ef deetreillepment def ehumen cultured at the PLIfyenesi As seen as eFete leads them tewerde eeciel eendeitiene their latent ehilitiee E to develep in at more and mere rapid eeuree end to meld theme selves into tengiihie euilturee PS they found in SfL1ChC SES3178 Eneathr eilweye deeieively deteremineid by P eveileiblie silt the 1iI 1 1EIte deemed the subjected people The letter hewever is the meet decisive def ell faeterei meted primitive the iteehnieel epteeui11ptiens fer he edltureijl aietivitye are the mere meeeeisery is 0 preeenee of human etuxilierye fereee then eelleeted and applied with the ehjee1 of ergemieeatiiem have to replace the feree of the Ame ehine this possibility of utilizing inferier 111en the Aryan would never have been able to EE the ret steps tewerdes his later culture iexeietely es Witl lL L1t the help of verieue euei39tiebelie enimelieewheieh he knew how to termed he would I1EVEt i1 VE errhr ed at a technele new allows him to do wiitheut theaere Very animals The were eD er eh he set Sckeidighe geee er eereeei Vgiehee 439 The Meet has done duty he go has Lmfertunetely too deep at n1 eeI1ieIf1g Fer tiheueendsi of years the horse had to stewed mlen ende to help in laying the fielmieitiene of e deiveiepment which new threugh the n1eter eer makes the horse itself 5uper ueeL1e In 3 fiew years 0 2 heaved ceased eetivity but without its former eeepe139aItieim men would l1erdly have ererieved at where attends etedeyn There eifiiere f or the fGfLquot ij amptiUH if higeheere cultures the eeieeti ence inierier men wee one of the eeseti eesentieI pI ESLl 3911p tiiene beeuee they aler1e were ele to re ilae the lack of teeehnical emeene Without a cer development is uni2 thinkebie ret culture f menldnd certainly depended less one the tamed animal but rather on the use ft tinferior t M afeter the efnslevementt of eubjecitted recee the same fate began to 13911eet the animals and not tiice verse as many would like to believe For tet the conquered walked hind in letter editiens ireed befere the plow end after him ethe horse nly eci st feels can eg ain leek 11 this as a W of human baeenees Without maldng iceileer to themselves tfhsagt this developmeint ihardi t ta s lace in order to arrive nalfly at that lace from where today these apeetiies ere aizile be sputter f fth their r tineto the world The regress of au resemtblees the ascent mm an end less Iedderrg ene cannt emrive at the top S t ret hav m teken the lowerquot steps Thus the Aryan had to go the way which realtity showed j and not that ef wihieh i imagienetien f a mtdiern paci st dreame The way d real ity heweievetr is hard etnd di1teeult c it nally ends Where the ether wishes to bring by dreazmin but unt er39tumaL39tely reemmree it mm retlher than brings it nearer ta it tTherefore it is no accident that the first cultures origi nated in those placeis Whre the Aryan by meeting lewer peoples subdued them an made them eujeet to P T U They then were W rst etechntical inetrumieintt peU the serve iee of e rowing culture O the way jH the Amen had to to was clearly lined out M a tonuerer he eubj eeted the lower peoples and etihen he reguileted itheir practical ability according to his eemmttend d his will amid fr his PLE But While he ethue led them tiwarde a useful though herd eetiwrity sE net only spared the lives of subjected but eperhaps he ieven gave them a fate was better thexl that of their t fesrtmer eeceileedia freedem As long as he kept up ruthlessly P p 0 the n1asiter39s standpoint he not only really rernaineci 39 ter but alas the preserver and preipaguater of the enlture39T er the latter was based exclusively on his ailities and with it an his preservation in purity But as seen as the subsjected peoples themselVes begtan to rise probably and appreaehed the conqueror linguistically the sharp separae ing wall bietweien masters and slave 0 Aryan gave up the pnritjr sf his blnnci and therefore he alse inst PL place in the Pradise 0 he had created for himself He be suibrnerged in the racernixture he grnadually lost his enflturiai abilitiy more and more till last only InEI t3 37 but also physically he began to I39EltSEI1b139E nmre p suba jected and aberigines than PR aneesiters F or some tirn e he still live on the existin enitujrai grads but than petri ifaetien sets in and nally oibiivien 39 In this way cultures and realms teeIiapse erder to make rename for new fermmaetiens The b 1 eeda1nixing nhewever Z the lwering of the racial level caused pu it is the seie cause ef the dryingOE eff eld cultures for the people do not perish Ph lest swears but the less ref force ef resistance which is eent39aineid only in then pure bleed All is not race in this W39tDIquotid is trash 0 Wor1d hisiternieal events however are 0nnly the E E139ES sien ef the raees instinct sf selfprieservrtiien in its end or in its evil n1eaning isiis quotJinn 139 That is security is better than reede1n And security earried to its ultimate in the quottotal n1ehi1izatien39 ef the natien is very Well anialyziedn by Ranschning The nlasses still cling P the resiidne ef persenal liberty ef selfdeteirrninatien which has been lief t to there Yet all such things n1ust disappear eeme pieiitehr before the aibseiinnite security which is the inherent eb jeethrei off the tlerite revelutien has been reached G G u If The question about the injner causes of the O 1l EI39Wll1El r iiI1 H irmportance of Aryanism can e enswelred t the effect that ii they X to be slight in as greet er peterrtieliltyl ef the ll itlstimzt oi selfipresel in itself tlman in the speciail El way in c lietter expresses itself iThe will to live 1 loelked est subjlectively is the same everywhelrle and it is dif 1quot I iererxt only 111 the form of zts actual e 39ect Wtlth themest 39 Fl original livingr beings the instinct H selilpreserVetion deals l l not go beyomjl fer tl1eir own ee fHere tlme ege I iSzIl391139 as We T urge goes so fare that even comprises time set that o mmfnent itself claims evelrythimg and be H grudges everythingl to the coming hours pe eniimel iiiVE5 in this states only fer itself seeks feed only whleneverr feels hungry and ghts oxlly for its own life I1t es leng as the iI1stir1et of slelfpreservetin expresses itself in this pk elvery bssiis fer the fermatrien of st eemmuniity be 3 even the most prirnitive form of the family is leeki11g Evr1 ii comrunity l3ElWEEI1 iI11 iE and female ibeyend the mere meeting requirles 3 birceclening ef the ir1stinet ef se1fpreser ration as snow the care for C wrl l i ere estends sis rte the ether pert sometimes the male seeks fed for rthe 1 female but met infrlequentllyl x of v fer the 3reuingl l mles Nearly always the one steps in for the pI397DitECtiDI1 of 1 the ether so y here the rst quotthough in nieteily simple 5 forms of is reseli11ess rte seeri cpe present tillEI7I1SEiViES As seen as this insltinct extends beyond the limitis of the narrow 1 frame of the family the prerqurisite for h formation of it greater unions 0o 11alll formal States is girven Er h the lowest people of PPf earth we ncl V uelity d only to xf V e exteenrte s that often nothing but is flamily is irmed The greater inividual s resiness to 1 subordinates yb own purely persornal interests is the more increases also aibility tor EStalIli5l1I11EI1t elf extemsivle ii 1 I r l I 1 1 II 1 1 r 4 a eernmlunities will to lsectrie ce in isteking his personal labor and iV PA 31 4 4 21 j 1 necsssary owns fr ntlhsrs is Y powerfully des valsppeci in the Aryan Ha p grea1esft nsst in his mentiai capacities as 53 but in the extent to which lie is rsa dy to put all his alixilitiss at the servicis of the 1n mn1unit339 0f 0m the instin ct oi sslf priessrvatinn has reached tlhiss most noble fnrrn because willingly s39ul3jiects his owri ago to a the m of CD IT1II1L1T iltquot and C rtha hsujr shsulcl require he also sacri ces R in the intsllsctual a39bilitiss lies the Aryianis cultlura creating and building albility he only lthsse he wnuld a1wiays be ails tn wlnrlg only idssltlrustsriivelly Tbut in no a A case l arganizingl3r far innsrrnsslt nature of all organ g aa44 isation is based on just 03 fact tilat the individual ran nnunces representing his personal opinion and his interests an sacri ces bath in favor sf 3 majrrrity of psple quotnly 3 Aryan is tlisrsfre the blast s09ldier Brut he will also be the best quot wsriksri in the sense adopted by srussian Snciallilsn1 whiclh is in theory a system rewarding men an the basis sf the slslrviss they render the State the c0mn1unity as a whole lag the wnrld cnnfrnnts H fast that German labor has P Z and lslarge azcqulescscl in this its farmers lias its as larnse satanit been dX s r angd perhaps it was this ninst fundamsntail clf1aracteristi of Q 6W that it based a conception sf class iwarfars on an assurnptisn of quotani vsrsallry valid human 1quot39igl1tS The inldividual wnriksri was held enstitl to certain inalisnahls privileges and for the sake of thsss the struggle against a SUC iEtY that refused tn grant thsrn was in1psr ative Em just lJssause lviarxism respected human rights H li1nW evsr ssrularislic its undsrstanclin of ihsni may have been its revslutinnary initiativs was nscaessarilly lamed B shock which best German Socialists fall whsln they mnsfronted the BaIshleivilst rl gime was the result of ifleir fi i llii g tlrialz Lenin had betrayed the fundamsntal are sf pO7 He had said the faith A3 srdsr tn dsininats The Till 2 began by depriving the German worker of NATION AND RACE 409 by way of the genoml oommnnkity is his share nreturnod to i p ow fr instance 0 no longer WUfiS directly for e hintself but activitjr he joins in the fmjnie of the A con1n1unit3r not oI1ly fr own advanitage but fir that of all The most wonderful explanation of this disposition P offleroed D word wiort by U he does not mean an i activityquot for gainingquot his living but only a creotinne toil that does not con1rdict interests of the comn1unity In the 3 other case he calls the human aticti tyi so for as it does not serve 1 instincit of se1fpresoWa tin wit11iut onoidiV ornti on for Welfare of the ciontenmpiortary world by ithe 1 woirids theft usury robbery ibnrglary etc quot This disposition now which causes the iindividu1 s ego in to stop in the face of the presiorva39tion of p CDInII1UI1 at ity is roaxnlly the rtst 39I39EI39Eqf11iSitE for any truly hnnlan cola tote Only out of this alil the great works of maninldnd are L able to ringinnato Woriks bring 1itt1o reward to the n x oxnot39ly what the Initornatioinoflo had taken from p froedorn of tatinnemblyri tradnitioinagl toirganizotiono the right to dosignate lioado15 But it rnnnif osted in in mannor in the Rep39ubli c could not manifest its nnood for wiorikorsn And therewiitln dnopnito all nmaitoirifal ptriivatio no such as bad brood look of fats lower pay harder work P 0 was prepaired for no rovioIution of the Working class t in renolu39 on tiho dim ontlninos of 0u undoutedly faociniate the Gotrman toilet today For abolishing the indivquotidua1 the Third Reich automaticaiI ly created the 111355 by establishing diominion power as the solo ethical norm it aiutomoitioally icreoted a longing for power on 3 scale hitherto unlmoiwn a timer or ilotor the two the now rrnassois iannd the new Pk absolute i must coinciidie q is out of date in Germiany theore fore oinlply ibocauoo theory of hnn1an rights is out of date that thnooo who have destroyed will none to rookoan Cf Do rbei1iort 439 arrsiichoft P3 Geo oiift by Eirnst Jiinger 3 o feuncler the richest ljlessing te pesterliltyl ut 0 alene me can understandi how so K are able to sustain a pearl life honesty p imposes aly plev erty and lmecla esty an themsewlves but which guarantees the ftmdamen tails of pU eemmunityi s existence Every laborer every peasant etveiry imrentelr e ieiail letc when weeks ever being able to attain happiness an wellbeing a eairrier of this high idea even pI the deeper nteaning of his actions remained hidden to hinf1s elf iferleveirr But what agpplaiies to work as the basis of r Ilutrititm and all human prgress applies the a far jreater extent ate D 39 pIquotU1ZEC tlDI1 sf man and his cultures In giving up eneis sewn L life for the existenee of the cemmunity lies screening of i all will to sacri ce V0111 this pirevents elvefylthing that l7l1l I1 1a I1 hands have 0 item being overthrown taaiin by human hands or dES liI ID39 lEEl by Nature fer herselfE But just our German lanuage has a werwd which in a glerieuirs manner dezscribes acting 0 this sense ful llmeI1tef dusty P tichterfeilaagl that means not to KSellLmCE for one sell but to serve the cemmtunity Q is duty Near the basic ispesitierl out sf such an aeltivity grows we call idealism to distinguish it from egeisma tl1is we understaxi only lI l dlVidiL1aliSl ability to slaiclrli ee himself for the eommaunity for his fellaw citizens T jut necessary is I t reeegniitze aaixl and again that idealism is net perhapls SllpeI39 llCl39l1S her even dispensable expressien ell feeling but that truth it weasel is and will be the prerequisite for what we call human culture indeed that idealism alone has created the nation man To this l l1iEiquotIquot attitude the Aryan ewes his position in the world land ts the world ewes man for p attituealm1e has shaped mere intellect into the Creative force V new in its urlique bllending ef the crutdie With i gleniailus it1tellect has created the menlume11ts ef human cultures Withe ut its ideal attitude all eVen the amest brilliant abil p p P n a elf initellect lwould only be v in itself bllt never cteatsiquotve force ieutwsrd sptpestanlcet w ith0lut inlner salute But as true idealism is 11sthing but subjecting the indi it vitd11sI39ts4 interest and life to the eesimmzunityl and as this again reptrestentlst the ipresumtisns fore p2 kind of eretetsiivet organizing lfermst ithetefmre in PFy veryi hearth it crresprI1ds 10 t velunltary taeknswlledi r f ulitimate o 42if Nstlure Idealism slene leads men ent of privilege sf force end strength and thus makes thlem become as dust gparticle of V ithsgt order l and shapes l entire ulnilverisse Purest ideslisml is ulncenstieusly deepest knswledge Haw nlueh this applies Ph how little genuine idealism Y has to do Of playful imagination one can recognize imnie4 1 diatelxy if the unspoilt child the healthy hey is permit ted to judge The ssn1e boy who is nausested P the drivel of an ideal Y psei st is ready to tihrew sway his ysumg kc for the ideal of his nsitienslity Here the itlstinet left reslizstin umenseisusly obeys the 39 dleeper nleeessitr of the preservation of the species if necest t ssty eat the es1pelnsteef the indlividusil and it prtests sgsinstl j the vlisienist sf Q petli stt babbler p M M reality as s crudleiy madesup cowardly egsist trespssses against L V laws of delveellelpmentg ferquot the letter is csI1diltfisned by the A lindlivilduslis Wi1Iingness to sstcrii ce in f3jVOlf39 ef the 9 Somesue has wrixttezl Suffer the little ehilltdren to tame unto me fer itheirs is the kingdom of 0 B Three men kG sgfter HitIerquots rise to sweet p travelerquot rough Germany euld see in 5398h39U quoti3i piay yards tots sf four quot ve stielts en their sheulders gsing through mililtalry eivel utisnls at the eemmsnd of s dritll lmssteari Austria 8 the dsy s lfelilewin 8 Astsizlit 39lfi3 was patrolled P boys sf ujper gjrrslmmar school high S Ch0tl age 4 where armed with ri es an dlrswzn bsytcmlets 39 0 0 i en the experiences ef P pest The general level of eultutre supplies the indiveideuel mestly without p ntetitcing ti1is with siutch e pref usien ef Apreliemieuary knowledge theft new armed in this meetnnter P can set eut tewerds further steps ef his P The syeumg boy of todai3r fer instance grews up among as truly vast number of technical achieve ments ef the past few centuries that new as being matters ef eeeurse he not leegerpaysatteeI1tien to many things which wverie etilil a riddle to great e hundred years age eteheut fer the felJewe sup and the understanding ef eur regress in eld it is of deeisiive impuertenee fer If today even a geniuts ef the twenties ef the pest Ctemtiury were suddenly te leave his tgreve Weuld nd it much herdier te make way ebeut in the present time this is case of an average bet ef fteen ef tedey F er he would leek 0 the in nite prerequisitetse whieah the inetdivideutell takes in se speak uI1ee11seieus1 y during his edeieesee11ee in the midst of the general culture ef the eerrespenclixi time As sneer the Jew fer reasons which wilquotl immeidietely bea eeme EVidEI1t frent H fellewieg was never in thee pesa session ef as culture ef his ewe the bases fer spiritual t tThe Jews said CI1an11berlein are neither as race me e ppile a They are the unique example ef e plglmelyi peresitie predguet ef decay peint ef View is based te a eertaie ex tent en 3 eerrupt feeding ef ta serlteneez in eMerr1msen quot5 Remee Hisitmry which reeds In the Old Werld tee Jewry was an active iiermeintt of eesmepelitainism and nettienelt deeempesitiee end was fer that reesen e preferredquot 1111 eged rnember in the Caesarien States the ef which were in itruth 39Uti39liHg but eesmepeiitenism the felkdem efi which was essen tie y nething else than a11umsI1ity39 Memmsen meeniti U the Jews upreted ftem their eetherleznd lived everywhere and served as iinl ts te tie Rome te the prmiineesit Cheatmiberlein built up an eIebrete theory Ate eeeeuet fer this parasitic pmduet V 3z 1 4z4 j n 31 A4 4 V 4 39 o A MPF k I aetiivity have always EEI1 furiniished by etilwrs At all times initeiiect J deveieped threughr the icuilture that SLlr munds T Never the reverse process take placer er even if the Jewish peoples ins lit11citi Of seifapreseiwia tierm is not SCi E1i39E Iquot but rather greater tiilgaI39l P of other tnatins and even if his spiritual abiilities easily ereate the impression as through they were equal tie the intet ieetuai dispJsi39ti0n of the other races yet the essentjiarl presumption fer a euilturied peopi1 e is completely iiiaekiing the 7 idealistiei cltispesitien In the Jewish peeiei the will tee saCri cer oneself dees inst A gs beyendi tile bare instinct of selfepreservatien D the indi vidual seemingiy great feeling of belonging together is meted in a primitiive herd rinsitintcit as it shews itself Jews were th eiug ht are race miixed with other races tee idiiverse in Character ts permit assimiliartierl They had rnarriedi with Arabs and Syriansi and were as a result idegieneratei Utriiriai sirm as described in the Old Testametnt was he held Aeaiy the isill sf bleed39a ie the sin ef intermaririagie with mferiieri breeds Few Nazis prior to 1933 put tmuch iaitli in these teachings at which Ernst Reehm is krlewn tn have iaughedii Te Tj Jew baiting wazs merely a e iectiiver form of drumrrligng up prejudiee against the hats Republic which had given jeibs ts RathenaTu Eisner Hilferding and ethers Even today one heeiars thenyerst Niiasi dissesmt from the ef reial a1tiSeimitiism but this is pirebably mere 139 less in griained a yeuth Therese was abundant pretest against the Nesernber pegrems but little of it was publicity rnanifiesil ed The peiular readiness to be stirred te a passiaen ever the Iews Q wiitaeisis the J verre iks May Q Jews die eut W whiieh the yeiuth ergiarniieatiens in particuiair have taken I1p I seems based partlfy an wiillingr1e ss ta detest aii thiingsi net strictly German a ceinrisequampemce no doubt of the disap pointments aeoi privatiens DJ feiiesred the War and partly lgn1ylestens1ble It endures enlyl as 1eng as ether EX1SltEl CE of 1 l II NATION AND RACE 415 in a similar way mainly other liVi11 beings in this Thereby the fact is remearkablle that in all these cases a 39 mmlmelln herd instlinct leads 1 nlutual supprt 0111 as long 5 as ea eomlmon danger makes Pl usleful er unaveidablle L The same pack of wellvles that jisintly falls upon its busty i dissolves whee S hlmger ab atesi The same is true 0139 hsrlsesi o try ts ward eff the attacker in lcemmlsnl and Jr srhich D in differents directiens when the danger is gone 4 With the Jew the case is similar will to sacri ce is i the irliviclual abs 0lutel3r requires n However as seon as the common enemy Pux beaten arid Cr danger tlhlreaiteming all is averted bm bsmy remverledl the apparent harmony ll among Jews lthemslelvies ceases to p way again for l ge en eeenenlie 111391rest The Jew was represerl as one who pm ted by the in atin or as the lrnajsr eause sf lbusiness l professional eolmpetirtmn j it is difli11llt39t s make a geocl argulment to slhew Jeiwlisih remnlDmic demilrranee preHitler Gerrnainy near was eulaturial in ruencte I1ete we rlthy eu39tside Berflin iwhat can be said is that an c11l39ti elf puiblkity sometimes sverstressed the ilmpsrtance imdli vidlual ews Many believed tliat S prspagialnda esalad be istepped if it were shown Jews had contributed a great deal to the reputation of Germany abroad Alrnesit precisely the opposite elEeeTt was achieved Fer a digest of D coneernini the jelw in business cultural and pr sfessilna1 llilfelp cf The is Nazi Germany edited by the P erican Jewish Csmmlitteel A sen1 ewhat better case esuld be lmade out against the Jewish proletariat since it was largely from eastern Eurepe and was not iately able ts ltghmw the manaerls of tlle ghette But it ewes far toe small and toe isolate tel be as facetsr of impas lil l iee life excepting as ea sm1ree wrhmlee certain of plmtegrahy might be derived The labor grsups both 0 and Chr istia11 frowned ugpsn tism T P P 1 inelina1im1s isriginaally present The Jew reamains united only it forced by a csmrr1sn danger or attracted by a com msn beoty if P reasons tare no longer evidernt then the qualities sf erassest egeism eme into theeir swim and a mment thee unitetll pesple becomes a horde of rats ght A in bilseedil3r al g thiemselsesl 0g the Jews were alone in this wsrsld they Wsuld su scate 39 39 as much in dirt arid filth as they would earry an a detest able struggle to cheat anti C ruin each other although lthe cempllete lack of the will its saeril ee expressed in their eewrdiee Weuild alse in iaistanee make the ght a comely Thus it is fundamentailly wrong to eencluder merely from the fact afitl1eir standin tergethter in a ght or more rightly i expressed P their exploiting their fellow rhurnan beings that the Jews have certain idealistic to sacri ce thera sielv esr P Here tea the Jlew led by nothing but pure egsism an the part of the individual Ther efsre also 0GB ewish States 39whieh is suposed to be the living erganism for the pl ESEI39V fiOI1 and the pres galtion f the race is territsrially completely m1limite For a certain liII1llt tiOI1 f a State formatien byspaiee always pretsL1pp0ses an ideaslistic attitude by the r7t5lt3tE race espe eial1y above all a czsrreetj conception 6 11stien wisrk In the same m easure 1 this attitude is lacking are absent every attiempt at a firrrxaitisn or seven at the preser rvstisn of at tmfrlitoirially State fails But with this also the basis on which a culture alone can originate is elimisnratled or this rieasen hewevert the jewisih people with all its aparenlt intterlleetruaI qualitties is lT 1EVEI tl11EllESS withsut any true culture especially wiithout a culture of mans Fer the sham euilturre which the Jew pessesses toclagt is the praperity of stli1er peoples and is mestly spoiled in his 7 and 4 it eultluralaly llessed races Pu Pu Pu G0 1 When judiing Jews g3 its attitulde twarcls A question quot of human culture one has to keep befere ome st eye as an 3 essential cl1araeteristie S there never has lbeeI1 and eeni sequenltlly that today also there is us Jewish art s3 absvle all the stars queens of all arts areehiteeturle and rn11sie owe 1 netlhing sriginal to Jewry 8 he achijelves in the field ef art is either bewldlerirl A tien er i11telleetual thief 6 this the leeks tlherse qualities G9 distinlf ish er ut how far the Jew takes ovelrl fareign culture enly tatitlgi or rather destreyirlg it may be SEBII from fact thiat he is found most frequently in that art which lallsel aplpears directed least of all towards invention ell its own I the art at acting B11t here to he is really only the jtlge l glen or rather ape for here too laelts the ultimate t ll li of real greatness here item be is not the ingenieuls creator but the eultward iimilltaltart wlhierieby the status i 2 arty1my land trielles aplies ealnneit deceivre us cenceraiing the inner I la k f life of his creative abilit3r Here the Jewirsll press jl al eI1e comes levinglly to this aid because about elven even the meet medieere bulI1 l 139E1l39 provided that is a Jew it ft raises suclh a clamor sf hesamlas that the rest of the world 1 nally acietually believes k sees a real artist ibefetel its us Tl1e stateiment etlierie had been new Jewish art in Glen is higlilr questienable Historians of lit11rgieal art mews believe that the deeerativel sehemeis of early Chrisitian churelles may have been u in part from the Synaeguell At all events P s Gregorian Chant eeritainly owes much its ancient Jewish music Tie su all modern Jewish art A derivative is injudilcieiusil particularly in Glennany as witness r Liebier mazan in painting andl ur Mielndelseha in arl chiteeture Meclern Jelwisll stars ef the stage include Elisabeth Beregner Max Palllenberg and Kerltnea Tlfle meet famous Jewish tlheatrical direeter was p Z Relnharft CHAPTER M T H P E LV T A T E m A ETTA as in the years I920 2 I our young move meat was again ant aeairx repreached by the out p Iived msregeotits world of today because 11 attitude stewards the pIquotESEI39lt State was one ef rtejectiena and frame this these fetpads ef political artists of all ire ctiems adrew jaustit catien of undertaking with all means p suppres sien at the youtng p disagreeable announcer of a new View of p here efc011rtse they foret clteliberTaTtelTy39 tthe present boargemfs Twerald itself is no longer able to produce a uTntijfer stTs centetien of the State and that at unitferm de Tntittitetn does not and carmet exist Fer the interpreteters are feunad in Tmest Cases in the guise of teachers of politicalt law whose hieghestt task tee nd explanations sand intTe1quotz pretatiens fer the rare at less f0rtTunattet existenae their breadssuepplyineg saeurcte ef the moment The more impossi Ie the Tnature of such R State is the Amerte impemettrablae artii siatl and uenintel1tigible are P de anitiens of its putrgpesze of existteneee WhTat for iI1stame should ta former Imperial and Royal Univertsity professors have wtritttetn tabeut the metaninteg and the purpose of the State in a eoutntryt w11osae existtence as a t tTates probably esamtbedied the greattest men stresity eff v tWe t39iEitfh eenttury A sttfcult task HTCTOIIET sidering PoM for the teeaehr ef the a airs of pelTietical law T H ST ATE N there exists not so 0 en obiligetiziont to tilquotlIth rather e bondage to s de nite purpesei But the purpose is preservation at angrs price of the ourrgtent monster of n1echsnisn celled State Therefore one should not be sur prised if Wil diseL1ssing 0 iprobleem setusi viewp oiI1ts are avoided as much as poissibie in ozroler to dig oneself in stead into a hedgepode of ethiesl39 moral and other ideal 1rs1ues itssks and 3 In geneere1 three oomoeptiions can be distingusisshed group of those n see in the State simply a mores r less eo smtsry eietsgro os of people suede one governmental pawere group is most numerous In its reeks eerie f ill d espeeiel1y the worshipers of our jpresent principle of legiti macy in WHOSE eyes the people39s 0 lays no r le whatso ever in entire e ieir For thefse saints in thee feet of e Steitieis etsistenoe alone lies P7 seered invio39Isbility In orcier to support this lunacy oft huimsn brains one needs an septu sglly doglike reve139feinc e for the stowcaiied Stats eethoritiy In the heads of these people is means is forithwith turned int the nal end The Statef s puriose is no longer to serve the people but the people39s purpose is to worshtip a State suthority which includes even the most l1iun1ble in some o eisl spirit To prevetnt state quiet ienrapa toured reverenee from turning into one of iumest the Stete euitho139ity s purpose is now to uphol1 quiet and urer It too new is purpose and no longer so meens State euthri ity has to cere for uiet and order and quiet and order in their tum ilsivee to make tlfle Stette euthorit3r39s existeote piossible Thereun all life has to trevolve between these two soles In Beveriis such so eonoeptiion is srepreeseoted prio1eriJ1y p the State artists of the Bevsr ian Center Party celled quotsvsriem eop1e39s Party in Austria T wists the black and yelliow legitimists TS the Reich proper is frequently P 586 0 Z KAMPF fartunatleily the socalled ae0tnseWatiave elements Whese can Ceptian of the State moves alehg these tracksl b The 7EC39iOIT391 group of people b numerically a little smaller because these have the be counted ameineg it who attach to the existence of the quotState at least a few conditions p m not only desire equal administrlaltienle but alse if pats sihle lam equal legaagfe he Xi easily from the viewpoints of admi11istratiive teehtlics The State aJU39l VlTlOI39ltZjquot is no lenger 9k sole of entetlliuslilvvei tuIquotDSE the State but the this added the pmmetion of the welfare of suebjeetss Ideas of liberty Inolstllty incorrectly ttndersteed at that are im itmidfueefd intew the State eeneeptien of these circlliesl The g0vetrVnlmentafl form appears no Zlenger irwillable by the fact ef its exisitetnlee in itself but is exami11el as it its expedi ency The sanetiity af laritiqiuity is L110 preteetiien lagasinst The attack pV directedl net against the centre weii huts against PE sleealledl legitimisit principlel39 This was gem1erally tsuihseriibed to by mere eensewlatlivel eemmemtatgers n the nlaiture of 6 government eg Giese and ell1lilnieli who fer example debated the question as ta VF the autherlity of the state hacl been trar1sferr ed from A Kaiser to whomquot by lassuzmptilen it rightfully elengedi to the Weimar RE39flIlb 1lC Elaborate preset was avlanee he shows that there had been a legal transfer P 7 c to Prince 7 elf adea from him to Friedrich Ebert and frem tar a constitutional as sembly ectrdialy attaeks em 7 Republic were eeinisiderecl tintrinsieailllyr illegal useless it was assumetd as mlany of the C SeI39V l7ti VES did that the Kaiser Ahead not made the transfer volluntairilly caulczl thelreleriei rightfeully stake the authority back again In Bavaria the Peepleis Party maintai11ed these retieally at least that the Wittt elstbachs had not deeded lawlay their autheri and that thieireifire it had been iulsurpetzl by Eisner and the Revelation The monarchy in their viewi re Inained the enly rightful eeeaverlnlmentl Austrian legitimists adapted the same attitude And therefore heeause Wilhelm IHE STATE 5839 critrieieml on the part of prese1139t For the feet x is 3 mn rgeptien which demands of the State labmre all a faverite werking eut ef the eeenomie life the individual Whitchi therefere frm the practical paint of View passes jiudgment aee0rding39 te generally eeonetnic cenceptiens of luet laltliaVeilneeai meet the chief themesentativs ef tl1is opinion int the circles left our nm1a39l German baarjgeilaie espeeially in those of our liberal ideimocracy y The tl1ircl group is nllmerieailly the Wheelteat It sees in the h a melana fer the reiailizaitien of mheetly VET 39 quot vaguely eoimceiveld endeaeie339 ef political power elf a linlguiatital1y meIdeal and united State peoples Thereby the 0 fr la unhiferhm State language is note enly expressed in the hope of creating with this a if 11I139Cla tiI1 ef the State whilicl1 would erlable it to support its exteriet growth in had feirtmally aibdicated tnlany supporters ef the Habshurga and liaiittelehlachel felt that their priineea had ret h ate the threee ef the German Empire In the circles which Hitler frequezlted the legitimiat point elf triewl prevailed and he had as a matter of fact re1eived aupipert in the rat palace heieaueei it was felt that he and his followers would help restate the meharehjltn X Weimar Clonethiitutiien eeemed to take the eerilal39I contract paint ef view in the St339tE II1EI39lt All power gees eut free the peeplef tut this was imterphretecl 5I so many dil ieremit ways by the E ig39I1E39I S ef that CI15quotl itTE1ti0L tht any one lamlallysie elf PaW would be unacceptable 39 This is en the whole an attempt ta eet fimquotthe the German liberal tradition as P was ere eeted in the Weimar Cem5titu tien The preamble te L censtiatutien reedatz quot The Germain people unilted aha their racial elements and impelled by the will to renew and strehngtihehn their Reich te eenree in fjreedieim aml justiee the endrs of Apeacie at home and ahreadh and ate further eeeial pI grteSa have established this eCenetituti311 39 Bay 1 united in their racial elements 39 the signers deubtlless meant more than 39l39HE STATE p e between various peoples that hitherto eaught the eye are bridged and nally wiped out it would mean the egirming of la hybridization and AW this in our eaee not at Gerrr1an t izattiton but at destruction of the GK erlemtent In his tour it happens only too frequentlly that the outward mleat1a of 0 R of a eorlquetring people succeeds in freizng their langueage 11p on the opp rresaed but that after a thousand years their language is spoken by at different people H ZG conquerors thus loeootne actually the vanqulshed 39 As the nationtaltityg or rather the race is not roted in the llanguage but in the blood one could be permitted to speak 14 a Germamlzaltion only if 0118 could atuceeledl in ehatonging such a prtocedure the bleed of the eubj matecl ut this is impossible Except perhaps ph4 by zap blood lblenlding a ehtlange were to take aplaee which then however would tmeargn the lowering of the standard of the ltigher race Therfore the nal result of such a procedure would he the destruction of just those quallitiee 3 once made the eroI1qL1eringpeo ple earpale of vietry la eouplling a lower rate the eultural energies eeeeiall3t arould disappear though the reel eulting mitturel would speak a tl10L1E3I139El the lanuage of the forrnerly higher race For some there take place a eertairt wrestlingbetween the vaeriorue mentlalitriee an may he that then the more and more sinking people in a last effort ao to speak will brain to astoundillgt eultural values Slut they are only the simple elemerlts per taining to the highver race or baatarcla in asfterl 0 ret crtoaaing the better bloocl has the upper hand land whieh arrow tries to struggle through but nearer the nal products of creasetbrelegtding In them a culturallyr bacltWar d move ment will always show itself 1 Today must he eoneidetreld a forttmate eirweumetalnee 8 that a Germanizatiotn as was intended by Joseph II of 4 Austria was not carried pg Ita eueeeea would probably have been the conservation of the Austrrlanr State but ale I V I ef he nebie 1quot39Ei3iiZ3iti1iiI391 but P the ehoritisighted narmW mindednese of the Hebsbuerge If Pi had come ebwut other he Ks Ks quot the lewerieng of the racial llevel ef the German nation breughet efibeut by ai linguistic eemeeeeeieeunity In the eeurise ef the centuries a certain herd instinct weuld certain1y have cryeteih1ize d itself but the heerd itself would have b eeen1e39in fejrier Perhaps a State people would have been born but a culture peeple would have been ilest Fern the German netien was better that this princess of did net take place eltheugh net as the eeneeqmenee wise thean the German people Guild hardly We called an eui tnre facter thnay ii 39 u not only Austria also P Germany herself Asa eelfiied national eirrelee werei and are motiveted similar wrong itrends of tiheught The Peiish peliey in the sense of he Gerimanizeitiiien ef the Easzt demanded i so menyi reeted unhferiituniatehly almost always in tihe same Wrong eencliueiein Here too one be39iie1red theit one could ibrilng about a Gee manieetiDn of the Polish element by e 391lI39EiTquot linguistic in teeieiretien into the Germaine netieimelity Here too the result would have been an unfier1uneite enee peeple of an ehein race expressing its elihein thoughts in the Gerqeein lenguege eeInpromising the height and the dignity of our ewn ne tienelitiiy 6 i own iIfEI39iOI39ity3 e How terrible is even today the damage that is indirectly upn our ity by the fact Geirihman ling ejewry upon stepping on American ail is put on pb 3 This is e erithique ef German el7en1ente wihiehh before the War had he pretegenisi in Dr Alfred IIuenberfg They mere er ieee identi ied netienal gmwth with capitalistic e3peneieni en leeked uen the enfereemenht of linguistic lI if0I I I1i t as a means of preventing dieeirder V n addition spread of the German languae meant the growth of German trade prestige and piewrer 1j h 4471 1 A is l r I l l 1411 1lt Tjjjp 1 7 1 I a g2 1 A amp F r 1 arldi the raising ef the race this fundamentiall eenditien f all lmmtana eulturail develepm ent as its highest B Jew Karl Mam was able the draw the ultimate en calusien o these erroneous ceneeptienss and opinions about the nature and the purpose of a State the boargeszfs world by severing z idea of the State u racial obliga tiens pNw arriving at anetither equaillly acl mewletdged fern1ulatin paved the way fer a clectrrine q denies State m iltself For this reaser1 seven in this eld the ght cf pm bam geeis world against the Marxist latteatie11al was bound te fail cI11pleteljr It has long eTlcirli Cecl the every fioundla tiexrs would be inevitably necessarly fer the supptirt of its own structure and the weapons that these weeal r1eres themselves supplied without kaewirlg it it storms upan P Therefore the rst eligation of a anew mevetmenit whitish is based upon the grlund of a View f life is the see to it that the ecmeevtienl of the nature and the purpose of exist etnee of a State resceives a t1nifermrly clear ftlrrm6 Then the basic realliaatien is that the State represents teeth am sad but a tmsetees It is indeed the resamptzfn fer the far mettise at higher human seliterle but asst titre mm3sl Ora waiiraryl the letters lies axltlutsively in the snctfsterzcst 0 e was capeblte af caEtme Hlundrecls of exemplars may ea ist on this globe ut in case of as dylir1g 0 ef the Amen culture supperter 1 tmlture weuld exist would cerriesped to the spiritual level of the highest peoles ef tdiay One can even e further and V itl1at the fact of shaman Settle formation would net in the least exellude the possibility of the diesltruetien of the hLIlE39I39lLa race iirl so far as the superior intellectual ability an elasticity39 in censetquence of the L of its racial wpperters lweulcl be least P 1 teday for instance the surface p a the eartih referee up act a tecitenic event nf some kind and ent of niche oods ef the ocean a new Himalaya Were PN rise 0 by ene sin gle cruel catastrophe the cnlttnnree of nlanr ind W llid be die atrnyed Ne State would exist any longer all bonds of order A wcruld be disalve the documents a theuaand gyears dtevetl m ent wenld be enlaehed ene 0 eld of death covered Waiter an nlnd But frccm this chaos of her rer nnjly a if etW people ef a certain tcnltturetcapable race were preserved then the earth would even after a 39t11eusand yeiarei duration fter 439 its quieting den the iliaet cu1tur ecapable race and its individL1aI Suppmiquottetre weenld turn the earth into a desert ferevert ether hand we even see frem exan1pfl ee ef the present that State fnrmatiens their tcribal beginnings if their racial Snppertera lack enius are net ale tn gcuarcd them against leetr39t1ctieni Etaactly as great aniirnal apeciee nf prehistiric i tinlee had tn give to ethere and perished wictihent 1eaV A in a trace thus man also will charter to give way 0 he lacks a speci c ispircitnai ferc e which alone enables V tn nd ethe neceesary wetapene for his selfpreservationA It is net the State in itself that creates a de nite cultural level 0 can einly preaerve race which cenditiiene the letter In the reverse casne C as sI1ch may be able tea continue to unchanged fer centuries while in teens sequence of a race blendiiang which it not prevent 6 cultural ability ef people and the raeneral aspect ef its life CD I1ditiCI Ed by this have long since isn vered a penea trating change The presentt State fer instance 0 A as a ferrnal mechanism veerquot WE einluiate an eaitisten ce feet 50 and an leng at time but the racial 1J390iSOI1iI1g39f of our national body creates a cnitltnrial decline already becomes ter cricfyiingltyn apparent heat the presumption j f the existence aft in higher c n 1 again iretcceirvee preefe OLE l1un1an creative renergy Only the detstructinn of But on the V 11234 lt I F I er 594 7 MEIN d is net the Stem bat the ae ioaea ity which paseesses the essen tial i y3 abiliat1J s always be resent in ptquotineeiple ana has only ta be amused tea practieal materaialieezaatien by de nite external cr1ditiens atiene are rather raacees 9u are euelturaally and ereative1y talented haralra in theernselvee atheee uaef 111 qualities even my the meII1en1 unfave ra4blaee aexternal een ditiens de net permit a amateriailizeatien efa these latent tend7 enaeiee Theereeflere it is also an urlbeeliaeavabelee ef fenee to portray the Germans of the prea Charistian era as cu1turelese39 as b3irb 3fi3IlS This they never were nly 7 the ha1fsha eea ef their eradie heme forced inyte cir cumeetam391eee awhgiche prevented a developmenta of their crea tive emeargiea If without any classical ciavailiazateioli they had come to the more favcrable areas ef the South and if from the maaterial of the inferier nations tahaey had reeeivedi reliminary techniacaal means then the ceeuelture feramiag abiilitiee elumberin in them would have gmwma inte meet radiant b1veemaexaetly as was ee case fer II1 lE with He enexs But 0U Culturecreatiing erimeval furace itself has its source not aeenlya in their Nordic climate The Lap lander brought to the South would have just as little a eultureaereatianee eea ifect as Ne is uet the Aryan endowed this jglerisoue cr eeatieveIay active aahility no matter whether he aharberas a laetent coaandiation or whether he preee11te it to an awakening life cleenedi11g one walmetheere f3VOI b1E CeifC1ImSt3 CE S permit this er inheepitaable Naataure prevents it 1 From K results the following caeanelueienaz Nae Ste e is e means 0 an P Z and preseraatiea 0 athe premataiea ef ai cea eaae meem39e ye af phyasaically and page ek ca Zy equal agriage beings very jbereseraetiaae icemprisea rs lm raceial stack and zeree ye permits 0 efree deaelo iutaeresting eriticiema and evaluation of the UI1ite States H E z 597 than an n eg1 o tribe neveelrtlheleee the State orgenisnl such a people lnolohed uponn according to the ful llment of its N1 purpse can be worse theme that of an ngro Although 0 Q beet State end the best State x are not in 3 position to it exntlreet fI 0I7I1 e people abilities are silmply lacking anal i have nsevet exietetll then a bed Stete is eertainlngf in e posi I tion through deetnruetion of the racial eufltunre bearler A perrnits or even fpremoltee to kill loriginellly existing ehili4 tiee p8 the judgment about the quality p at State primeriley only he decided by tl1lereletive pro t which p has for 21 certain nlationeliw an by no l lE I1S by the importamze w hich it ihee as such in the world This relative judgment can be passed easily and uile e E 4amp 1 g 1 21 E hr the judgmenntl of the absolute lvaltle only greet quot conltry as 9 ableeluntle judgment is actluelily no longer detenr 4 minted merely by the State but rather p B the quality and the height of thine netionelinty in queegtionme P therefore one speaks of 3 higher mission of the State one must never forget higher mlieeioln oreete essen tially in the nationality for Q the Srtete the manic force of fitS existence has only to rneke the free devellep rnent possible R therefore we put q1lESti0 pS thnis some which e 1e Getmeme need thee he tonetituted then we must lquotSt see el elarly what kind of people it has to integrete and what purpose it has to eelwe iUnfortunlatelyl our Glelrman netionallity is no nlengter Tbeeetl on a racially unite neueleue Ale the recess of the blending of the various primal constituents has not yet protgreseed so far as to permit speekitng of a newly formed racer On the central the bloodpoisoning effetlted 0111 national Tloedy especially since the Thirty Yee139e39 Weir led not only to a dECD139I39lpDSitiDl1 0 o1nVblod but ale of our strut The open frontiers of our fathetlancjl the dnependnencle amp 593 S KAMPF uen uniGierrnanie alien bodies along these frontier dis tricts but above all tlie strong current in ux f fereign blend into the interior of the riel lll pmper in consequence of its cntinneld renelwal does not leave time for an absolute n1elting It is net a new race that results the fusion P the racial stocks side side the result that espeltially in Critical Il I39llII1EI39l tS when in either Cases a herd weul assemble the Gennan people run in all direc tions of winds The racial elements are situated m flerenstlyn0t only tetrlitrlially butt als in individ39ual cases within 0 same t erritery P side nf Nordic peeple atherei stand Easterners at the side sf Easterneirs Dinaries at the side nf both stand Westerners and in between stand miatnresl This is on the one hand of great disadvanetage P German people lael lts that sure heard instinct Px is rented h unity ef the blend and which guards 01 titn against ruin lespeeially in dlangereus II10l I1e tI5 as with such peeplaels all the internal idi lerentces usually appear irnmediately and the C lil l eniemy is eenzfrsnlted by the closed front ef a UI391lfillquotII1 heard in this side by side placement of our basic racial elernents which teniained ans l ended r rooted what r us one calls 1y x WDrd sleeper pgq In peaceful times i Ow KSOFI139EtifIeS render gand servilces but taken all in all it has deprived us of world dDII1llH3LtiQ If in its l1isltsrsical devel0pn1ent the Gegrntan peniplei shad possessed a group unity as f was enjoyed by other peoples then the Glerman h lwonild today preh ablyl be b mistress ef this globe World histery would have 39lPessibl3r a reference is Inade here to Amaerieant prntiagenists nf raeiafl science notably Lethropl Stddard and Madison Grant Some sf this group had argued that tl1e barbatism ef the Gennans during the War had been due to the fact that the best elemeints of the German pepullatinn has been annihie lated during the lThirty Years War THE ST ATE 39 5 V teke e ta di erenit course and no ene Wemd be able to decide X in ttl e S there would tnet hem aI39I iVEd what t eday see man blinded paei sts hepe te beg for by meenm and rt1quot3r t ing E 5eppar ed mt by the elm braemhtes ef a iserfei pec s prefe3s oteeE female meemers R founded ey the tr c rlt ees Squotw039d of e pgepgfe of teteaerlotrds wtmcht putts the tested jD the seretfce if e highter te tere The facet of the ne11 exeisrte11ce of a neteienelitty tueniferm in its bled has brought untold misty upon us PrJ has given r eetiedeeneetitel teens to many emafll Geremen pmeantettee but it thee eteft the German pteewplet ef its right ef 1 Even today our people su ers from P A inner iemember ment hewevter that which breuht use emierfertutne in the pest and in prteeeet can be eur blessing in the future For no metter how detrimental 8 wesen the ne hand that a complete 0 9 ef eur eriginel racial eenstittueente 4 V not eteke place and that by this the fttermeteieen of e uniform At tmettieenal bedy wee pre39ver1ted it was ust as f0I39t11I1 tE on the j other hand that by this at least a part of CllLIII39 bleed was preserved in purity and eeeaed racial detilinrey t With the template blending of original reeiel ele t E Meneifteettly the Cetmet1e have tended t break up into groue and meet efferts te ikeep tegether have either failed er succeeded enly in part DU39Hbt1ESS the mejer reeeen fear this divetrgenee is 0 reeiel but religietutst In ededittiene the feudal system was eutgrown very slewlyr in Germany primarily because of the eenetent warfare betweten Emperors and primes in times when mederlizt t1eti 0rnel Tetetee wtere P the metkmgt ettleewhere Afttetr etthe Wat GEJ2I39mfaI1F very neertly diieintegerated e ein Movements favoring an indepI1denquott Rhinelandt an indetpende tt Sileeie and an independeentt Bavaria gained cen eiclereble mementum Meaty Germenes will tell yen thet if the Ilitter gesvternement eheuld fell a new breakup ef Germany wetuld fellaw 600 MEI A p rnente e eleeeel netieinel body weuld certainly heir ensued but as EVEe139y racial erasebreeding proves it would be en dowed with an ability to create ta culture i nferier to that the highest ef the primal components possessed erigina1iyg 1 ithe blessing of failure of cmnplete mixture that even teclay we still have in our German me tienai body greet etecke of NierdiiieGermeemiic peelegt who remain unblended B Whom iiret erney see the meet Veluelbie treasure for our future In the x of t1xeignorence of n racial laws when in eempl etie1y equal eveluaiteien gmen epered sieeepfly as x the clarity about the various values of the eieveratl primal eI emente f hav been lack V Pq Tedayi we kn 0W that a complete in tern1ietueret of the stocks ef W111 neetienai body tin ceneequencet of the unity re sultimg firiern would perihate eheevet given 115 e3t emel power P that the highest eel of Pgg Wioiulde net have been atteiinied as the only bearer ate has visibly elected for this completion vmuld have perished in the general reciel mixturei f e unif5erme people But toidejy fremi the 39vi39eWpeint G our knowledge new geiiied we have Ate examine and ten eiV3ifl1i3tE what wietheut our centribvutien has been preveneted a kind dE5tiiI139739 D whe s eaks ef a mission of the F gbeeple an A earth a I Ethel it can exist only it the ferimaiiese of e D w kiiEik sees iii highest teek z0 resiereatiee end the 9Thie is the source ef the restered German Vpridei and of the empire that will last a thieueend years wielllikne wne te etudiermts of Hitlerils eiretery l5 lest the State has been give a task weithy ef Durie the medieval time the German Empire39s eeiemn duty was to eet ee God39s vieerey en earth quot and to be e pertneer in the Divine geeverniment ef meme Het11cei forth in the Third Reich u energies are expended en a still neebiler encleevera tihe improvement conservetien and age rendieetmente of tlquot1eehieisen German qreee T H E 7U T N 601 premotioe ef the mast mbie ei 0xN N nts of our miimrwlity p H L remained eaem sf emire m quot quot 39iiv enhermed I tl1is 8h Stetie for the ret tiime riieeeives an inner i higher goal pJ the feeea ef the reidiiiculeue eileegiane ef a safe H guarding IE peace armed O139EIquot fer the eacefuil pessibiliity of I muituell cheating the ef the preeeirvetien and the prom 1 metien of 3 highest hutneniity which has been p1rese11ted tie quot this world by D beneveileieinee of the Almighty appreare 3 truly high miesiierlIEi 1 Out of a dead mechanism that claims to eeist only for 0 own eeke a living organieim has new te he formed with the exelueiieve purpose of eenrinig a higher idiee German Reich es ye State should include eh Germans nevi tmely with the ofi eellec ieeg Afmm the eopiie the met eeleeb e stacks of racially primal elemm is 0X preserving them mi also to P Ekem grimly safely in e damvmei eg poiz3t an Therefore in the plieee of e fundiemeintally s tei3iIizeC1 CD11 diti011 appears a pereieodje of ghting But as everyrwhere and eiverythin in thiie werl here too the phrase quotwho rests 06 rusteii keep its validity and further Vic tory is forever c entained only etteek The greateI tiheerew 1 Prior te IQI4 PenGermiee organizations eireuiated maps ehewing what the beugnderiee of Germany Woe be iwhen the Biiemer cikiem Empire had attained imeneiiene cemmeneurete with the pieeiitiem of the Gern1enic peoples in Eumpe Portions ef BeIgiurn and Heiler1d weere ithen iI1Ci UdEd After the enneee tien mi 5iueitria in 1938 shepgwindews deirspleyed maps seitting forth the eventual be39uederies f the h Included were Austria pertins ef Cizeeheeiovekie Peiand German Switzerland most of Hollaind i lsatzeLenaiee eni Belgium ane i MEIN KAMPF by the ghetingt goal that We have in mine and the leee the understanding of the great masses be at the moment the meet exilermus ere alccrtllin to world histzery slurA ceeeee Ps and ll 1E ilmlertanee elf these lsueeeeseea if the gel is righetly understood and p is eerriled out K ehekeblle pereieteney mlulree for many of our present e ieifell St 3t E leaders it m p more eemfertling to wet for thee pres ewetien of a given eensitien than to be compelled to ght for 21 Gaming ean el pV nd it much easier to see Z State a meehetniem which exlistsl fear preeervlitn its own liefe as in tlum their lives belong t the State we as they usuallly 39natienelitly ererul leegieelily everve en3 tlhilnt express thelmeelVeelll if anything that sprang out f the but just new tielnality or as theughl men could work for smethinge other than A3 eealld efeee PD is of ceerlse easier tel see in State eetimrity only the formal lmeclhenllism of en erlgenizemien rather then the sieeeeeigtn aineertpelreiilee ef e na riezrfs imt eet ef preeelreing i l3elj i en thiisl earth For in the ene ease for 39these weal minds the Stel e as well as the State eletlhonftjz is an end in itself the otlaer eese hewevr tie enly the powerful weapon in the eelrviee of the great eternal struggle for existeneej a weapon to which then everybody has to eulaa mit because it is E not formally melcihenistiei but the exprleseiolnl of a C039ITl1TlCI1 will for pI39E SEFViI1jg life Therefore the ght for our new conception en tirely eerreepends to the preilmel II39lE 3l391ll1g of things we PX nd oanlly few hting eemtredes in a society tlhet is not only physically but else mentally entiqueted Only exceeptlielne p aI young helerts and p minds that have re mained efreeh u ceme to us from tliese ssttrete but never tlmee whe see the lultimete meaning left their ilVElSi tesl w the preservatien ef gtiven leenditti01 are faced by the limitless host met so much f the deliberately bad peeple but of the mentally inert an in A In general sveign Nature has the 113iiit of lmsaking certain THE STATE as different DITIES and even sf quotthese who are sintsrssted Y5 piresewing the presents icondiitioni But just PS3 p 2 S EElfI139i1g lrmpslsssness of our enormous struggle l iss the grsstness of our task airld also the pGssibi1ity of 39Sl1CCE 0 battle cry which from the piL begir1ni ng either scares sway t1e smsgli minds of son 1391 1akss despair becomes the signsI for the ssse1r11bilsi1i1g of mail ghrting iCi l31393C39tE I39i9S And sibDuts this ails has ts see clearly if in is psspls as certain ammmt sfi snsirgy and sctiiss ifrice spears towards 3733 giasl and iris miasn srmsssntly k its inis is cf the grsst masses miss small 8quotE EagE has risen to be p ms5tsrs of the wizsls number World kir wsry is H if by minsmiss EU39h E EEi E this ssmsriwi miniarii y incnrpsratss the majsri Ay sf ids1 srmiiasstisni 39 Thersfssrs what tsday P a pssr s dli culity its is in reality this prssumptsisn far emf sicifify 1 this srsry grssmsiss and is His d ss39sisit1 e3 sf mm afask il iss prossbilifjv for ihis s rstgis ssiiy tits bssif ghtsrs c its fsumd I this i3siss tiisnig hs39wsssri is7sis the gsairsnzty fsr sscssssi zgar lat Niaturs likes basfcsrds only liittleii Espesiiailsy the rst prs d A nets of such cmsissbrseding say in third fotmrth 0139 fith ensrstiiin hssve ts siiulgieir bi1te1I37 x only the importaince if sf the originally highest constitusnst sf the crsssihrsedsing is taken from them but they lacks with the ids cisrit unity Of 0 bis0 also the unity of wiili pswer and dstieirmisnations for I iliifis as is whole In all ciritical msmients when the racially I iuniforsms being makes Correct decisions and csnisiisitemt ds i cisims at thsgt the 1racislIy tom will become unssrtsin that 5 means he m srriVe at ihaIf messsures Taking botfh facts c tsgeitheri this means not oniy is certain iinifeI39im39ity sf the 7 racially unstable as cmpared with this racial1y unijfsrm buts u A i i c orrectisvs decisions about the racial p1mityi0f mortal beings I 3 II I 1 1 41 lt Q 4 43 11 amp i generlel lowering of the race standard and the diminiehin e 5 0 O 7 preeticie also the peseihiliyty ef a quicker dleeline Ian ceieetless cases 39where the race fields the bastard breelkls ldewe In this Amulet be seen the correction j Nature Frequently it gees even farther It epessiheillity of priepegatien By this Neturiei limits the fertility ef remote ereesine as a lend ithue meleesl 0 die ii for eelmp le a single indivi duel of e eerteiiln race were te ienter iI1te la uenikein e reeia39lly lower uel the result would be retx ea l039WE1quotl11g of the stenldard in itself further would mean a weakenling of eHepringl as J pared with the surreiunlidllineies h rlemeined racially 11111 mixecl the cmnpletle preventiloI1 of e furtzhier bleed in ux on the part of highest race the iblesltarcle P cen tiriued meutual icreseing weueldl either die eff b eeeuee of Netureis wisely reducing tllheir ability of reeietelnee in the eeuree of thousands 0 yieiere they weuld ferlm eh new lmixture in the eriinel individual elememte in consequence ref e theueendfeld eresslilng are Completelyquot mlixeid end I10 llengeilr reeegniizlahle a new naitienality with e eertain hen leikei reeietihility weul have een farmed cem pered thee highest lreee P helped H fermine the ret exwressgbreed it would be considerably reduced in its spiritual and eulltural in1prtnce A also in this case the product of the crossing would sueeulmlbi in the mutual etmgle 2 life as leng as themfe higher race remained unmixed as opponeint Any lhericllil e inner cem pletenese of thijs new national ibody formed in the eeuree 0 3 thousand years wllid I1eVertl1eless in ceneequenee of the of ieeeeeeeental elasticity e11 creeitilve abltillilty ccmclitieneid by it inlet sufflieei for overcoming VllClZOI l0L1Sl the struggle r en eqUally11hilferm but spiritueelley and euIturalIy superior ereeiei Thus one can eeteblishl the following M eemelueionziwe Eieery rzeceieressieg leed539 necessarily seener or Z li f to Pz decline if like u ieredulc es lmeg as the higher per of pMz THE was erersing stilt exists in same Vere nn yi The danger fer the PC product abelished only in the nlement Of the baisteirdisatien of the last ihigheri rraeiallry pure EiE Z1E1391t In this is rented a yet natural process of regenera1iI1 graduai1y elirrlinaites racial peisenings as Inng as tihere still existsquot a basic stack of raeialliy pure eliernents andi ne iurther bastarclieatien takes place T Such a irecess can eecnr by i E39S Elif living beings with G strong race instinct A enly through speeial eire1In1 stanees er some sort ei pressure shave been thrrewn frem the read of normal racially pure proagatien Bis seen as b pressing sittlatien P cweri thaiti a part which has remairneid A pure will in1mediately str39ive again stewards mating 8 eiquialsi thus checking a further miiaing Thus the results of 39 bastrdfimtien step anten1aticlljr inter the baelegreunid pres vidied their nnntrber has not yet iniczreased so boundlessly that a seriinnus resistance 11 the part P these wh have re mainied racially pure is no lengeri in ques39tin j Jinan sense has e serne ideiveid of instinct amid d39Q ES net rieieg11iee Y abligation imposed on P by iNature can in egeneirai net hope fer such a cerreetien en the part of LNiature I until he has replaced lest instincr by percerptive knei wii edge the latter new tn do the neeessiary work of repair Most of 0 ernanates from Chamber iain and resernblTes innun1ereb Ie essays written fer M and ether antiii iSemitic ijurrnais RECEl11Ziji Germain race 1heerists have quali ed and ira39tienaflrieed a gonad deal nf it but the underlyineg thesis remains the same Mere atitentmn is new paid to the Nerdic39 which term gures little iHfitler s writings e quotNarnia is the racial absiniute that enee found expressininail1Gerrnans befnre the process of biastar39dizingquot ibe1 giian it P7 en the painnt of per rfeetin tie which the future will return Opnnenits eii Hitier iwere Went ten derrive pleasure rem enrntempiatiein ef the dri ieri ences etween the seam and his racial ideal L gz3 J T232 A n 5 I I l l h But the denger is way greet tl1et the f who once has be come blind tear down the race hmlrietrs more and more till nally even least remainder of his best part is lost there remains actually notlming but a utnifermt mitturel such as appears as ideal t the idiotic w 9trld rveferllmllers of our ldays but after at 5x time w weulcl expel Meals from the Itrmld Hmvevetr 1 great herd amid be formed 0 n this ip we saw a herd eelimeilt s from smht at p a 0o as lC Hi f6 5uEa lE and better still as wllmrefeundelr will 39El re o o this mtenkind39s n1issien ceuld be loelced upen as t tnislaed h who does not want the earth te 1 r1areh tewatrdie g eendittien has tl cerwert X toe the opinion that e is the tESl L of the Gerlmenic States abevlel all te taakel eerie primarily that in principle a flurthtletr basltardizetiext is checked The eenlerati mt of ur present day meteriouts wealclings will of course at emce cry ut egeinstl P S and will mean end mmplein abut infritngementte on the meet saczredi human rights etc Ne tkerle is M 0 and this rrih list at t mmlel time like ewst seared oblietion namely in see H G Eket H bleed is preserved gburm Se that by Elie pre339ervetion ef U 75333 A mleilerial e pessilbility is given for a p0 rmbtlel develepmenlt of tiheee 4 beizg5 Thus e felkisft mote prlimerily 8 ketre 25639 3 E f39l5 mew39 elg e emu 0f the level ef e Aermemes wee degradation 9 larder e give 923 like rsenseemtim of ike iiitmiiuleian 0 is celled upon 0 5 get images 0f the Lewd and d6fUTlle t 3 3 half men mzzdl kaZquot ape 6 protest against this from ececleltled kemleete reasons damnalblly suite 3 time which on the one hand gives every dlepravedt deeglenetrate the possibililty for propagetiton butt whicht burdens the products of such a union ethtemselllveee as well as their mtntemporeries with untold misery while on the other thanul the means fr preventtinte lbirths to even the mats mcredl right THEE ATE 60 healthiest parents are elifered fer sale in evelry cltmg sterel ant by elvelry street hawker Thus in tl1lSpI ESEI1t State of quiet and ercler in the eyes of its lrepresetnltzatlivee this brave 5 i quotgE 5 national werld the preventtilen of the pmereative facullty of S1fHEFEllquotSw from sjrphilisl tubereuleeis heredity dieeaeels ef leiripgples and eretins is Crime whereae the praeti eal prevention of the pretreative faculty ef millions of the best is net leelated upea as an evil B ees net e iend the eecl gmerale of this hyp0lerlitieaI society but is rather ef avantage the the shortsighted inertia etf thleulght For if this were not the ease DEE ought least tee pander 5e1r1i0uel3rQ the queetilen ef hlew te ereate tfitlle perteeumptiene fer the feeding and the preservatielln ef tlheee beine whee as the health bearers of lelet lnaltien Willi lseme clay have tel serve the same t1asl regard to Cemilng generational belunldlleselty uh eal and ignelel 0w this elnthte syetent I Dee he lleegler eadielaeers the heeled the best Q peetzerity but one lete thlirtge ge as they ge That ltherehy 0111 ehurlehee sin also against limage ef the Lord J lillllllpertmlee is stressed meet ef all by PxF lies entirelyquot in the line ef their presentday aetivityl that always speaks of the epitit and lets its bearer man degenerat e he the levell of the depraved preletiariar1 The11 heWever with sheepifsh fates HE galaples at the W e iect of the Christiane faith in ene e ewe munA abeutl the terrible ung39edIinveee39 ef this physically botched and ther elere natura lly also mentally degenetatled mieerahle lgti and heme eseehe eempematien eueeees with Hiettentetel and Zulu a re the blessing of 1eh r Dllf Eumpelan peoples the Lord he praieeld and thanked fall int 3 state let physiealll arid rneral lepfUS pious miseienary tiwandexe to Cemtrail Africa and establishes I1EgI G mliseitena ltill there D111 highler eulture Wlll l 13VE turned healthy thugh prilmtitivle at1d inferior human children inte a fmxl breed of baetai cls It would eo lrrespm1 d to the Inelaltimg ef the mleet nohle in P this wadarld 4 D117 atwa P chufches intstead of annay the Imgraaa missions p they neither a mm uanderatanda wm d teach aura European kind mess but in all earI1atnassa that ur1healtl13r parents it is a Gadquotplleasir1 wmrk to take pity on a ahealthy poaar littlg rphan in arar give father and mtheaar rather than putting a child into the world 5 brim itself and the rest of the world m1Vlya misfartune and aufferin The aSta1e has to make up for what is today naglectada in this eld in all daiarectians It has ta pai like race iaataa aa atar of 333 in gaaarai I ta aara far vita gbraasaraat iaa Vpar39i y if has ta 23 child V preaiaaas passa3Mfoa af aaa paapEa all has ta take 39 396 that aaiy Ilka kaaalthay beget ch draa thaws is aaly aaa dzagraca39a ta be stick and ta bring ahifdraaa 15am the awar d daapit aaaia aam daa aziaaaaies nae kaaar ta reaaaaca P awtkar aa a zar haaa this has 1510 be laakad apa as abjac aaaab e4 kaiap kaithay ckildraa fmm the aaaaaiaaa Tkaray atka has t ajiapaar as thaaa aarda39aaa af a thousand jaa r5 r39 fa ara ia tka face of f aad the agaiama of the gbpearaa as naming aad kasa ia I has ta the amas madam maad cal amaiaaa at z 3ara aaquotae afV ikia kaawladg I has an daalara aa t far p aapagat aa aaarjwabadjr 0 is aiasaaiwy ax aad has eiahaaraad pw driaaaaaa and if has 8 caarry ihisa aat Asia xraaat aaa a other had it has 660 aara ma faratarillity af Pb kaaalthy wamaa is aat by the aaaaia miamaaagamaa a of a 0 which amakaes akezildrea a curse far the parents af ks to da that faal aay l aiade araaaaae P adTay wtiaka aaciaal 6S1 I ffw15 af a fa many ch draaaa 73 taraatad and its pica has ta camidar P self the guardian of praciaas bieaasasiaga af a paapla I care balaags mam ta the B than to the aadalt E 3 M30 as am w and mentally haaltizy and awarihy mast aat Aparpataata M5 misery the bady of Maa child filers the falkai3h State hag ta aaaziava the 0 H aaarmaas aark of 1heI1 one 0 dtirectttfjne Vs eyes at increiasing A racially 1 missions hafvamp ta issgtue 3 CEftf C t E mf setttlement to the L THE STATE 69 gd I f E Same day it appwr as at greater than tits mmt tstations wars of am quot S39S39j 15 tbourgsois em edmat to teach the indi1zdua that is mm a f39i3rgquot CE but My 3 mretttabi e tttisftwrium be Sick mad weakiy but that if ta w39 m e PA tkterefwe at 0 S i6 a diisgtrmw 39 d 3t hanm this misfartime by 063363 t6gaism by burde irag it again pan am inmcezrzt p that in the face V this it g39itres praaf gf a nalbai ity af p 0 0 and of atdm rtabtle tlmmatnmestst the innacent y s tk 0T rmaltHnc ng h39zT3 w aizild giwst was and tie dieitrm3s an umtntawnt Vgbmr yaazmg detscendatm of his nat inwztaliiyi ww5e hteaittk promisets that me day he bemma G viaram P 1 ai mtverfui com munity this wark of educiilitt trike hast to re er urely spiritual mppl3msmt of 35 gbramficasl amizrityt W i ca sideriwzg underxtiand ing W awnundetr3tawd itng tapravmf W d39ImbgbrEa it has to act in S i t T The I EVEI1 tiO11 of the procreative tfacultty and p0ssib ility s on the part of phystically tegenetrazted antd men taltlfy sick 5 people for only six hutndred years twcmld 1101 only free man A rid 0f itmmtettasurable misft1rtu11e but would also tc0mtribute 1 to a restoratin that appears har dIy tbe1ievable toay s 5 thus q ct011scimu5 meth0icaI pmmttimnt of the fertility of the mostt healthy bearers of n Iwtinnality is realized the nasutltt be a ram which at leastt at rst WM liave 0 Y mate the germs of our present hysical and wittht it of the 3 spiritual gleclinet t it Part once a people and a State p j set out on this way r i F II F F t1atst va1uah le nucleus of the pe ple and its Very fe139tijlity 1 an that nally the entire nationalitjr share the blessint E of a highbred rtatcial ttreasure it T1513 way ttUwattrdts is agbmre all thatt the State daes mat it lteave the settlement of newly won land tt2 tcthance but that i 1 I I ubjects c to special Specialty formed race om I 6 WITH 3 OF Drwer I539MJ iir1tiImmus Inc 3quotquot39n339 JE391v 3 5 fn a339 1 by T7l 1c0dnquot HEI39EI Z W9 D4 Er fE u1ir ir1 IiII3915 In j39 g mi ZI refaice THE WHICH I iHJwE DEA IN THIS PAMPELET a very old name P is O restoaratian of Z Jewish The warlcl rcasaaundis Duttries against Jews and these outcries lhave awakened slsuimberzing idea I at to be clearly uindarstaad from the ouitsaiet tl1aI no piartirisn of my based on as new diisci0viery I haaive daiszzmreriead neither the historic C tlditi il of the Jews mzur the means ta iI11pI39CJ VE o In ac39t 13613 man see for himself the materials of A Structurei I am de si is L are snot sr y in existcncc but autiualily already in hand If than fore this aittsmpt to solve the Jewish Tuss tiinn is to be dasiignated as sinile quotW39IZJI 39d let it be said so be the result of an inescagabie c onclusimi rather than that of a ighty imagination IilLIS5t in the first Vplace guard schctme fzmm being treated as Utspiaan by super rcial critics wlm miht coimmiiti this EI 7I Iquot of juidigxnent p I did not warm em I sihauiacl obviously haave dame Il thii g ta be ashamed of if QJ had described as Utopia an phi1a39nithmpic lines and I shauild also K aalil pr0babii1itr have abtain ed literarry siuccess 0 o1 amps easily P I had set fmfth my plan in the iirresponsaiible guise of as mmantisc tale at 0 this iUt0piaa is far less atitractive than one of tilmsaei psartiraysd P2 Sir i fiUI E in his r1 isamus famrunniers and sucaceiss irsii I beliiieve that SiiL1Ll3JtiD I1 of the Jews in man3r icmmtries is giriave enauigh to PS isuuchi preliminary tri ing super uous A11 iintierestiing baskquot Frei1and by r Theodor Heirtzkai which appeared a fiaear years ages x SEI1fquotVE ta p v tha diisatimitiim1 I draw bpstwveen tmy conceptsion and 69 0hQ The I tote a Utopia His is the ingenious invention of a emin thoroughly the principles of political eeomy 0CT is es remote from actuality as the Equatorial 111o11ntei11 on E T drteem State lies F1eiilani is 51 compliieatetd piece of tmieeliainiem 0 numerous eogged wheelie tting into i P O other but there is li g to protre that they can be set p C gmotion Even suppoeing t t Firiei1and7 soeLietie5 were to come into existence I ehougld looki on the whole thing as a j oke CF preserlt sehemie on the other hand iine1 udVes the emp13rment of an propelling force In coneideraa tion of p5 own inadequacy 2 shell CoI1tent myself pJ8 indicating i cogs and whe e1e of 0 machine to be con etrueted and I 3513 rely on moree skilled mechenieiene than myself to put them together Everything depends on tour piropelliing force 0 is that force The misery of the Jews wool trenture to dteny its texietteznee shall discuss 0 folly in chapter on the eeuses of 0 Everybodiy m famiiier with I phenomenon of St1Eampm power getterated by oiling water whiiich lifts the kettle1id Sueh 39tJ39E kE71tlE heoomene ere n JTftE f1pt5 of Ziioniet and kindired es3oeitio11e to teheek AntiiSetmitiiem I believe tehet this power rightly employed is poewerfui enough to propel a large engine anode to move passengers and goes the enginie havin Wh3tE FEf form men may choose to give I am ebsolutely eomrineed that am right thottgh I doubt whether I shall live to see myself proved 0 be so Tlioee who are the rst to Lienaugurate H movement H ecareelii live to see its etlo ous close But the iiineotretiiion E Preface of 2 is s11augh ta give quotthem a fas1 ing of pride an jay of spiritual resdam I shsall not d lsavish in asrtaistically alaharatsd descrip tions f my project far fear sf incurring suspicion 0 painting a Utspaia iIi anticipiats in H case that tluzz11gquot11t lass sm srs will cariacat11re sketch and thus try to weaken its e isst A Jew intelligent in ether respectts wlmm I sxpiaiinedi my plan was of the DpiiI 1iDI1 that a Utopia was a prsjsct whoass future etails were represented as ailrasady exta11t is f3i1i3CjF Every Chancellor the Exhequ sri calculaatas in his Budet estimates K assur nsd gures and mat only with such as are basecl an the average lquotE39i11I I1S of past ysarss 01 an prssviauss raseniuss in other States but samistsiimas 3 gures for theirs is no precedent whaatsverg as for example 3 institatiansg as new tax Everybady who studies a Budget Ikniawis that this is case But even it were known that the sstimatesa wousld not be 0 adhered to waul such a na1 1sia 1 draft be CDi1SidEI39Ed UitrJpia11 But I 0 expecting more p radars I ask the cum vated man whom I am addrsssilig ta sat many pasmnsceiveid ideas emtisreljr aside I shall even go as far as ts ask those Jews who have moasst sarnesat1r tried t solve the Jiswissh uastio11 to Isak uan their prssiaius sattempts as mistaken and futile I must g39uard aasainst a danger in setting quotforth I A If I dsssri7b e 39iu1ure siriciuamstanicess t tau smash caauitiani I shall appears idovafbt their possibility I 1 an the other haad I aanauncs their rsalizatians JJ taa mush a39SS11I 3I1CiE I shall appear ta be describin a chimera shall thera fare clearly and phatically state that I bslaievs in the prasticasl autcams f scheme though N 1afessing to 1131 dismvsried p shape it may 0y 0y 0 Q ui1timate1y take The Jewish State e5sential to i world will t39heresfere be ere ated The plan would of murse seem absurd if a sing1e in diviiduale attempted to de but if twertked by a numberi of Jews in veooiperation Weuld apeer perfectly ratina1 and its accemp1i5ien1 vmuild present not di ieuiItiites P mer1ti0ni11g The idea depends nnly mm the numberi of its supprters Perhaps our anibitieust jyoung to every mad f pmgress new tzlesed seeing in Jewisi1 tstatet bright prespect of fIquotEEdOI IT1 happiness and henore opening the tiliem twill ensure the pre agation ef the idea feel that ptublieatiml of this pamphlet my task P done p si1ai1 not again take up the pen unie5si attacks of Imtewerthy at1tageni5ts drive me to do Se 1 it becomes t1ecessar3r to meteit tunforeseen cab j ezietionst rmd to remove ertmre 7 I stating what is not yet ease before Are the su erings Def Iews not yet gravei enough 3 We shall see It depends on the Jews tthemsehres whether cr1itieaL1 pampihiett retmains for the present a political mmance If the quotpreset139t generation is tou tiul1 to 39l1Ilde fStL I1d it rtightly 3 future ner an a better ienetretien will arise ta under stand it Jews who for 3 shell hazve it an they will desewe tie have s Itntrad auettion Ie AST390NIaSHI NG HOW hU INSIGHT INTO THE science nf eeenetmnites rnany of 8 H when rnmre in midst of aeti39ve life possess Hence it is that even Jews faith fully repeat the 113 of the Antiatsemites W39en depend for sustenance on the nations when are 0111 nhostts and if We had I10 hosts tn snppert 115 we should die ef starvati0nnn tt u is a paint that shows how unjust aectlsatiens may our selnfknewledgen nt what are the true grounds fer fl statemnennata ccncernitnae the nations that act 0 quot hn5ta 0 j it is not based on limited physioeraeteic views it is founded on p5b childish e1mr eat CD39I1 1I11DC1iti ESt pasts frame hand to hand in continuous rotation We need not wake frem long slumber liken Rip van Winkle tn realxizge that the we d is ennsideratiblgr altered by yX production new cemmndittieen W technical pregresa rnade during wenenrful era ena39b1es even a man of ljn1ited inte11i enee to note t K Stherteightted eyes the ap1ueaaranee eff O QK all around p R N sptinrit nf pv prise has ezreated T Lafbnr winthm1t enterprise is the statitnarjr labnr ef an cient days and AK of VD is the WmIr of the hntusbandmanj G stands new j nest where his rtogveniters stand at thous v and years age All our rnateriat welfre nE 39been brought abnnt by men nf EI1tEI5pIquotitStE I f almst ashamed of writing dnnrtn so trinate ta 1emartk Even if we were a act etntreprtenennte 5neh as absurdly ezaznaggerted accounts naake us out tn we shnnld not r eqnti139e anenther nation to line en do not depend on the eireu1attien e f teldf cn1n Z medities because p perdnce near enea The wmilid PDSSESSES slaves If extranr dii1ary capaciity far iw mfk whose appearancie I been fatal t the production of handmade goriadsz these slaves are p machiines It is true wmiziiien are fEqlL1i1Ed to Seti im thill ff motion but for this we have imien in p lenty in mipierab uinidanee iO11lfy thus who are iimiriant f ie mnditiians of Jews in many cnuntriiesi of Eiiumpe woui vientuire tn assieirt tfliat Jews are ei 1er or unwilling to PEI39f lEZ39I39II7l imanual laU0r But I do not wish to take up the cuidgels for the Jews in this pamphlet It iwould ie useiesiis Everythiingi rational and eirerythiing 5E TI I1ETI1t3Li Z posisimjy be said in their defence has ibeei1 sai already If m1ei s hzearers are inciapaible of comprehending them one is a preacher in a L 131165 ihearers are ibroad and hiighsmimled e11m1g39fh to have grasped them ailready than the seriimmin is super umlsi I elieve in asicent Elf man ta higher and yet higher grades of 39Ci1F iZatiGT1 but I consiirdEr ascent ttzr desperate1jgr s1Dw Were we to p till averi age humani1r A bemmei as charitably inclixied as was Lcssinig when he iwmte Nathain the Wisie we sihmild wait beyond our day beIm1 d itfhei days Elf our children of our Wgrandchildren an mf ouri great g1s39andchi1uifir en i the wm ldi s Spirit names to our aid in anotiher This centuiirgy has given the wmld iai w ond erfu1 renaii5 sanice by means of its 39t EhI39LiC3L1 achievementsi but at the same its miiiraculous iimpirmremients havei tit been iemlaye in the service of hiianiity ii5taince has ceased to be an 1bstacle yet we mmplain cafi ins11EEciienit space ur rem steamships cariry 115 iswiifthr and suzrely mreri P unmrisiited seas 111 railwayrsi ca1ry us safely intu ia mountainiiwarid ihiiherto trEmb1ing1r sealed 1 fimt Events nccurring in cuntries uindiiscmreiriieid Eurcipe Ietred1sctiien 9 een ned jewel in Ghettes arse known to us 0 the c0m39s e of an heun Hence the misery of the Jews p an anethree ism 1mt ibeeeuse there was a eeried oft EI1ilg11t Ei tent ene hundred years ege fer enlighteei39 l in reality enly the eheieesst spirits 0 c believe that electirite light was met invented f 0 pur pose of illttlmineting the drawing r0ems a few snobs but rather fer the purpese ef threinwing light en some of p dark preblems of 11 uvienity One not these preiblems and not the least of them is Jewish uestien In solving ere wer1lting net only for eurse1ves but else 3 ntanjr eigiieier evenburdened and oppressed beirlgs The Jewiish questien It weuld be tbwlish to deny it is a remnant of Ages p civilt e ized netiens do not even yet SEEtll ebliel to shake eff try as tliey will They eertinl3r tshewsed e genereus dES39lI39E to ie P 3 the en1anipet ed ens The Jewish quetstinn exists wh erevier Jews Alive in perc eptible niuemhewrs Whiere de es net exisit it is canreied by Jews in the eenrsie ef their znigretiens 0v enettnally IIIUVE to these places where ere net persecuted and there our presence predueels per secution is R ease in every country will re Inein so ievein in these higltly Cl VlllZEjl f0I instance Franneesuentill the 39ewish questien nds a selnteion on he poli ttieel bassist The unf0retnnete Jews are new carrying the seeds of AntiSernitism into England they have elreandy intre dueed it into Ameriic I beliiteve that I understend AntiSen1itis1n which is really he highly complex mnevement I ieensider it from 3 Jewish stanpeint yet witlhseut quotfear 01 lf1etred I be39lieive that Y can see what elements 1here are in W of vulgar sypeart elf eenlrneint tretde jealousy of inherited prejludice ef religious intelers Vance and also of pretendedl selfdefence I think the Jewish qucstin is no mcrc a social a rcIigious one 1mctwith standing that F smrietimcs takes these and c zcr fDi39ii39iT S It is a riaticnal sucsticn only be solved by making P a political wcrldqucstinns to be discusscd and by civilized nations of the wc car1sds p B p are a pecpilc cnc ccplc p have honestly cndaczawmrcd evcrywhcrac to merge mm scivcs in the iscrciiacil life of srurmundinaga C mmunitiES and 10 pracscrvc quotthe our fathcrs T are fast pcrr139nit ted to dis so In vain are we lcysal patrcicts mars loyalty in same places running to E2itI39eII1ES in vain dc we re the scams sacrci accs of life and property as our fellow citizcns in vain do we strive to i11crcasc the of our naitcivc land in iscicncc and art or her wealth by trade and ccmimcrcc In co1mctr39ics where we have lived for ccnturciczs we are Stilil cried down as strangcrsi and often by these whose ancestors were not fyct domiciled in the land where cws had already had experience suffering The major ityquot smay decide are the straxlgcrs ficirc this as deed every point T arises 0 the rcalaticncs betquotJEEH 11atitms is a queasticn cf I dos 11ct here sui39rc11C1cr any fp fti ll of cur prescriptivc right when I make this statcnicnt mcrcly p h swan name as an individuals the wcrild as now 0 X and far an i1quotldE I1itE period will probabiyr remain might prccedcs rigl11 is useless t39hcrca fare for 115 t be lcyal pactrmts as werca the Hugucnocts who were forced ta cmiir39ai c If we muld osnclcy be left in peaaacci But I think we shall not be left peace Oppression can persecution cantmt extcrminiatc us No 11a tior1 on earth sunrive di siach struggles and sufferings as we have gcnci tlflrugh Jewbaiting mcrcily stripped cur wcaklinVgs the is1lmng among us were iIwariail31 l l p rathearl than B the fusion of races These who really wished tel see the Jews dilsappear therough intermixturel R e 1er nlatlierls can my hope te see O eeme about in one way The Jews must previously atq11ire eeenemiae perwer suf eientljr great to orvercemel the old eeeial prlejludiiee agairrst I The aristocracy may serve as pP erxampler of this for its ranks eeetir the pres pertienate1y largest nurnberls ef mixed marriages Thea Jewish f II1fliiE5 regild thee old nDbility wilth their mreney became gradually absorbed But what fee wuld theie phenomenon assume in the cleasse5 wheree the Jiewa being a beurgeois eple k Jewish questlione is mainl3r eeneeatzlratred A previous acquisition of Lpowelr eeuldi be synenymeua with 6 ecenemire supremaey p jewa are already erre neeu1sly decllared to possess Aqndl the pawler they new possess creates rage and indaignatien amerng the Anati Semitea what errtbrealks would such an inerelase ef power ereate Hence the l ret step twards absorption p 0 rlever be taken because step weulcl inrelvie the auibjeeitliaon of the ma j er ity to a hlitherrte sr carmed minerlity possessing neither I11iii tZ1fl ner admilnistrateire pewerl of its awn I think tl1ereIferlre tlrat the abs erpti11 of Jews by meaansr elf their prmperirty is unlikely to oewrl In eGunlTrirels 110W are AntiSemitie viaeiw will be ap prmrerl In ethers wlrer e Jews new feel eemefurtable will preabljr be rlielelntly diaspmed by w liappier eras religienists will net beillimrel me till ewr baiting teae39hes the ltruth fer s lcmgerl Anti ireLmiltism laiea in abeyanee the mere ercely will break out The ir1 lltratien 01 migrating jaws attracted to a land by apparent aeeuriity and the ascen1 in the social scale of lnatlirre Jews eembine pe werllf39ul ly to bring abmmi a rreri1lutlierr Netlhing is plaixner lthan this rratienaal eer1cl11ei 11 Introdiuctiain f 7 iecatmsei I have drawn this conclusirm complete in di 39e1ence to eve Q but ie qiuest nif p shall pmb ally ACEntradicted and oppose Jews who are easy cimumstanc e5 Insoflat as private interests alone are held by their ins or p possesvsors to be in danger tlmey can safelly ignore fiat the c onc ems If the poor 0u oppressed are of greater iimpcrtaince tlman therirs But I from time outset to preverlt R mismnceptiiioni frarm m roject if realize d would in 0 1r srt isnjuire pmpertyi nw by Jews I ll t161139E fGI B explain everythiingi mn nected rights of priopertyr very fulily Vifheiiri s Alan never bemmeis 0 q more than a piece of litera ture things will merely zreinain as they are It might moire reasonabljr be r1bjected S giving a ihandlei to Semitism P I say we are a jiip1e one people that I aim hindering assimilation cnf Jews where is afiut to be consummated and endangering it where it is an acmmplishetd fact insoifari as it is pnssile fm aa siiitarjr wri1er 10 hiner 01 eltdanger anything objection EL be especiially rouigiht fonnmrd in Francm It will probably 3150 be imadie in 0theri countries but I shgali answer only Fren ch Jews befrehiand ba causie these a mfd mast striking example inf 0 3 iHiow everi much K vmayi worship personaliity p0we1f11l individual pers nality D sstatesr11en iinventors ar1ists p hil U5 phE139S or leaderis as well as coiiectziive piers0eni ality of a 1 1iStDI39iC group of 11 I an beiingis iwhich we call a mat i0n h0wievieir P W I P K worship personaiityi I do not regret its disapeairanm F can will and must periishi let P D perish But the distinctwe nationality Of Jews nesii can will not imuxst be destmyeid It cannot be destroy39ed ibecause extemai enemies conscilidate it It will not be destiroyedg this is Shawn during of appalling sui iering It must not Y imyed espair I am trying DHCE mare ta pt39J ifE in pamphilet Whale branchies of Jiuidagismi may and fall but the p will remain AIIemze if all or any Of the 3Frienrh Jews pmtest against C scheme on CfCDfj 11 t of their own as3imiiationquot 0 i 7iiiii5Weir sim p1ei The wihule fIi g39 does not CD JCEVii quot iA them all They are Jiewiishi Fremhmien well and and This is a priivat e a air for Jews alone m im0 vement t wards the m39ganizaticm af tile State I ai praposing wm1lal of course iharm 4wish Frenchmen no mere ithagn it wmilci harm the a55iiimilated i of other nzminitriies It wmtld an the contrary be distinctly 10 their advantagei For they wcuuld no longer be disturbed in their chr0maitic f unctim1iquot as Darwiiin puts it bruit wm139ld bc able 1 assimilme in ipeace ibecausc plrcgsent P wimtiid have been stripped for ever They 0 certaiinly be credited 0 being assimilate the very depths of their souls if they stayed wihere H were after the new Jewish State with its superior institutiicms had Vmie a reality The quota5siiiimi1atedquot would pm t even imoire than Chriistiian citizens by thye departure of faithful Jews for they would be rid the disquiuating iincalculable and una1mida bic rivalry of a Jewish proletariat driven by puvierty and ioiitiiicail resisure from piiace to place from land to ilaud This oating proletariat would stationarjri Cilriistian ci tizer1s whom we Cali Anti Siemitcs ca11 new U detennined resistamze to the immigration nf foreig11 Jews Jewish citizens canimit do this ailthough kA I kA far CA diirectly far 011 9F they feel rst Of all pH that as a dES EiEndf3I11Z H nuimbieriless Jews who refimd to Iatradectiaa 81 the heein mmpetitien at iandividuals carrying en ranches of iinduetry who addiitien either iintroduce where it does not exist or intensify where S does The iaa5in1i1atedquot give ecpressaim1 ate 0 secret graievatneie in I phi1anthrpie undertahiings They eraxiize iegratie n 51ciieties for watndering Jews There p a reverse gt V the picture which would be comic if it daicl not 0 an beings Fm some gf tthese charitable iI1St it11tiO 5 are created rmt fer but agaitist persectlted Jews they are created to deaptatch these peer ereatureis j net as fast and far as possible thus many an apparent friend of the Jews turns eat on careful imspteeti0n to he ne39fing metre than an of Jewish origin disgjw1i5ed as a phiiia11t hart1pisit E111 the attempts at C0i1 I1tiZat iD n made even treally beneve1ent men i11teres ting attempts though they were have se far been unsticceeeful l do not thsink that or that man took up the matter merely as an amusement pt they engaged in the emigration ef peer Jews as one indulges in the racirig ef horses The matter tea grave and tragic for such treatment These attempts were in teresting 2 that the repesente en a small scale practical fiierceruiinners of idea of a Jewieaih State They Wi IE eve11 useful fie tmt if their mtiatahes may be gathered experience fem carrying the idea out s1meeeefull3r on aIarge1 eeale They have ef ceiuree done also tra1sptrJritatien of to new districts which 0z inevitabile eenwuienice ef such arati ciiail in iltratiein seems ta me to be the P of these evils Far worse is circumstance that uneat ie aeterr reet ts tend to cast deuibts irltelligent 0 is iH1p139aCtiCa1 or impossible to meat will remove clottbt ifmm the minds Bg i Itf aCtquot1Il tor impgssiblte tn simp Ie act of intelligenat ifieeirdezctiee p departt111 t39 of 0 Jews involve no economic dis turbenctes me crises rm ipersecuteiene in feet the countries tliey ebandeti 5 f tfiivie tee a new period of p I39 SpEIquotit39 tI 1here be an inner zmigretien ef gtgtAgti39rivStia teitiztt q into positives vevecueted by Jews z euteing current pR be grae139uel withterutt any disturbance and its ientiitiel me ve t merit y put an endi te Ttfhe Jews will tleave as hene1e d rie11ds w p some ef iretum ithey receive P y favtreb1e iweleerne end treetznen39t at the hands 1if eivi1ized nations as is eecerteclt to all foreign visitmfe Their will have n reeemblenee te tat flight for it will be 3 we aregfuleted metvemenit under eon trel of public epinien The mew iL EI1t will not enly be inaugurated k abSDl11te esmite j ity te law but it cannot even be earriited nut friendly c pereti0n of interested Gtmrernments whet wmifid deiriive eensideretble ibente a resm it Seeuwrity fer the intetgrity of idea and the vigtr of its eeeeutien W be tmmd in pG erteaitiein cf 3 bedy c0 irpoirete or corporetimi YX COI p01 at iD will Y ee edi Tthe eiety of Iewsquot In edtitiion to it there will be a Jewish company an emneimiieelly PI39UdUFCtiVE body An indtividueil whe attempted teven to rtmdierteke this hue task eienet weiuld be either an impotstet O1 ei medmeni The pereotnal therecter of L 111emfbe139s of the C f p0 I393tiD11 will t eranttee its integrity and the adequate cepi39te1 of the Cmpeny will prmre stability These iprefatmfy remarks ere meirelyr intended as a hasty reply to ithe mess ef ob j ectiens the very wards Jewish Statequot are certain te arouse II enceftm39th we shall p rU39eed more slowly to meet further ebj eetisents and t0 ex plain in detail what has been as yet r1 dye itndimted end we shall tfj39 tie the irlterests eat this pamphlet to taveid making it a nil expnsiteinn Short nphristie chnapterse theernef nnre Ibegst answern the ptlrpnse If I weish to substitute a new building for an old 0113 I must demolish before I constrncnI I shall thereefnree 1rceep tn p natural sequ ence In the 1st u egensernl m 1 shall explain my ideas renmmree all prejudicnes lt1ete s essential pnliticnl and ecnnoniien ennditinns and develop the plan In the special pantn which is divid ed into three fpreiencipal sections j nshall describe its execution These seetinns are The Jewish Cnmpaeny yk Grnups and j Society of Jews The Society is to be created first V Company least but in 0 e expnsition the reirerse nrder is pre ferable became is the nancial snnndnesns of the ennterprise p X chie y be callned intn questinn end doubts en this sacnre nmst he renleeved xest In the ennclnnsinn I shall tn meet every further eb j ectnien P R ennled essibly be maden My Jewish read1ers will I hnpe fllw me pntinenntlyn tn o end SDIIIE BV naturally make their nbjecztiovensn in an 0rdesr of snccessinn nether PIK that chosen for their refeuintinn But w39hnever nds doubts dispelled shnnln give al1eginnce tn the cause Althnnglm I speak nf rensn I fully aware that reason alone ewill net sn ice Old prisnnetrs do not nwiinlelienglfy leave their rcenlls e shall see whether the y011n 1 whnm we eneed are at our enmmandwthe jmuthk who i139ffESiS tib7 draw on the old efEEEL I5I39jF thenl forward Ann strong a sn transt39nnn rntinnagl emottives into enthusiasm HIS PAL ILI39HLET G0 14 INTEeeitoiiiei 39 Fore LAWYERS I CAN tlmerieifore touch only our5oril3r as so many iotheire tliings upon my theoijr of the leigel basis of a Srtatez I must nevertheless ley oiome stress on 1 newquot theory which could be maintained I believe even in idieeusision wieth men well versed in jurisprudence According to Roiuseeaoie now aon1iquated view 31 Sftatie p 4 a social eontraeit Rouseeeu held t1uat Tlie eoiiclitions of this contract are so preeirsebr de ned by the nature of the agreement that the slightest aitere1leioin would meie them mill void iThe eo o5 equienee is that eve1 wiheroe they are not expressljr stated tlfiey are every where idientieal and eveioeii here tacitly accepted and I39EEDj eized etc A logical and hietor39iIe ref ute1io1 r Roueeeiaeoquots 391ElZlI T was neverr nor D now o1iFIieu1it however terrible and fora reaching its e eets may have The qiuestion whether a social contreet with co11doiti ons not expressilyo Stated yet onaHembiequot eiisted biefiore the fr eaming of a e oneteiteuotion is of no praetieail inteirest to States under niodern fog of gmremnlentquot legal relationship between 39gowrem g and eiitieexi is in any case e1eer1r established now But plF E Ifi39Dl15 to the framing of 3 constitution and dw i11g39 the ereeti o11 of a new State these prineip1esi essrume great practical impo enee quotWe know and see for our selvees that States still oorigtiotize to V reated Colonies seeede from the motiheer eountry Vessels fail awoay from 136 138 in the nggatiorum gestio wiherein the body at EW iregpret t sents the L mgaitiarumt tand the g0VVEtft I E t I EpIquotE gents R gestar The Rnmainisi p G thteir m3well7uJus sense of justice proaduiced P inabtlle masterpiece eB neatiatmmi gestia F the pzmjperty of an oppressed peir5m is in nger any man may step fnrward tn same C L man is the gmtar the diirectmf of a airs ml 5tI iiC quot his own He has received 10 wairrant t11ati is nu human warrant higlter nhiigatimns ELl1th0I39iZE him to act The higiteir biie gatiuns may be fm39mulated differient ways far State 3 so as to respond to iindividual degrees nf culture at itaiined by 3 PL5 general Dwer of CDII1vpI39Ei lC SiD I1 9 Vge rtio is iintendedl ta W ri for O4 gcmd of the daminus the pmple to wlmm the gmttr Y belongs The gesmri administeirs prtoipertgi D fE he 3 jaint oiwnen His int prarietoirshiip teaches C what uirgency p warrant his intetrvention and wotuid demand his leadership in tease or war under ma ciiricttmstances is this a1L1tti11IIquotitj valid j mint Vpruwietorship ccmsteiint aft niumemus intaowneris is eewrm under most fiamrable cogindiitiuus at matiter inf camjecttttmi A A is tcreatezd by 3 natiiurfs stmggle for eJiiStEIICE In any such struggla it is impossible tn obtain pmper authority in tiirciumistat1tiial ifatsthiiion befomhand In fact any pirtevi mus attempt to uibtain at rieguiar deciision fmm majority wouldi ptobfatbly ruin the undertaking f mm the outset For internal schisms wnvuild P peaple defenceiless against E39KtETl I3i dangers p all be of one mind the gextattri thveirefmne sin1Kply 7 the ileadership into his hands and in van actiiun of the gartor of H16 p su cientlyr warA rianited if the comment cause is in dangier and the aiaminux aciety P P N prevtentie either by want of will or by same either rteesen from helping But PK geeteer beeemes similar to the P P his initewteentien and is heated by the agreement quest am can mlcim Thiiie is K legal retlatienshtip exi5ting before 0139 more eerreetly created sim1i1itaneoueliy p I It I State The egester thus beeemeet answerable fer E H39EI j39 of neggliigenee evetnt for A f3i iii111fE of business uendertakins and ithe neglect of such a iiaitrs as are intimaitetly eemneeted with them etc I shall not further tenilaerge one 8 eegta tierem g est ie P rather ieatve it t ithe State else it weu1 d itekte us tee far from the main subeeet One IquotE iZTI3 I39ilttE only M Bufsitlese II13 3Ag E 1Ei t it is approved by the ewner 7 2 as e iectual as if it thedi originmly been carriied an by l5 authority 8 how des all this affect cure ease Jewish etcpie are at present prteventted by the iasgpra fmm eendiutcting 39tifeir palitieal affairs tihemseiveai Besidiest they are in 3 eaudition more or less severe dis tress mer1j parts of the werid They need abewe all things 3 Vgexeteri 0 yesteer etanneet of course be e single iindfividuel Such a one wpmild either make himself r idieu Imus or w seeilflg woiutid epipear to be working or his town initereests eenitiernptiIe The getter the Jews nmet therefore be ta body cirr Vperayte v that is the Sicetiiieity of Tewe organ of the ntatienail mmrtementt the armature and funeti0ns ef which we are last deailing with quotwill in factquot e ereeated Vbfere evee4ie hiting else Its fennattieem is perifeetiy simple It take shape those energetic Jews ti E39i tjf p 0 G legislation and admiinistratinn etc must be rationally e1roi1r ed out of the original 5icheie Extiemaliy the Ssoiciety will attemiypt as I explained be fore in time general rpart rtnV be aci1 nowledged as a State iforming fpimwier 0 f rec assment of Jews 0D C nif f ml py requisite authority in its reiljatimls c ments Intemaiiy tiihat L to say in relation witii the Jewish peopile the Society will create all the rst iindispensabie institutions be the niucieiusg out of tile public i115tit11ti ms of ithe Jewish State will later on 4 developed Our irst object is as I said before supremacy assured ta us by intiematiional law mrer a pmtian 1 the globe S1l ilC iEi t1 y large to isatisfy our 1151 requirements is ixe P step 2 OCCUPAVTIVN OF THE LAND P natiicms wandered in histri r times the39 let chanice them draw them ing them ihitheri and thiiiiier and like swarms mi I0icius is they sett1e d dowil indiiiffierently anywlmre FmT histmit times the eartfh wias Ln t known to man But 1 modlerin Jewish imig1ation muist proceed in accorvdance with SCiEI 1ti E PI39iI1Ci1ZJiiES an in an extraur dinari1y priimitiirie ifashiimi J at advsen mare than forty years ag g lidiigigiing was carried turns days were tiwse in Ca39Iifm39nia A I39BP t1 brought dESpE1 ad0S togeither from evesry quairter cf the earth P they stale pieces of land reobbed each other of gold and i nally gambled it away as robbers 0 But t 0day 0 is in1ddigging u in 2z Transvaal today A dventurousi vagabonds are not there sedate gE0i 5t5 and erniigiinevers aimLie are on 0 sot to regulate its god industry and to employ itlgeninus machiinery in 142 I mile separating 0Q ore from sL1rmi1n rock Little is left P P P S Thus II1 l1St imresltigvatle and take possession of new Iewisl1 enlunitry by of every meem explediienllt seen as we have see llantll we shall send over a ship hlavii on lard representatives ef the Sueirety of the Cfempanjr and elf H the groups 0 will enter int possession at mice These will have three tasks to perform r 1 Am aeeurate scienti c linve5tigatien of all 11atural resources inf w iLe country 2 the erganizatlilenn Hf a strietljr elentml ized nistriatian the distributien of lfatld These tasks ilntearseetl one alnether and wifll all be carried out in cernformity with new familiaJ39 rbjeel in vliew One itlhing TEfffl lT15 tel PW exp1ained namely how the eeeupation of land aeeeerdline to leeal gmups is ten place In Amelriea the occupation of newly epemecl territ0rr is set tabeut in naive f hl The settlers assemble on the f mnitier and at the apeiiited P make a simultaneous and vi0 ler1t rush for thieirl pmquotlim1s We shall newt proceed thus to the ztiew land elf the Jews p lets G pmvlinees arnd telwns will be sold by aueltien and paid far not 7 money but in werllt The general plan will have settled on stre ets bridges iwaterworllcs ete neces sary for tra ie These will P T united intn p1evlinces P in these prelvlinees sites for towns will similalrlly sold by auction The local i1011pS will pledge itlhetnirselves to earn the busliness property thzrlugh and will cever the east by means of selfllimplesed aesesslments U Society iwill be in a 130llIl T139tCJ udge whether t1391e loeall groups are not ven l 1111ing en sacri ces 1100 great filoer tl1eir means The late cemmunlitilee will reeeiive large sites for their aetivitgr K g HO N p p1g J p k I c p 5 c 0 c i l q o o m Tj uni39versities technical sehmlns eies k einstie tutes etc nm these Government einstitutes P r do not have to be eoneentratted in the capital bp he disetribuete ever P g P j k pPz pPz pE139eafl einterrest of the bu39ers and j nerzeesary 0 pOi h bh oi d PFe i 06j proper P e of what has been 0R over In the d way as We eannnet and do not wish t Izlbliteeraete Z single individuals 0n the i eereneee between greups eentimue EWFE p if Aquot5 weill eshape itself quite enatumll ye r acquired rights a proeteetee and eeeeee P p developmemt will iX given 53 pe Our peenple will oQ made th0rmtghl39ir eaequaintetzl X all these matters V shall not take etheers quotlln3W a1quotES er R WM emy m ere pZW we shall edeeeceive ct1rse1veee Everjwthing must be eematically settled be mreei eand I n1ereIy indieate this eeheeme evur keeneset thinkers will ci m bine iM e1ab0rating it E1uTEIjquot S cizztl and technieia1 achievement of our age and 0f K E adveaneeed age UG will be revaehed before the slew exeeutien ef plan is accomplished must be employs Afar this rebject Every valeuabVle mveenetien which exists new or lies in the future must he used n thesee a eeuntry can eecupied and a State founded in 3 mamler as yet to history and pessibi1iities of successes S1lch as E1ii39EIquot39 accurred befere P Una of the great eommissions which the eSueie1y will have to appoint the emunceil of Seeteate jeueristese These must iEoer1nu1ate P best that is f best medem constitue of mnderately ehsitic naturej In 0 The I P tinn pussi le I believe that 3 good cunstit11tian shoul be anther Wrk I have ex plained im de Ail p of gov emmcn39t I hold ta d the best I think 3 Vdetnocratic manarchy and an aristtoA vcmtic reptlblic are the nesl in V as of a State becausev in the form of W and principle Of are opsed to olher and G resierve a 0D balance 01 pmver I am a stau39nch supporter of monmcl1ia1 institu tiunis because these allow of a cm1tin1musV pnlicjr and rep resent the inter e5ts of a historically famousquot family born and edmzated to rule a P are up With the pres enratiom of the State But our hi5torr has been too lmg intertmjptcd for us to iattemAp t dimect Acmltinuity of a1ncier1t con5tituti nal fnnns witlmut expusing mnrsdwres tn the dxargine of absurdity W demmracy 39wit l1cVut 3 E390139EI39EiC 1L1sgtefuE c unterpoisE is egxtreme Tb apreciation and condemnation tends 120 M13 cliscuasio11 Par1iaments and pmdwumes that obj ectim1ale class Of men profe5siunaJl poIitVicians Nations are alga reaillfy not for unlimited dem cmcy at present and will P less and less wed for it in the fu1It1re iFm a pure Afracy pres11pposes a predminante of simple custom and our customs become daily more cmplefx 0 the gmwthV f CDII139 1EI CE P incrreaseA crnf cu1t11re Le resmrt di me39 demacratie est la wrm wise Mm14tkeVsVquieu where this virtue t1haVl i5 to say this politijcal irirtue 19 be I do not b iewe in our Vpolitical virtue rst beca1L1se Awe are mo bettter than the Vrest Of humanity and Semndlyr b m X f39r eedwnm will make V115 Show our t ghting qualities at rst I also hnid 3 settling oi questions by the I7eferendu4m to W an unsatisfactm3r procedure Vbecause quotthere are rm simple political qut3t4im1s which can 2S answered Vmerely by Yes and U The masseis 0 Smeiety of t it are also more proiie even P to be P sews bye heteirednx epiniens and to be swayed by vigorous ranti g X is iir1pessiibiIe its trtnulstte wise internal tr exterilal policy in s pspulsri ass Pelitics must take shape g the upper strata week dewnwardsi But net member 7 of FR Jewish State will be eppresseid every p be able and will wish to rise in it Thtus a rest upwarid39 tendency will pass thireugh our peep1ei every by trying to raise himself raising also the iW39h0i39E body of citizens The ascent will Pd s firm useful to the State and sewiceble te the Nstienal 6 p7 I incline to an ariismcrstie republic B wm1ld s1sti5f3r the anmitisusi spirit in our people which 0 new degenerated into visnityi of the insteitutiisms f Venice quotpass through but sit that wefhieh caused the ruin of Venice must be carefully avoided shell p from hteistsrie mistakes of esters the same way as we ieerin pg our p it we are is modern nation and wish to be the most modem in the iwmld Our peple whe are receiving the new eeuntry from Society pG agls thsnkfeuily accept the new eenstitutimi it e iers ithem Shoufldt any oppesitien manifest itself the Seeiety39 supe press it y Ca t permit 0 easereisie of its tiens ts he interpreted shortsigfhted or illdisposed tini It might be suggwted our at s mmmen cure rent leni esge would present di7 iCtii39eiS 0 X esnmet sen i verse one another in iHebrew PG smenest us s suf eient aeqgusintanee with Hiebtewi its rasl for is rsi1we3r ticket A that 5 p z f A V w eerinot done T14 q9 new Jewish Starts be properly founded 1 due regard to our fntiure hA nio4rahiie position in the wnrld There fnrie ever obligation in 1112 old cnuntry must be scnrunpulnouiislgr firzill lileed before Ieaviing p Snciety of 39ews d0 Jewish Company will cheap passage and certain adnvantageis set V to thnise only who p present an n cial teri9ti1n nia1 frsr P p L rarities certiifying thsgt they hiave h their a arirs in ordnri Every just p39iIquotiVif3iE m39iginaiting the absndoneid cmmtrietsi 01 be heard mare readiilgr in Hie Jewish Static X an p else We shall mt warixt for recinprscity we sihnaiil act purelyi far the sake nf mlr honor PM ishaii thus perhaps ndt ilstesr on lha1 law enurts will more willing to hear our claims tnhan now seems to be the case in some places It will be inferred as a matter of co urse 2f139QIIquot1 revions remarks that we ishalln de1i1rer jewish criimninsls more res iigr than any ntfher State would dn till cnrnes when We can enforce anr penal code on same principles as E39VE139y other civilized I1a1i I1 There wil1 thierefsrs he s isrindl sf transition during which we shall rerei39rs nut criminails only sf1Er they hmre su ered due pienslties Butn 1havin4 maids aInends will be received wiithnu39t E rsstrictioinsi whatever for our crimiimls also must enter tlpnn a new iifei iernigratsion become to many jaws a crisis I is iilappjf issue Bad enter 1 ciiricnmstances ruin an character will be remWenid 0 this change may salnstnisn to many when are 1051 Here I sihonnld like brie y to relate a story I came stirnss in anccuunit of the 011 mines of Vvitwateirnsrsnid One day man came in the settled there tried his hand 1 th State M acietgr of I k ft at vari cwu5 things 3 eacepti oin of gald imitinting till the forundezd an ice factmfy iwhiich p well He soon mm universa1 esteem by this respeaztabiilityf but after scarme fTEa1395 he was suddenly aririested P3 had committed s tme de al cattinns as banketr Fira fort had ed fiI39 EI1t t11eret and had 0 new life under an assumed nme Butt when was led away as pirtisneiri the mast respected people in place appeartecl at the statian bade 0 3 mrdiial ifareweill and an rezIm39r fiori he iwas certain to irieturn How much stmyi reveals I new life can regena erate event criiminafls and we thave a ptr p0rtior1ate 1y small numtbter of theset SUITJIE interesiting Statiisticts out this paintt are iwmth I39eaciing entitled The Criminaliizy f tjiews in Genntan S Dr d Niath3LI1 utf Berlin w ihtt0 was com mistsiatned tthe quotSmziety for efretianste 3t itiI1Stt P4 tvitism to matke a collection of statigstics based can n ictial returns It is true that z pamphlet whitch iteems j gilres has been prompted as many amthter defence bay ithe error that Anti tScmitism can be reffiutted r eascm able argumentts are prtbabiy disliked as much fat our gifts as iwe are for our fau1tst A I imagitne ithatt G vetrnments Will either voluntarily or undert prassure from the pay certain attentin I this sch eme 1he3r may perhapst acitutally receive it tharie and there witth a sympathy which they will also show to the SDCiEt Elf Jews For the etnigration Ii suggesti will not create any ecmmmtitc crises Such crise5 as Wmlld iftoiluw evetrywhere in tonsequencge of Jew39ibtaittint would irather be prevenited m the cairr3ring m1t of sp plant A xn period of pmsper ity wiuld cmmence c cunfriesst iwfhichi are mtjw Anti 150 0 J tete PH Fr there f be as I have repeattedIr seitd en int er39nel rrtigretion of Christiatt eitizetle 1Il391t the pteittiens elewty and systemettieeltly evemiated by the Jews I we are nt merel re eu 39ere but aemeltlty aseietted tn do the mmiemetnt will thave e generellye bene teiel efVfeet That is at nerrew evietwe fir tll 0 one shm117 free enestelf sees in p departutre of Iewe a emmeequeent itnpmrertishment of eUun11rie s 0 is d39iL EfE11t fmm e depettuertet which ie a result of pereeeutien fIDI39 then reperty its inn deed destroyed as it is ruined Pu C39D1 tfL1Sti 39tI1 of weer DiFEerent 33iI1 is the peeeeebltet vmunettetry depatturet ef eteltcmists wherein everrthing is carried out with due teen eitlteretien fer acquired rigthtts and etbselute tee11Eerm it to law openly y by light of day under the eyes of a39utherietiets end the eenttro l ef publlie epiniee The emigtatim1 of Christian 1J1 0hlEtI3391quoti3 S to differe11t pe1391s ef the world wotuld be bmughgt to a etandstiell by t Jewish mm139ement The States weu391d have pet fulther atdvantaeget in a ener mD1IS inezreeste ft their expert trade for since the eemigrent 39e39ws ervtetr there ewm d depene for a long time to came an European pmduetiens quotthey wm d neeestsaritly have to The leeal groups would keep up a just import be1tencet and the eus1tet11ergr needs eweuild have Ate be sup plied for a lenge time at the accustomed places Anet11er and erhape en of P0W greatest edteventeges weuldt be the eeneuimg social retliet Social dieeetisfeeteien would e appeased during the twenty er more years which the emeigeretmn of the Jews weuld eeeupye and would in any case The set at test during the whole transition period The shape L the social qutestien may pR dependts entirely on the deve1eepmentte of our technical resources Steemjpeweer C CE tI39atEd men P tfeuteriee ebout rneeheins acia 0 0 j Z meta y ery where Pu wearer mrer39crUwded and whelre they made me arratlrer miserable by mrer crewdir1gl Our prlresler11 error mlaus in urdrieliaus and unsystematie rate of pmducltien is the eauae elf 39CD fl quot13i1 amerle crilaes which ruin beitl1 em Vg1 6 fEIrS employees St erawded men tegether esleea iziricity willl probably scatter aaizrl and may perhaps bring about a mare plrasperolua cor1d39irti an of labar mar laet In any case our teelrmical inventors wilm are llhu true benefactors humani39tylr willl continue lCl1ElI39l labatrs after earA lmer1eemer1t of the a 39igralior1 of Pz Jews and they will diaeaver things as mralrv elllaua as these we heavier already 5elem or itrrdeed more wrmdelrful eiren z these The WUI imrpasaible has ceased to in the imaalrr uilary IE teel1r1ica1 scienc er Were x man who lived in the last century ta erratum ta v ear m he would i rrd the life of today full of inlc0ltmprehlerar1sible magic Whereverquot the rrradlerrlxs appear l our irwer1tinar we k deaerii into la garderr To build a C l in ear p o as many o as m farmerlly requir ed cer1ltuaries Aamreriea a ers lendiless exampflesr af this Uh has ceased to be an lbatlaele The spirit of our age has gathered fabulaua tireaaurea inte 5lelrel1eluae Every day d wealt39l1 ine errelasea A hundred tlna1lsarnad heads are accupierd t apeeue latiana an research at every point of globe and what any one adialeavers elarra the P Z rrmmlent tr warld auraellves T Z and LU an every new attemptr in ear Jewish land P Z and jusst as we shall ir1tarodt1ree the Seaealmur day as an experiment for gaedr of hl1EH 1quotI quot lt39 so we shall pmeeead in everything else in the same humane spirit making ai 0fS new land a land af experiments and a model T Aflter the dearture af the Jews the urrderlalcirsgs p L have created will remaini where ithey originally were wha39le 152 The Ii p n rm fmmd d the Jewish spiamprit of enterprise will nut quoteven fail where pple welcome A Fiat Jewish capitalis ts will be glad to imrest tlmir funds where they are familiar st1rmunding conditi0ns WhEI E3S J7ewi5h muney is new sent Dl139l of countries cm amunt of existing pezrs ecutians and is U in nwfst Adistant foreign undertaliings will ow again in cons equence of this peaceable solution and will C0 tIquotib 11 tE to the further prgzregss of the muntries the Jews have 1ef t H ewe eMU39CH HAS BEEN defects p man39y39 7 s11per cia1ities and haw many useless repetitions in pamphlet which I have thlJ11ht over so long and so efteI1 ereviseed But 3 faieer minded reader who has euf ciLen te understande ing to greeepg V spiriit ef my words mt be repelled by tl1ese defects He will rather e mueseed theereby te eeeperate with intelligence and in 3 werk not ene emarfs P al one and to impewe it Have I net explained b V iDl1S thins and eveerleekede pertent objections I have trieed te meet eerteine ebj39e eteiens 0r A tlmt many more will be made on high gmmunds and To the ret class of obj ECtfiOI15 belongs the remark the Jews are not we only people in the Wmt39ld who are ae 0 I1rdi D e of distreeee Here I we1 d reply that 4 U as well bepn remeving ea of this even P J seheuld at rst be no emote 13 eur It miglmt further be said we ought net to create new disteieneeteieen3 beetween people we cmghet not tee raise f resh barriers we sher11Tlid rather make e weld disappearg But I I lEI1 wh b in this are amiable vieinnaries and the P of a native 5f ewili sti eu sh when c est of a bones will have ia iShEd etmceelesshr p the winds 4Uni1rerse1 brotherheeeed is not even a beautifufle dream Antegeemiem is esssential to rnaen e gre eJetest e erts But the Ieews enee settled in their State would prebeebe1Vr ehave 110 more eriemies As for these when remain behind since pm3perity EI1fEEbv1ES and causes them Ate dimin 1 N Thee I fate ish tl1equot would seen disappear altugeither I the Jews will Veilways have eu ieiient enemies such as reivery nationu hiaeu mice in their own land it will no longer be poesib1e for Ate ecatteur all ever Pn eworld The dieeperau ceu1mt be reborn unless the ciiviiliization of the whole P ehuuldi collapse I such a CU39n5fi39u 3ti U C ilId be feared by none but foolish men Our present civilization peseesi5ee weapons pewerfulu enough for its selfdefenee Inuumerale ubjieietieus will be based on grounds far there are mere low men neible iu l 139fljiS I have tried to fel fe see of these narrowminded mtiens and wlmever quotwilling te fall in p em flag P se1ren stars must assist iu ef enligh1i enmeut errhaaps we shaillu have te ght re of all against an ieviuldiepeseid uarmW hie3u t shertsighted beer ef our ewun reeei Agaiu people ea that I B furnishiuug W Anti 0 P ise P Because de net maintain fere are IIEJILE ezuze ent men amenst use nt peeypleu say I am 5hewiug our enemies way to injure us i y ebsuluteilyi dispute My preeel eeuld only be carried eut the free consent ef ity of Jewie Auction be taken against individuals or even against groups ef the most powerful Iews but Gov e x r erits iwillu neiver aetiiiuu aeinst all Jews The equal rights of the Jew iheufere p w law 5x V39V39 i0quott be iwiithdrewu where they have ute been conceded for the first attempt at withdrawal would immediateiyr drive l Jews ri 02 04 poor alike iutu the rainkis ef rievnlutioinaijr pairties p beginnein of any e ieia1 c2 of iustice a ainsti the Jews iI11FaIiE1bi39 brings about economic erisee39 iTherefere nu weapons be effeetiuially used against us 0p itheee Cieecieriee N J injure the hancils that lwieid them Meentimre hatred grows apaeel P8 de not feel it lmuch but eur peer 0 Let ruse ask our peer who rhmre been mre severely pmleltarlizecl since the last lremmral of l2 than ever before Some ei lulu prosperous men say the pree 5lure is not 0 severe eneughr to Vjlustilfiy emigratien and every fereifble expulsion shewe ihew unwilling eur people are te depart True beealuls e they do net where to go ibeeaersle the39l only pass from DIIE trolubile into 3IlOthEI l But K are showing lthem the way to the Premlieed p lrr11ld and the splendid force ef lenthusliesn1 must ght agaitlst ph terrible ferce of habi39t Plelrseeuiilons are ner longer so 1maligI1ant as they were in the Middle Ages True but eur eer15itliver1ese he5 in crelased so As we feel me diminutlieri p our lslu ierinls 139 prolonged PEiI39S CC11ti DI1 has eerustrainedi our nlervleel o people say regain d our enterprise is hopelelsls because even if we lbtained the lland f sujprlemaejr mrer it thee l enly weislld k f US g is precisely the est uk we need at ret nly Ue des rate make goeel eerlqulerere d eeme me say Were it feeeirblile it would have been done len age it has never yet been possible nelwl 1 is pesei bi1e A h1mdred 0rl even fty years age c would have been r1eth mere a dreajlr Today it may become a realitj utr rich wife have a pleasurable acquaintance r all our tecfhnieall 3LChlE39VEII1EI1tSg knew full well hew much meneyr can die thus it will just peer an simple who do not knew power mane already exer ciees ever the ferees fl eNature just these Will hiaee the lIj 1eSt p the new lmesseglel Fer have never lest their iheple of the Ifmm an 6 burden iwhich all 1 1EtVE 0 B 156 The I mtg iHer e it is fellow ews NEitl1er39 fable not decteptioini Every man may test 8 reality for for eirery man will carry over d4 7 a partion of the Promised 01116 in his head ianother in his arms amotlleri in ac quired p0ssessions Nuw all this f2 appear 10 be an interninabl3r long a iaeir Even in the LIT105t favorable circumsitances years might elapse bef1re the commentemiernt oi itlic fauna dliation of the State In the I l1E393 iti 1E Jews 0V 3 thousand diEerent places wouid sru ier insuilits murti catiiions ai5bus e hloiws deprediation and deatihii N0 We only begin to cairiry out plans Ant iiwSemitiirsm would St p at once and rfm39 ever For it is tihe icmiiciliiusiiion of peace The news of the ation of our Iewiish Company will be carried Y siingle day to the remntetst ends of the eiariith by P 1ightning speed rrnf our teileigraph wires immediate relief will e S11E The intelletts p we mdiuce 5D siuerabundant1 Pu mlr mi dJle classes d nd an miitleiti in our rst crgat1iizati0ns as our rst itecht1icians nf weris prufesmr39s c cials lawyers and dmtoirs and thus the mmiement will cm1tiniue in iswift but smaoiiiig pr gmsisinn Prayers p be nffered up for the success of mu work in temples and in chiur1hes also for it will briiug reiisef Varied But we musit rst bring enliihtenment to mezti s minds The idea must make its way into the imasiti distant miser able holes where our people dwell They 1 awaiken from gloomy bro ing for into ti1ei139 lives c come a new signi cancie Ever main need tihink I11ly of himself and the movement will assume vast pmportions An what giniry aiwaits those Awlw umsel shly for thei cause Theirefiorie I fbeiievg that a Wndrous generaiion of Jews ancliusimv 157 will sprin into existence Mac jAjAbeans will rise a 39tt Let me meat once more opening wards Jews who wish for a State will have it shall live at last as free men on our own snail 8 die PEi3CEf11HF j our own P M C world f be freed by our lib1erty enriched I our Vweal u magr1i ed 0111 great11 ess And W39hatever we attempt there to accomplish for 0ur weilfare react powerfully bene miallr for the go1d Elf humanity 1EPRI39NTEDW TH PERMISSION Cilmrltus Scriibm2r39 39s Sums I Ami39 Than Ef E EJIEi39 E rfI39IrquotuMri39 Pp I 18 llT2 N23EST by M a1r39li n E39iI1E39 Q 1 R Ci1a3I391Es Sn139iFtjn1Erquot39s St1I15 Pgs 0o To I AWOHLJD IS TWDFOLiD in eee0Lrdance d p1 p1 Q attitud of men is tweefrjlde B aeerdeeneee the twoefelde nature znf 7 primary wards he slgaeeks A A W39DI dSg J one ri1neae1y word Elie combination ether word is the cembinatimzfm Lit 39wheIeim e chenje in primary wer eme of words er and t can replace It Hence I of emegn also f39T fDf01d Fm the I of periemeery Word P 21 di ferent A em of p eprimeery Werd IaI1 eweerds erlte not isolated words but eems A D D 1 T P pN 4 y a mete m39e1eli0 ns Primary P6 do not eseribe smetlxinge that miht ezdset independently of them but bejinf speken bring abeuet existeenee Primary werds are spoken frm the If eTlheu is said 4J I of the eembineteien I is mid 3101114 0 I It is said the I KD the cembinetien I It is said J J L Ike primery H I ThaIu1 can only be spekene D D whole bemg The primary word I1 it can never be sVp01e1139with the whole beimeg 4 O IS NO I m N IN IJESELF lbut only the I of the primary word ITheiu and the P z ef the Werd t a men says reflezre ene er ieitllielr ref esiei s I tie which he refers is preseizttt when he says I iFmEhier when he says Thee er Ii p y I ef ene of the e prilnery words is piresent o eixistenee of P t and the speellting ef I are ene and s same thli11gi PSq Gt he primary werd is speken the speelceirl enters tlie wer 0Go takes k sstendl in p k 0 h lee HUMAN BEINGS o net asl5e rl in the sphere ef 39te1ensitiv39e verbs eile le It des net exist in Virtue ef eetivitie5 elsenei liave some thing for their ebjeet I wereeive szemetheirng I em sensible S I139lElil1iI 1g 0 imagine eomethimg I will S f illhillg I iel semethixrlg simetheihng The life of 0 beings does not C I1SiS lZ ell 311d 0 like alone Thil f end the like together establish the realm of But the realm if Thee has he i ierrient basis p The is spoken the 5peaker has no p for ehjeelzz F01 wheeze p ere is a thing there is anetlier thin Every is bounded iby others It ieexists only feul391 bein bounded T others pP when is eptjlcien theirie o lee thing Then lies he hounds When Thee is spelcenz the speaker has me he has ijndeed 11ethi11gl But he takes stand treletien 5 Po L Po IT p p p does p Pq p P an m l A A V I 0 z 0 mtien frem y a G experienee p them He eee139ien s what Vbeelengse tn the 6 N N alone Present v enly a world A seed of e and She and It again I experience same A add 39euiter experiences nothing the situaetieen P9 chaned are mereIye39 following P l sien that spritlgs 4 J I A of the race to away the esemert ef Inner W or outer A4 J 3 ere they but and an gs 39 we ad esee tn nothing the situatiion is quot epen V 4 expeeriens challgedquot P seeelf eeen dent at idem to perceives ea clmed P gs reeenri fw VI Q P and emempulete L 0 se etli Q e eeeum1 a on of H a e V p net 7 0 p P that P eexpeerience p 0 World 11 J no the pemli elf to be experienced but me 0 mat e y to N the ex 6 As pe 0 the world belenes be the word II primary ward IeT 37eru establishes the world of relation First MI 0 nreturre There the rreletierr rsrweys gleam bremesth the level aff spereeh iquotrrrestur es live and move evrer against 115 but eennet eeme tee us and when w them 0m Thee our wards eling to of speech Seeernd eur men There e reletiesn is epem and in the form ef speech We esn rive end ec the 1Theu n eur life spiritual beings There rele tien is elemtiled yet it discloses i tself it does net use speech yet Eli egets P perceive new Thee but nenes the We feel we l sdclreseed end x a 5WE I thinking eetisnsg We speak the primary wed eur being theuh we eeenet 11ttBJE Thee PT srut whet right de We whet Hes eutside speech into reelstien with the world ef the Primary In every sphere in its P weyi tihreugh reeeh pr ee ess of brecemirlg that is prerserzt to us We leek eut te wsrd w fri11e ef the etemslr Then in each we are se39rse sre ef a breath from the eternal Thee p eeeh Thou we edrdress the eternal Three res say Then I een take out from the eeiemr ef his heir I of p l speech or of his gieodniem I meet cen tinuellye do this But eeeh Itime do it ceases to be Th390u And just as pireyer S not but 0 QB in reyer sacri ce not in sPe c e but space in sacri ce end to re versei the reletie n tee Iebelish the Ireaiiiie 5 v H men to I see I do nt meet at some time and place or ether fIe can set in a peri tieuler and place I must centinuelly ee it But I set only e e or e She T is en I t no Iengjer 0 So long es the heaven ef Thee A spreadI out over me the winds Of eeeusality ewer et heels enci pH lpeeI ef fete stays its course I do not experirezlce the men to Wheiim I say The But R take M stand in relation to P in the sienetity of the primary Y Only Iwihem I step eut of it do I experience P nee mefire In the eel ei experiem e Thee fer P Even if the men to Wham I say Thee p Il t aware ef 1711 the e eff his experirence yet reletien Fer is morei It realises e deeeptiene gene trietee hare here is the ered eIe of the Real Life Tmsi IS A i e smmee OF ELET a men is ffeeeid by a xd which d esires te be made 06 Ieugh 1 e Werllt Tillie is 110 039ESp139III1g of s soul Ilbuet an iapieerence which steps up to it ml demands of ii 0C e iectivie pewer miein C0 C5ETn39Ed an act of Ihis being If he carries thmugeLII j speaks primary word eut ef 0 being to the wfhieh 10 appears then the e eetive power out and the Work arises The eet ea sacri ce and a is 0 seeri eee the endless that is e ered up er the alter ef For eeeverything p just meement in play the eespeettwe must be ebliteretedg nething of that may penehiaete o work The exe eluseiveneeses ef what is feeling it eemends that it be 50 This is the risk the m ward een eenley be spoken the whale being He whe Wes himesee1fT to it emey nething of w were dees net su er me 10 the tree ene the Jfsexen Ate aside relax u the wmild of It but it eemmende I do net serve it is l3139eeeeeem Aer me I I1EitheI experience not eeeribee the which Illeefts p but ernly bedye ferth And yet I be eheeld it slendid in p Iedience of x eenfrentse R eleerez all the etesse ef the wezrlcfl which is ex pEI i B39I1CEd do not Behold p as e B emeneg the iI111er ithgs net as an image ef feeney39e but p that which 3331 the preesent If iiest is made ef its ebjee evify the ferm eerteinly net equotthere 39 Yet what is actually so Ptt present as it is the reV1etien B pv v stand to it is real fer it a eets me z w e eet p To pmduee is te dlrew t be invent P r to 11 J to shape is t discm39eeeree In bedying feerth I disclose u lead iu aeceress intee the werld ef It q Work predue r 0 r e p among things able to be experi enced en Adeseribeed as a sum ef equeliteiee Buet frem r to time it een face the reeertive b eheIder 5l sj Wh le embodied eferm 11 X f V P in pY tee p rmthing F er we de not EXPEI39ieI1C39Eit 5 then do we S of 5 39uet evter hing Fer P e i about it any mere d b e it me gtUeH d is not g bjft e e eiiinit pd speaking ef the h Word ta it is en eat of PW being is indeed ie eet beirlg The meets me But I step into o irelatien with it Henee the reletien means being chosen and cheesing ieri11i and eeetiien in one just a any ee tien ef the o being which i3963I1S 1116 stlspemeien ef y partial ectiene Y 41 iecgt1Leeamently of all tsensatiem ef actions gr eu1u ded enlyi in their p Z limite rnlt Y bound to resembliei s11 eI39i11gi The primary weird can be speiken only Y the Wheie being Ceneer1lIetien end fusitent into the whole heire even never tail ze place through my eemy nor een ever iteke lace a I eeeme through reietieI1 to the Then as I bieeeme I Ii sey 39Theu All real lief meeting 1 5 0 itTID1FT T Then 15 system of ideas 10 fer elltne wIedgie and He fleney itntervenei be W I and Thou The itself 0 trigensfermed it plungee euqt Of i5eIetie11 into the lmity ef wiiele aim ne eluet 110 entieeipetien tinteweniei Tbetxvee 0 e 3 Desire itself p trensfermeci it nut of its into 1 appearai ce Every 1 1 lapsed does the mee ng come abmmt P OE 0 j p 9 X AA H A k w p 1 my y2 is the It for nther I p abject tn general gfE1I39iE CE D or can become so iiJrmgh the of P F i Far B real thmjgh certainly Vswaying a 0W ineither behveen eperiencae and 11zmexperi eumce mm begi EltE what is given 03C 0h not giver1 nor between fine wcrrld of and the world Elf vaIt1e4 But g i diEEI39EiI1 jF across P these Prav 0 i 1 It k F s and object 0 Pjv by 0 is mea11t not the p illt which 0 P to HL B s cunc lusi gm the mere apVpearanvce of a te V3atin 6 is xed mad held but the 1quotE A rzesefnt only p so uY acifll l present ralaml exist The PIES BI1t39 L f W 5B Y mess only present V e I of the wm I13 P is Y I faced by no Thom but by a lII llltifudE of cm4 tents 110 Pres ejnt only Put p another P 0 so 0 Jae experiences and uses he lives in tlie past moment has no resent eontent IIe nntIl1ing we that has but ebjeets beseva present is net fugitive transient but eeni E present and enduzringf is net ura tiee but A quotSati0I1j suspension a breas g P G eut nge clear an1 haIdenin absence ef rela en of presenat Tbein beings are lived present the of eh jeets the past bjeets subsist TO A WeHLna DE a sfaeter above 0ppesitien p not do away its essentials twofold nature sFer speak ef ne g else but the real man ef you and ef me of ear au1 of our werda net GE 31 I er a state af bezing alene real Vbeundarjr for aelsnail Ox cuts Ii 0 y we d of ideas m well To e same manjf a man who is ssasa s ed saith the experiences sand use of wefrld of thins c zraiseed ever or about r ea m of ideas m which he nds re Ler sand replese from the en eeme ef nothings nesst On v Pr he lays saside his inausPiei us everyday dress himself s pfO Iinem 01t re gales r p the spectacle of Prirnal 1e1quotn er of n q Nm g pr ne o Ys zr Te pre p his aways may even j m p6l o j wellss7being But the m ef mere It n j imagined pastu lated and propagated by such a man has nei PHh j eemmen e A ma k 39Ain39d where Thea h truly be spoken g noblest etien b a fetiiseh the nc etitssimsss sentiment bd ileprarved Ideas are no smears 14 enthrened above H heads than resident I8 wander emeI1gst and eeeest The men q lleavies 0z g weird uznspehen is the he pitid htlt the man who addresses instead these tidees P an ahsneetien her a password as it were quottheir name is eentten1ptiYb1e 0 S B 3 0C IN ONE ee direct Ieletient y e geet on EDIC t me In P4 act e f the being ettermintes the tsituetient heeemes s G 0 meet that V eenfmntst me is ful lled and en quot 4 Iquot39jt E39 world ef thints theret to he etndlessly39 active endlessly te heeerne yz but ellise endlessly te y w Thou egeint A and hlsesssing It is e1n hedied A hedy emerges from the ow of the sece iess timeless prsesent ml the share of eztistenee p r sigsn teenee ef the e eet 0 net set ehviust p the reletien q Aq M spekesn Ate t The eet ef the heig which prmxidest dirheetnesst in this case usually undterste d wqrenglys as being one ef feeling Feelings eeeempeny the mestephysieel an1 mtetepsyehiA feet of lm39e they do net eentstitute eeeempetnysing feelings can he ef gree yh di ering pf feeling of Iesus for the demeee id jfe139e 1em p feeling fer 6 belervet disciple but the levee is the one loves Feelings entert1ainedt leve seems to P1 eelins dwell men but men dwelt 2 Ieve That is net tnetepher but the actual Lmre des net cling to the I such he way as ten have the Thee enly f r its heententf object but Imre is 15 between land P man does not kmwequot 0 his vet beirle D pH deee gnt kgaew levega even though he P D ate it the feelings E lives threw experienea enjleys and P C C ranges in p A e eet through the whole World In the E A xB i2 R P Z p C of men are cut free from iheir entanglement usi 1Q S aetiavity peeple and evil 0A g femiah and ugly 9 sueceseivelay real lie him that is set Ere they step ferth their singleneas and eenfr rmt 1 Z9 In a wenderful ewayl 8 8 tie Q exclusiveness arisleealand 2 he can be e eeie tivei helping ahlealiang educating raisir1g up leaving Lve is respeneibility ef 0 I for a In 1 lies the likemesesimpessiibllae any feeling wlaaetseeveriuof all who love p te PB grealtest and fmm ille bljeslsedly preteetedl man whose life is in of a love being to 4 who is 7 nailed to area i world P Wl39l p to bring P5 be d7r ealdflul peint te levee P meal Let signi cance of the in the exam ple that ef the ereature and em ee11iemlp1aiti0n elf p U of life in svewieei in the universe and ethe pY arm that wlaitia that alertness u eraning ef the Ileele ereatuarles 1 pP lupin you Every wecl wleuild fa1eifyi beta leelld abeuta you bieaiengs live their and to whatever pveint you p yeAu came upen being x ABEL lexxrl 15 0x la AL Thea a eetsi 0 as I a feet it are moulded G i pL1pils and eibuilit up by ear gt n 3t The brad u Lw t El1Cheamp 0 the holy qy bwmfd becomes mile W110 reveals 2 we are 2 cb dren and by Xn 0 w live As I p x Ut p u Z p w Q l u q Of the 39 fVBISe YOU t OF YE P thbugh G were ie only rela xun 2e But pr operly spa Ag c mb q btalce it even mlly x m example s iibhere is such a p as hateb Sr3 lung l love is blind that is SD1 I1g3S l d as not see a whbozlleb g P is not 7 3 0 under n sway of title dl Ward of relatima pId h 0 nature n a m Elf ab being d be hated He what sees a whole beilig an6i b to rejecrt it gf no 1onber the pXd of hate j is in that of human Iestribctinn of h pwer to say Jg Heb 3g d unable to say the ward to the other UL bein mnfrmtin P A if 75 word co smently inV voblbves an of a being He 0L quotBiI EEDITE cbmpelled t0 reject Either age otherb or pA self xK p 0 the entering an a r eIation I39BiC3I1J39 f V relativity and ornly suLltane0usIy S T V the 7T e raised Yet U man who S1l ll39 h IquotWaIquotF W S II xV to relation than the man VS hate and love KS U X U t bat Every Than in our world must be It It Aeeeme aa puj ees not mav ter how exiclusively present the TIhee was the relaaatiaen seem as relatiee has been wemked out er has been permeated a means 0 an ebjeeta amamle objectsrerhaps the chief but one ef them P size and its V s In i work ef 0 n realisatin in me sense meams Isa ef reality anethe1quot Ge11uiI1e C I1tEI 1391Pl ea VET ea eherte time 110 the in heat rst unleekse be me Pn the of 1111111 V aetien Lean again be adeescriampbede taken te pieces n 0 0 o 39 of laws Imre itself eannef persist direct 139e1a ung It endures but Ps interchange of actual and pe etemtiaala 0K being when was ewwerla new singjlae uneemditi ned not semetllin lying 1 hand M present et ale to be expezrieneeede enly ale te be ful lled new P aain a e or a She a sum of qualiiatiies a given g3911aImetity k a ee1i7ain shaea I may take eut P 739 11 again the eeleur of zW hair or of N speech or of PKO goodness P so long as I can ed U he R me more k Thea aand can L yet be P W Thee agjafin E very T in the werld M K J nature fated tee e wR or continually to I39e aenter P the eenditiea of IV In ObjeC VE speech it wouelcl be BS 3X every thing P I thee world eeithaaer Bae 1re er Z Tbecemia a thing ais able ta appear be an I as in J ute ebjeetive speech snatches p at a fringe of real D It is C eteemal ehrysalie p E Thee H eternal butter y exeept that sitaa one do not always follow 18 one clear sucVcessi0n but often there ha a happemin pmf0und1y 1wQfold 1 e tangle d c 0 Cnnsiader speech of PI39iII1iitiVEH peoples that E of tlmse that have a meagre sizmk of objects whose is built up P a narrow of acm highly charged Pr ese11tness 0 nuclei f speech w01d5 1 the sentences original pretgrVammatica1 P ctures which later as1111de1 lTiVB rise to the many lscins of words ms39tlj indic ate the wholeness of a relation We say p away the Zulu has for that 3 whAith means muI se1z1t ence form There where SUHIBUILB cries out i mnther I P last The Fuegiam 50313 abcwe mu analy 39c wisdom p a 5aven s1lab led whose precise meaning is L lay stare at e anther eachA waitimtg for the n ier to v0 lTuI1tgteer to do what both wish but are not afbzl t u In P tatal Si l ll the persnyns as e ressed bath nouns and prmoulls are V p 0 p R indepeI1de11ce u C39IJ CEiIIl t 0 fh proc1utts of atmd re eciiiion P L the B original unity the lived relati n P h greet P u or q of our dew tiUI1 cu mm e11diJng t to Pj haw iIdiI39B39Ct warmmlt f0139111ulas Md 3 9 dc we diiscern even B of the mrig ha ccnferrin4gV Df power Compare Atlalese p1z ever u grEeti411g PV u 4z s rs I see y0ulquot39 0139 with its er W u T quotT P t 39 in variant Smell me OIWE UmN A Y tells the B1ahmana of hundmed paths gods an damom were at demons said quot1 0v can we bring our rEeri115 They set all their mauths But gods set X gifts M one ano theI s mou7wV 8 Prajlapati the spiritj gave calf tn the gwrnds IT IS A 39 T the Award Aof It given over m itseV1 is not quotbrought into cnntaczt and me39lied dmm by the Thou 6 it comes Jintcr being ta kesa on the altien of an i11cubm But I i391s that as you say I of man is emptied Qf reality Stlrely whether 1 in 1 mlt Df iselatinn the I is assured of through its selfcmnsciousnVeas that strorlg gnldan B on e7 the manJyVcanlured cumstances are a9 f T in If nw I Vsay P 0 yD1L 0139 quotI see the eequot perhajgs 6 1 0 not 7 1 the same wayquot in b0th but 1 I both 95 1 in the same 6 K P K 0 H K MK K JK G 0 K 0 6 words 5 0 If many a spolgen Thou Vindicata fundament 0 It addIESiS1Bd Thou uVnly from habit P ofb39A Aeness many 9 sofken It amentally Va PF the whale being so are mun ess 139 9 only in p pexmsable ipronauns necessary abbreviaizions for man quothere who is spea You spas of selfeovnsciouss 0l p c A one T relation meazjmt an in other It of an p feriemcwe that Z D f pH same p whose are sVpollte1n I of tile pri139na1y word IThou C a vdiemnt I imam 31 of lime word II I nf the P g x Wm IIii r its appearaI1 as individualityquot 0P mnseiotrs 01 itself as subject of experiencing and 39I1si11 1 M the e word IETI1 makes its appear phC asr person and his30m Es mnscious Of itself subjecti ty 1iiIIh ut 3 c1epende1It ganitive InVdividualiy Amakes 0 a ppearaI1ce by being di er entiated cather indimridua liiesg A person makw p appearanAce by ezltering into rela tion witln 0tl1er ersons one the sVpiAJ39itual sf f LtllF l detachmexlt the other the 0q f of natura1 s0lidarifty of nneLi011 The 0 Irf sel2EdiEeVr entiatim1ism E PEI iE CE and 0 0 presemmess Iemembered as it were remutely n use anti the aim of these Cr iLfe 39 theti is z that p the spell of 3 Ppv y The aim of relation is re1e en395t w being that is eontiact n the Gw er imugh eenteet z revel Thm we l 0gs e brieeth of 0Gt 0Yw that 0 t ref et 3 IIre iwhe t his stand in reletien 9 in a reality that is r e beigzlg that neither merely beleligs in him rmri mererly outside If r po AH reality is an aeitivity Ps I share g able te apprepI39iete efer myself Where there is n sharimi tllere is me reality W39ehiere fhere is se1feppireprietienr there 11 rrieelityi The more k the eeniteeet the Then the fuller 0i 0i i The I is reel b L Pb e ef 0 f sharing f P f fuller its f the mre real ph beeemes But the I that steps out eff the reletienal event Tb separe en consciousness of sefperetie enet lese realityi is preserreid P it e Iiving rwray In ether words as Pv said ef the supreme relatiin and may be used emf 8 the remains s iit a is the prrmrine p ef sieuibjieetzie rfy pJ T I P 3 P 3 e sirlgle awareness X N selidarirty exf eennerien and of separation Gienruine subjectivity can only be dynamire understood the ging of the iii 1 lomeljr Here 0 0 B heightened fer ever higher mtire 0 eondir ened relatim for the Pr sharing pB being 5 eubje etivity spiriituall subsita39nice of N we persaein p61 SOIl censeiei Y7 being p xieacistititg and B as being Ind ivi uelity p de ned beinm and mme n f P zealous ndividuawlityquot can help it ta substance There are nut p of but pales of Fhumrganity No is person anti no PX uality Name wVho1Vy real an mmeis wholly 2 631 Eve p 0 in 0 We tw f016 quotBut iers are imen so 1e ned5 by perisun they may p callesd perscns and men 50 by lat 39 1 may be J R these pales s more a man is mastered by I c dereper does the I into mxreality In suc5h H the Vpersw11 in Illan and lea s a subterranean and as it were caAnce11ed existeI1ce still it is IEC Ed V 39 quotIT sm0NG A P I of primary WiJIquotd p is the Wmfld I the more personal is ma Accor 0 to sayin of I accmdVingj to he means when he says I it can be dEcideC1Awher1e 9 man belongs pE leads The wmrd T is fhe 1 w here 0d lzme hibb leth Elf Vmannd SC 1ist3e11 t word How disAAc04rdant E Elf the 1 It may P great compassion comes from lips mpressecl in the itraedy of mncea4l d selfc0117t1f adiction may muse horror it cha otically lips lhati wildly bee Iessly unsu5pecting1y39 Show fnrth P co11hadictiDni P it p idly a d Mbly Q paitrm 0g or disaeeab1e He who speaks the separated L emphasis an 6639 capital lajzs bare 0g shame ef thee werlspirit has been degraded to spirifualaity 0 lovely how ttine Le iseunad of 0 lively ands imPressive y of Socrates It the I ef endlless dialogue and w air ef ialegue is around it in w its j eurneys before the judges sand lw 0v last hour prisen This I liveid continually w the relatien man r be ied P7l in tiialegui It nevers ceased to believe in the reality of men and went eat ie meet Pv Se 0 tool j stand w them u 139eaiiy and reaiiity fersiak1es it ne mere Its very leaelirmess can never be fersakenness aI1amp the work ef mam a silent p 3 hears the mice of the daiimenitm say l b lmrely and how leistimate the sound ef the Vf I elf It is g I ef Pure ianatirieeiurse b zaatureg mature herself to it and speaks uneeasinly with it revealin her mysteries te it but not betraying It bIelieves her and isays fee the rese Then thaeu art 0C it itakess stand K O pn as single reaiify Pn spirit ef the real remasics with when 0 turns back to itself the gaze ef the sum the blessed eye ensieirs its radiance and the friiendshipi ef the eIememTs aeeempanzies the man int stsiJlness ef dying and becoming P4 the sound mmugh the ages Uftl1E S39l21ECieIlt and page saying of I by thee PEI39SO S whoa Seerates and Goethe are ibeiund b areIatiea And ta antaieipate by takiilg an i1lustralien frem the realm of uncenditienaala arelatien hiew Erewerful evens to being everkpewezrinag and haw leitimate eve11a to being seIfevidenta is the ef I by jesusl For it is the I G P P 5 P 0 P S8 pF demonic Thee be L no one can beieeme Then is the ieilementary barriee139 ef WEEYE the basic weed of C 8Xi011 ilesee reality its ehereetere of eetien In edition to net betwee11 per sen and individual flee and fseil w lie men there this thir 39teweri11g 0r p esquot ef p frieught X diest i11yi Towards eveieryihin ames but x re is eld Te a theusendi eeverel reletiens lead frem 11e e shares in 1110 reality but in ii iznmeesureble sihxare taken as theeugh in re real sees bei11gs39 ereund indeei es meehiines eepeble ef verieus eehieivementse must be itekell imtei aiemueent and ut eised 01 the Cause In this way tee sees hiITlSE 1f1BXCEPt that he must eewniti11ue11y ascertain anew R eepe139iment 0G peweer of ieiehiampeV e IIIEHE whee he dees net e perience treats hiI1 lSElf tee am It Thus then his Saying ef I is met a lively impreseiv39ie mat a full e11e but it is all the less a seejying like that of meder iindiviidual that deeeivee abeuti thins dees enet seek ef himself but rjly q as seterii11g peimt I that he utters end writes is Q 11eeeeee139y subject for thee seniienees ef g deitierminetins and erre39ngements no mere and 1110 less It has me subjectivity bute it has ialste no seTf eenscieusniese een eelt with its de ned in mg end tpihius all M mere no lusiee ef j ep3erquote11t siei p P p cleek which eisits end lees jnet P he ihimseilf expressed his idei5tinied being the reeelitjy of this pheeemen ee and the umeeliety of this L at the time when he was hurled from his Cause an flee the pw i e end eered to speak and think ef him self and fie tekee ieught for his ep Peared for the rst U p p8 epgeers Ilet a mere subject but neither does it Ineve towards subs jeetiveitjr ifreedl frem its eneVhen39em1ent Vbut not seveecgt it ereesses itsequotl39rf in the feerfuel word t11et is esj legi metee es 04 Y eitiemeete unWerse Teehelds us In e quot P end it we ebeelv in mystery 0 would dare te eseertg after eueh ectmrse ed such a fall zleti this men undereteeeed5 i I Iufeemeudeus Prediieusi 111issie1f1 er that he misu11de1steed it It is eertein that the ee for P the deemniaeeel out present has 39beeeeme master end me el misunder St3 I1dS It ees net that what rule here are net l l13 t fCl1 power and enjeymeent eff pneweri but destiny and e11eu111111etien It ewe enthusiastic mfrer deepeiiie brew and has n seuspieien eff whet eesiense ere writeterl eerees it like w t en the feee of the cleek It indusetreieusly iII1iteteS Pw way of leeekim on living beinej witeheut understeen eieng its meets and fI39IlE39CESSity and eixehmgesf the rigorous etitentie ref 7o tn 0B pertieuler beuesineees fer exciteed eelfeeeem SC2iD11SI1ESS ewerd I remains the shibbeleth ef manlcin Napoleon speke witheut PGWEJI te em er into relatien but spoke it as the I P e etensuemmee Hen He who estr139Eves ten say it as he said it enly betreysi the daeepeeraten es ef his wn selfeentradiet2Ze1L WHAT IS SELLF CO 0b 1 4 p If a deee net represem the e prieri rele timl in living h the werldl p he deee not werk 0Y is even of P Se seyis to his thought You see seltreteheed out here with eruel eyes was met L Pleyfe ew enee You laughed at me then these eyees and they had geod them then Q l397 you wreetehed I1 to you pty and whatever I do myself r a ef exiperieeneing and using dees not efethosm 0F you make it up fbetweene me it so that it leevm ee and I reeeveerfw p tl1 1g139lt x eewfiele and o h 0 two rewe of pictures en 0 riht end en the quotleft On ene there is or reether there P9 place fer the 39wer1 pieturee of aeuht p reliable eillemetegrephy uenjversise The P e plunges zfrem the eefelilng sfters tiny rnan from the teeming ea p A new history beers e 0 further thmugh w age toe rebuild Per sieteen y the f39hill ef the m P histelfy underfeete p 3 w w1i7ttee Dnee and all On the eamper2 there take place thee se39ul pT is p the erbits of the ef r eteee en q the hisetezy of the 9 eveM p is woven can one threed and E no longer stars endgeetiene eniversee but sense ems and P gs er eeven eX39PBI39i BlnC and of seul p beneath row emf Ps is written One W Theeeefexth ever tl1en1e shude1s at the elieeneA en and the world strike teerror c he up to right er left it may chance f sees a 0 7 the werld and there P use I at the world can mthing to I he is put at ease car he Se that wmfld embedded the I nd there is 139eaI1yV 110 wrld 0 0 wajrld can do Iwthing to the I E he put at ease Another time the shudders at the aienation and the I ist1illtes terror 0 1 heart he leaks up sees a picture which picture he sees do moi empty I is p full the wmrfld 01 the Elf we wrld aws over it and he is But at ease Bui a mmfnent comes and it is near when the shud ear1i11f lmfiks up and sees bath Kpicztures a 0i D q 0 P I ia 2 r FIRST SKE T CII of Ikbcmk mare than forty years ag I iI1P6116121 by an mward necessity visictn hich had come to me again and again since youth and ha c10u ded aver awain an again had now reiached steady was 0 suprapersona1 in its ma that I at once 6129 I had to bear to it Some ys I had receive the right word as well p s bank v x t Yx y x apparent v u there U need uZ same ad d ji ung Aflmese had to be w their Y place aand in im1e pendent In U way tllere arose some shmte139 Y which CY the pew by Vmeans of Emma 0Yr or it p 0 m ubiectinns cm Eriticised views to Awich Tr indeed imlmrtant jmints but upon 0 p my H1051 essentia1 caneem had not daLw11ed g its cant1 a1 si 39quotcance namely the close mnneaxiou 39 It appeared im i J 19923A P l English h 1937 er k Hh h i g f a editit11 in IIebraw 1942 German in the valume Diaiogisches 194quotT4 individual 39quot D nb a aVppea139red m ne vale Man c Man Rc Vsprmhe b Bis Frags an 1936 Red ef t l1e Ieflatien else Geds p the relation to one felillew mene Leter there were eddeci seine references to anthrepeleieel foundations tee seeie1ogicel euensequeenees Nev erthe1ess it has P N ed eut by 39ne means eveeeeee7e 0 Z has been su eieutly eleri eede Again again readers have turned to me te e eut the imearxing eef and that Fer a long je I answered eeeeh in ividual1y but I e adually fealised that I enet able te P jeuetice to the demand eleid upon beseeidesi I must netquot 7 dialegieal rele hieenshifp te etheesee readers who mekee up their te seek perhpe there are menquot ameng silent whe U special eens139ideereatieme Se I have hede te ebeufl e puihleiee eenvewer 0d ef tie some essen queeetiens are bD1l d tegethe139 by meenineg The rst questin be Lf3er1m1leted y some p139e iien fellweg lf es the hook eseysEwe een sten p the I Theu relationship net emery etheI men but p beings and f wfhich eeme te 39 Urdietene and eeeeiehung 1951 Dise Eeeelatien P Q P l p be eluded T 5 P Bufber P G in P p AAnethms Poi eya quot eEIemente Zwischenmeeschliehenquot39 ce the Dis p 0 1 tiic egisehe P139ineipee 0 ef the Interhmmen Peyeehietry Val Ne r Me 1105 Te be ineI11ded in M y Emberquot z in PhiIeeep x Antehrepeiegyi I25 s v p t gs u 7 u s 7 u 0 j Yw fnereenee between 5 Ewe erneletieonshie Or mere elese1y if Ps r reletienship reuira a mutual aetien 0n3 r v braces how the I and tm v 0 u Then how w the reletien to some Rk s g lr neteure be unedereteed as such a r39e latienship39E39 M ere preeiseljr still we are to assume that we are granted a j k j qg h n p g d d whic 0 k n 0 p our what is then p j character ef 0 reeeiprecitey an whet justi eetien haven we fer b quot k P m A h concept b made to describe it nj there P k no d Lied answere te b queetioirl o of 5 39net111re I a whole in G lJ5tDI11 fashion We b here censeider its 7Werent p a s epa139aelTeen1ye Men eniee PA he 0 capable ef a a ecl1ievemet He draws 3 a 4 ammshere 5 IIICIVES them to accept the st139eneenr in an way respend tee nmn 15fl I an often eastenis1u3911g active re spenssne te appr to ed39tessfing theIn and mnorenever a response d general is etmnger end directer in proportion as attitnede is e genuine sey ing ef Thea like elf ldnreen ere net se1den1 able to d through hypeeritical tendierness ut even erutsidne the sphere ef B a similar eenteeti between men v e esemetimes P1eee 9 men who have b K depths of bein a tential permership p net 39pre d0111ni11entljr persons of quoteneiInel nature but 1 aI en er those whose the quwtien rariees eeneerni C the sphere which the u be termed iihe sphere abeve the p the superlimilial jie sphere ef ever the M the spherie ef p spirit T d a P P 5 elds which gees deeper heweverr the Dattlre It is divieietn I een en the time hand what f spirit 0 the Wrld and peree red it by GUI seesee and en ether hand what 0 p has met yet Eii1t6IquotEd 1E W390Ild beta is rea y to de ee 39quot3VleS Present to us Z en pw 0 were peinft eut reader P P already rentered the werldg but I Y V P quot r the ethee139 can refer yen te the s V of are to P u wekrld l tr is tie us no 1amp5 a ing er a 0 ef q 0v rte 0 aeeessib1re to you reality er petentiak semeti ity But Pa ealmet refer to that which net yet en tered the werid Pb I asked iw39h err e then the mutual ity is rte be feued here 05 rei en then R I A A do is indieraite indirectly certain events in P l sife p9 In scarcely be deszeriibed which experience spirit meretiegj P the end iwhen ieeatiee net enough there is nething fer me but te rappeal rea er te wimests of year mysiieriee buried perhaps w ratetaarinable nnship ef this 7 In nrder tee help the realjsa en ef the best potentialities 0j pnpiffs life teaeheif net really mean as the de nite perissen he is Puq petentialily and actuality m er e precisely he pP net renew Y as a mere ef qgnialitiesi ijgs an itihibitions he z be aware ef ran 4 being 39 x Q i is 4 as is t wheileness nets he can canljr do D he meets aain and again Ti pa 0 a biplar situaitien P order that e eet aspen may ea uni ed and signT eant ene he must also ve sitnanit139 en again and again in U its nlenlente net n1erely frem his ewn end bust also from that ef ipartner he rnust practise the kinsd ref realisation b p I call inelusien V reeseucng O Eni ehewever much depends upon his awiakening the reelatienship the PuVil welJl and however msueh drepends upon 2 use pupil tee IIBElI1jIg pS as mixing hilm as the particular persenn he is the spe cial educative relations cteuld net persist P d e pupil fer his part praelis e d inelusin that is he Lived the iteaehefs P f in f een391n1en siitenaetie J et hiers 5 I Theu relationship anew cernes to an end or as nsinimeisi qniize di ereint C39h Iquot CtBf ref a frsiendship it is plain that b spei eailly edueative relation such Y 0h iineitheir ne less example of ie nenna tine nlinsitatien ef Inntuality p Z presented us the relation bietweein a genuine psyeihetlierapist and i pa ent If p P is satis ed te analyse RZ rR ie t bring to light W faeeiers from his niierecesrn P t tie set tie seme eeneeieus wer i in life ener ies which have been transEenned by sueh an einergfenee I i in I i quoti quot speci ed as a purposive Vwurking of one part uprm the other persists in virtue Elf a mutuality is fara p tu P 6 In 0c ccmtexl Unly me ques on moxie must he B cussed but it pj be dis eussed since it 0 incDr39 para My the jpst impnrtant af The ques on is haw the eternal relatiun be at nee exclusive and imclusiVve How can the Thau relati0nshi9 of man to God is cUm1di nned p 0 unc0ni tim1ed c g to P iverted by mmthiin nave I aeless include atlwr I Thm1 T1813 px nf man and blI iI1g fampiem u it were to u Note qt1sti7 m is um abmlt G0 but about 0 139e1alion cu And yet p u mder to be able to answer I must speak of r For relation to q ps N is y ab ve enntmdic 0ns u it l because he s 0 s ahcwe c m1hadictio4ns Lp he t Of pp h speak only of what God is in his rela liunV 10 3 p And even that is 06 to be l ressed parad x more precisely by the paradmszical imsa of a coI1cept more preciselr by 0 h paradoxical e0mfbi11atim1 of a subastantive 11Vcept g an 0 h tivV eA rf cm1t1 adicts P normal cnt ent d asser tionV of pV f7ct39io n must yield to fhe insigm that me indispensiafble de5criAp on of P dbject by mn eept 11 be jug B Led only P Z grmmtent nf P concept is lrevolutianjsed hansfarmAed X Y tendJede but Y P X indeed what we rience 137 of the 11 persoin that he take hiis stand and maIj4 ae his deczisiml Often eI1m1g39hV WE there is no ng to hear but l7om1g before we have umr4se1ves put in our ears The Existence of mutuality m ea God and man canlmt be proved just God s existence cannot be proved Yet he who k ta seal of it bears and calls to witnesis to whom he speallt9 whether t11atAwiVt11e4ss P new or4i11 1efuture H 0b 0b P Tran3Iat ead Hamid Gragar p vGLasgaw N lfb f 1957 RfEPRI NTlED WBFIquot l39l7 OF Hf ITJ39i3quotI nil ReeT fIn quotnrquotl rr HtJ lfu JE ggt i 39 Hrtlt li r iiitIgt P39 v 2343 I 39l n iquotflaquotilin lleideggenquot ELl lltlquotEll l quot lia1TJeI t hI1tl Raw Pge A23ii3 I T It is a qneetinine raieedt an all sides an alwajre a sense ef urgetntejr Dn htinges neettlt g lees b the eurvi eal of ethe spe einee man and the planet earth Yet the quneetin eirleerningi teehnelegy is usually peed a purely technical fraIn ewerlt as One tn be debated eeleily by te cl39mieiiane Technological prob7 leme we sen irequire teeh nelegiealt eeilrudene which new layman can faelrien er fathom J net as there are tlechnieal philesefphi cal qneatiens none but the phileeeplier can anewenr en are there teelmiea1 iteehenelnegieal preh1eme that quotthe philosopher had beet let alone Sulreily iteehnelegiy and pIrlileeephy are as far apart as any two elds could possibly Historians and aerial eciientiste de ne Emederrn teehnelng3r as the ajppljcatien ef power Inalchinery tie tipreduetiienni iThe3r tleearte its beginnine in eitgeLhlteentheeentury Enlnannd lwhere large eeailt delepesite jprevide ta eeuree ref energy for the preducttien of steain which in etnrn prepele mtaiehintery in textile and ether But already at this renllatively primititve etag e dieeelmeinet the nexus ef ievente beeemee en eeniplieatedt that nefbedey can neatly eieparate cause frem e ieet or even establish j eu1etemar3r hier arehy elf earueee z ejurnbletl tngeetheir into inzeerutllabflei quotfattere revelutienary disieeitreriee the natural eeieneies Clea tectien and extraction of ienergy reeeureee inv entiien ef meehane ieal devieere and chemical processes atraeilabillity of invesitment capital imprmred means ef trlaneperetaetien and eemmunnieatien tltand ieincleeuree mneehain atien elf aeeultturee eeneentriatinan of unekilled labor a hlapipiy eernbina en of theiewerld y and ether worldly nineetnIiveis iiand the age of rnedern teehnelegy is e and runnini before anyene can catch s breath and raise a queetim1 On Deeeniber 1949 llieidegger delifeerecl four lectures to the Bremen Club umiliere the general title Ttneighnt inter Ia Each 284 The Question Caneemin Teehnelegy 285 lleeture had its awn title x P1B The Enframinng The Danger The IIeideer eitpanded the rst two and read them before the Etatrarian Aeademfy def Fine Ptrts The Thing on June 1950 an 03y Enframing anew retitled Questinzn Concerning Teellineileij en Nevetnber 13 in the llalstentamled leetrure here ptfintied eemplete Heid egger1a passes the q1iestien ef the essence ef teehnelegyr Iale asserts that it is I1D39thiI1g teel1ne legieal and stiggests that pureily teehnjelal I I10dES of theugqht and disctlssien do not suit 0a Fer the erssettee of teeihnelegy is u39ltimately a was of reveailing the tetallitgr of bea ings As a of reaeialitn is pervasivei and fundatnental in our so much so that we eannet fer teehlnelegi at opt ant ef it The advent elf teehne1egjrz and it is tl391is hlS t0IiC essential unfellding er pravetnanlee that Plieitdiegger means o es senee is sezrnestthin destined er sent nut way along Defers the eighteenth eienturty Gene nf Heideggerls Inest datin theses is that the essence of technelegyr is print ten and by Ann ans a cane sequence ef the Sieietnti te Revelutien Hewener tn ig sist that teltehn01eg339 Tbellngs tn the 39E timay of the West in no way implies that it does not tnenaee On the eentrarquotgr the questiin eeneetnirlg the essevnee ef tEChI1 lDg quot CD fIquot I1 tS the S LIjpjI BII1E danger which is that this ene ef tetnealinlg beings may mrerwileltn man and laeings and ail ether possible ways sf revealing danger is impacted in the essense elf teelhnleliegja which is an erdering ef or 7SEt1ZlI1g39UPD39l391 hath nature and man a de aent ehal1e39ng39in ef beinis tthat aims at tetal qu ie2telusivLe mastiety The teel1t1e1egieal ftrtaniewerki is lIr1lf1EI39Ei1tlY explansietntisit and can reveal lately by renetien Its attemjpt tie enelese all beings in s partitettuiltar e1aim utteravtailabillity and sheer manipnltability iIeindeggetr ealls ienf1ami39ng Gesteli As the essence of teehtntelegyg etiftatning would be abse1nte alt wenild reduce man and beings to a sort of standing reserves er st neltgpile in EEI ViCB te and en eaii fer ateehne1 agiieal puripeses Bust enframing eannet ene139pewer er even reveal its nwtn hgitsterie essentilail unf e1 ding snot indeed the ladvent einladfuwanee and de pattnre i beings Behind all the con dent and EVETII axtegant manipu1atioI1s of the tEChI l DgiC H1 will ta pawer somethin re maims II13steri ous abnut tE hI1EI1DgjT wl ch 01113 a thoughtful 1f39Ec011ectioI1 can ap pIeciate tho ugh illdeed it cannt e plain and so enframe what is transpiring all over the globe This myste nuS Gaming to presence and 1nrithdrawa1 into ab sence which includes tech1mlcrgy and which techncilurjgyr would bait cranrmt entilE13 11135EEK relates the essence cf techn01Dgy to what HeideggeI39 speaks of 0q his treatise cm tfhe essence f tmthA the presencing Elf beings in unVc0ncevalment see Reading III 1bmre Finally Heidegger Lasks whether the kind of IB39VE i of beings that Dccu1Si11 the wark of art see Rea4amp y IV alziwe C311 Arescue man for the role he must playswhether he Vbe AtechniciAan or philnsiopheraijz the safEuAa4rding of Being p In what frllwzs we shall be quesltienin cneerning technology uestiorring looilos 3 way We would he advised therefore above all to pay heed to the way and not 0 our attenotion or1 iosoloted ser1terlees land topics The way one of t39l7l iEl IItl i I39lg All ways of t39l1lI1l l139Ilg roore or less perceptibly lead throoghr languager in 31 molnoerl that is extraordinary 2 Shelli be questinrirlg eorreerrrirrg technolo gy and in so doing we should like to prlepere a free rela tionship to p3 0 rielatrioloship will be free it it ogerzrts our human rezroieterree to the essenee of techinlogy K we can respond to g esserree we shall be able to eirperitelnee the teeihnol ogieal withirr its own bonus T Te ehoology39 is lrrot requlivletnt to the eseerlee of technology When we rarer seeking essence of tree we have to reeorne awre that what pervades every tree as tree is not itself 1 tree that en he eneourrtet39rerd arrrong all the other trees Lliikewise the essence of teehnology is by o means errylthing tleel1r1ologieal Thus we shall inelvvelir experience our reletionship to the eesernee of technology so long as we mere39ly coneeiwe erode push forworrd teehrlrologicel put up it or evade E Everywhere we remlein rrofrere and chained to teehnologjI whether we pas2sio11 ately o rm or deny But we are delitvelredl tower to P in the lworst 0 essay appears in Martin Heirdegger The Qoesttion Concerrling Tech rrrologiy and Other l lseoye Tralnelated by Wilili3lm Ltovitti New Yorlr Harper e Row The Ger men ltetxt eprjpeers in lMartin lfIeiegger iVo rtrampge 39t d fluf etlrze Pfulloingeoz Giinther Neske Verlag V1954 pp 13 44 and irrr the some publis her 5 il poseulaquot series oner the title Die 41quot eehrrikl und die Kehre s s s 287 The Questien Cencemihg iTesehneIegy Z91 indehteed ta ie ewes thanks ta 9 sitter tier that et which it eeasists pat the smeriiieiail vessel is ihdehtet1 het eihiy to the sii1seri As a chalitee that twihiieh 0 i d t ti the the stilser apats in the aspect at a chaliCe and 1 1El E in that at a btreeh er a ring Thus the sacred vessel 9 at the same time indebted te the aspect aides at ehaheeness Beth the 5ih er into which the aspect is admiitted as chalice and the aspect whitish the silvezr saippeairs are in their respective ways eairespensihle fer the saeriitieiiai vesssel Butquot there 1 EI39I1 i E yet a that is above all tesponsitblet fer the staeriEciai vessel It that which in VHCIVIQDCE een n es the czhahee withih the realm at eenseetatieh and hesltwa Thttotlgh ehaliee eireuh1seribsed as saeti eiai aesse1 Ctireumserihih gisres b llllfi tie the thing the heundis the thing does not step rather from withiiin them PS hegins te what after pIDdilJlCt i I1 W will he p p gives b07l13911dSg that w39hieh eempletes in SE1T lLS4E is ca etd ih Gretel testes whsiehs all the eften tI S37LtEdt as M ifllw and puirpesequot hand so 39I39tiSi fET39PfEtEd The tales tespeh sihle EDIE what as and what aspect are tegether eotarespea sihle for the tsaeti cia1 vessel Fitnaily there ta teutth lsarticipant in the responsibility fat the fmished saeti criail siesset s lying before us ready fat use ie the isihretsmiths btut heti at all beeiause he in we tking brings aheat the nished staseti sisal chalice as if were the e eet at has making the sii1veirsmith is met a eaiusa e ieiansi The Ariitstetteliaeh dfeettihe neither l 11ewst the cause that is named hy teirm her uses a Gresek word pV weutltd eezrrespend te t The silversmitih CD SiC1 eIS earetuliy and athers tgethet the three fI39iE ITI1EI tillZiC39I391I39lEdamp ways at heing responsible and tindehted To censidet carefully iisherteigen 9 in quotGreek iegein leges is rooted in apephaihesthaii to bring forward into appteatanee The tsihwetsimith is eearespentstihile as that item whence the sacted ves s seats bringiiigferttih and sabsitsttehee take and tetain their i rst de parture q three ptevieusly mentiened ways et being tiespensible ewe thtanks to the penclerini f the tsilaetsimtith tear the 39 that 39 ahdi p I x I l S I movies freely within what we call rrevealirig das Enthergeint The Grerelcs have the word eletheie tr ree ealirig Remaria 39f139 139tSii 7lZE this with ivwites We 33 truth and usuallly lIL1inderst ar1d it as eerr rectriess of represeritatmrn Bat wherie have we straryed t are questioning eaneernirig teehnelegy and we have airrrived new at el theict at rrrevrealing L has essence et teehne1egg te else with revealimg The air1swerr everyithing Fer every hrfingingfrth greunderd in rlteveala ling Erinirigforth iml ee d gathers withiri itself the fem medes of eeeasierliughHealusialiityampand rules there threugheuit WIlithi its domain heleng er and r1f1eaIis as well as instrumentaliity Irlstrue mentality is eensideirerd to be the fendaimtental eihar39aeteristire of technology If we inquire Ho by site irite what 39tecihrie1egg resp I E 2SEI39tTEdi as mearrs actually is then wet shall arrive at rrevealingi The possibility eft all pireduetive Il1Elll1fElC39llJTi1gMESim reiaealring Teehnelegy is threreifere no mere means Techneleery a way ef revealing If we give heed te this then ariethier whole realirn fer the essence of terehrielegy wills epern itself up to us It is a realm of revealing ie ef truth This prI390spect rsirtrriilceis 1154 as stranei Inleed Slfl ltld do so as persistientely as pessihle lands with so rrmeh urency that we will nality talce seriously the sirriple qIJ396SlZiO ef what the g t T molegy meansi The WDI39ClStEIT1S frame the G1eelt Teehniten means that wS helengs the teethane O M ebs erve twee things wiitihi respect ter the rrieanirrg f this werrdi are K that techne the name net enly for zI actiaitiieis andl J ef the eraftsmarr but atlases fat the arts ef the mind and the ne arts tTeehine helengs ta ihriirl i39n forth te pei sisgi it is S0I IF1Ethll39Ig peetie The ether thirig that we should ehserve with regard to tteeihrae p elven rneriei iimpertarrt Frelmt earliest tirnes imtil Plate the word tareheme u9 lirilced wiith the word tepistenie Beth wards are terms fer knowing in the wideisit sense They I139lEEl I1 to he EI1tiT elF at home in se1n ethihtg to understarid and he expert in it Such ltmzrwimg PEG The Questrion Ceneernirng Teeehnelgy 293 sides an peniu up As an opening P is at revealin Aristutle in a diseussiern of special ismpertanee Nieemeethean Ethics P VI ehhaps u and 4 dejxsteiuguitsehs hetweesn epist me and teehn and indeed with respect the whhta t and how they reverat Theatres is a mode of el thrattain It reveafls whatever des not hring itself forth and dees not yet he here hefere us whateaere eau lee and turn nut new one way and new tanetherrx Wrheevet huihls at hhuuse er a P Ur fares has saetii eial ehahee I eiEalS what 1 te he breught ferth aee1r diag to the tennis of the fear rnudes f eeseasieningt 05 I39E39VEa1i1 lg gathers together in tadvanee the aspects and the matter of ship er huse with a view t0 the nishedt thing enwlsienett as eetrlpleted and from this gathering determines the rnanner ef G teenstrueetiun P what z c ecisite in teehna dues net lie at tall in making and mani1pu1atinpg near in Y u 8 uf means but rzather in the reveahinr mentienedi before It is as Ievealing and not as manufacturing that tehne is has burinriI1gforth the etue to whaete the wered teehuJe7 Ineans and to how the Greeks de ned it leads us innate the sarne eenuteat that epened ritselt te us when are pursued the questiiu of what irnstruaneentatlityr as such in truelth rnrighete he Technology a mode of rrevealaingr Technology comes ta pres enee in the reahu wheres revealing and tuneeneteahneut take place wtlrerre eiethvef e t39ruth happens In eppesitien to this dte nitiieur ref the essential domain P teeth nlugy une ean abject that it indeed holds for Grreek thought and that at best it Il gllt apply to the teehniques est handeraftsraan but that it simpply tees um t modern Inae39hi nepuweredr teehaurlat ugy And it ptreeisely the latter and it alene that 0 the disturtinpg thing that moves us to ask the qpueastinn concerning teehueluy per 56 It 9 said that nmderra technology is smething ineempartahly di ter eenrt stream all earlier teehnetegis heeause it hased en era physics as an eaaaetu seierme Meanwhile we have come to understarnd mere clearly ethat the reverse q true as swell quotused em physics as exaperin1entaL ctepenudent upon technical 2 partatns and upon prress in the huilirrg elf anparalt ns The eisitaihlislihing eat this rnutual relationship betweietnl teehnelegy and physieis is eerreet But it rernairns a merely histeringraphieal estate lishing facts and says nething ibillt that in which nmtual relatinnship IU39lJIlClCvl The decisive querstiom still renrains if wheat essence n 1ed ern theeh neln that it z et putting exact science ta use 0 P rneclern teehtnelngy It toe la rievealitnr inly whn allew eur attentien te rest en this i39undlalrnerrtal eharaetieristie deeds that is new in rrlndern te chneiligy shew ta MSQ And yet the revealing that holds swlay thrxeughent rnedern tnlielegyt ClDES not unfold into a briinginlgEerth in the sense ef pisis The trevealing that miles in modrern teehnelgy is a Challenging H39erausferdern whie h tastes to tnlatnrie the tunrrleasenablr e dernand that P supply energy aihtieih can be errtraeted and starred as sneh Bust dees this not hold true fer the held windmsill as we1l rNel Its sails die indeed turn in the wind they are left entirely to the wilndis blowing But the winrdrnilil dees net unlock energy items the air etarrentts in arder to store it In eent rast a tract of land ehallengedr in the hauling nut of eeal ands ere earth new reveals itselrf as a wall tminisng district the soil as a rnineral deposit The eld that the easant fnrrnlerly euiltivatreid and set in erder appears di erent from how it id when to set in ercler still nreant tel talre care of an rnaintain The wnrk p the peasant deeds net ehall enge the soil ef the In swing grain it places seed in the ikeepirngg of the ferees et growth and watches ever its increased ut rneanwhilei even the cultivatin f the eld has eerne under the grip of anether kind lei settinginterdefr which sets upon natures It sets iupen it in the setnse ef challenging P Agrieniltsurte new the mechanized feed iindustry Air is anew set upen te yield nitrogen the earth the yield ere er to yield uranium it esaLmple nraniuni is set nprn to yield latemile ene1igy which can be released either int destruetienl er fer peaceful use c setitiitngnen that challenges energies at nature is an The nestien i enewerssniing Treehnaiingy Q eeapeditisng and in tree ways It estpedites in that it unlnehs and re1eses Yet that expediting Pt always itself directed the be ginning ttnward furthering sernething else toward dr iiiting en tn the rnaxinnlrn yield at the minimum expense Fae enal that been hauled nut in snrne rnining tlistriet has net been predneedl in erder that s p sinrply be at ihand sen1earhelr39e er ether U 5 being stnreti that is it is on call ready tn deliver the sun39s WHI IIlZl1 that is sterecl in S The snn s warmth challenged Earth tar heat G in turn is erdered tn deliaresrs stearn whesie pressure turns the wheels that keep a factory srnnnings The hydr nreile etrie plant is set intn P enrrent set the Rhine lt sets the Rhine tn supplyisng ihydranlie pressnrve which then seta S stnrbinea turning tnrning sets these nraehines in rnntinn whese thrust sets ning the electric enrrerrt fer which the lng distanee power station and its enetwerlt at eables are set tip to dispatch eleetrsieity hr the ennteirt et the intesrsleeking processes pertaining to the erderly dispnsitsinn t electrical esnergy even the Rhine itself appears the be seniething at our een1n1a n The ihydrem iel eetrie plant is net built intn the Rhine River as was the el wnnden bridge that joined hank bank fer hnndyreds of years Rather the river is darnrned up intn the pnwer plant Wihat the river new name39ly a waster pnwert supplier derives from the essence eat the pewezr statinn In nrder that we ma y even rernntetly ensnsi dbeir b sn1nnstrnnsness that reigns here let us penner fer a nine rnent the cnntrast 0Y is apeken by the tie titles The Rhine as up into the pwer ranrlts and Thee Rhine as uttered by the art wnrk p Htilderlirfs hytmn by that name Evnt it will be re plied the stitl a river in the landscape is it net iPerhaps But thew In nan ether way than as an ebjeet an eail fer isns peetsinn by a tent grenp rdered there by the aaeatinn indnstry The reveialing that rules thrnughiut IT1DdEI39i teehnnlngy has the character nf a S v tti g UPON in the sense naf H ehailllengingtnrth Such ehallenging happens W that the e39neirgyt eeneealed in nature is unlnellted what is nnllellted 0 transfnrmed what transferrned The Queatien Ceneerning tT ee lrnellegyi 299 eemptletely unaut eneInnne far it k its standin enly train th eiradreriring at the erderable The fact that new wherevert we try the Keint to nmde r39n teehnali egy as w revealing that ehallenges the werada se ttirngi upen r0rderin quotstandingirei5ewe eitrn de and iaceunrnlaite in a dry nreneteinensl and tiherefere pilressive way has its basis in what is new Gaming ta llLl lC 139 I1CE acenniplrisihes the challenging seattitngiepen thtreugh aihat we call the real is revealed as sitandinrg rieserve39 bvieusly n1an Te wl1ateatentttis ll3939I3I1 capble of eneh a Iev eailingt Man can indeed etOn Ceiaet fashien and carry thmngh this or that in bne Way err HI JtGltlTl6t39l But man dies not have control were uneeneeail ment itself p which at any given E the real islrrews irtsezlf er wiitl1raws tact that the real has been shwing itself in the light at ldeas ever since the time at Plate Plate did nt bring 39ab tl The thiinher only responded ta what addressed itself te p Only to the extent that rnan fer his part is already challenge tel expleit the eneriies of nature can this reviealirng wheieh etdeirte hap pen If rnan is challenged erdered tn do this then dees inert man PC belnrng ten more eriginrally than nature within the standE ingreserve enrr ent talk aibeut hmnan resources abevut the supply at patients fer a clinic gives reviidence ef this The taresitier whe measures the felled tiraber in waddle and who the all ap pearalnees wallca the forest path in the same way his grandfather Z today ordereddd by the iindustry that pnreduees cemrnereial weeds whether he iln etwa or inlet He is made anib nrdinatet to the rclerability eat eellntlasie which te39rt its part U ehallened Earth by the nee fer paper whrieh is then delivered n ewspla1vers and illusttratedr niagaaines The latter in ttheir turn set public epinien to swallowing is printed see that a set con guration at opin ien beeenres available an dernand Yeti precisely because man ia CliEl1eHg39Edi UfeUIlglTl lll than are the energiea at nature ie irate 0G the preess ef ordering he 1 1EiVEI39 trransfeerme d irate mere StE dlTlgquot reserve Sinee rrlan I39llVE5 technology forward he talzes part in he elering as e sway of revealinr But the lJ CUI1C E1llI E t itself Wlthrl which ordersing unfollds Gy never a hiimgan hiandiiwerlk asnry more than is the realm man traverses ever time he as a srlbjieet relates he an object Where and hew dees this revealin happen Cs it is rm mere handiwerlk of ertrarn k need not leek far Z neecl only aprev hernd in an urrirbirarsed way that has already Cl lllll d Ck so decisively that he can onlry he mean at any given time as the eerie se elaimed Wherever marl hens h eyes lijida ears unlocks his heart and gives himself miter ta me itating rand sltrivi r1g shapirlg amtl working ie11treatir1 and tl l3I Lkl g he UY hirmselfs eveqrwhere al reacly hreu1shrtt ifrrte the 1lI1CU CEalE Clr The unee nreieral1me39ntr of ihe 1II1COI1CEHlECl X already come to pass whenever it eells man irnte the me es of revealing alleteted to him aW mean in his way flreimr writhin uneer1eea1n1eI1t revieals that which resei1 ces he merely resperrdsa to the call of utneeneealment event when he eeri tsaidicsts H Thus when man inrvestigatirrg ebisersrinrg pursues nature as an area erfl N ewn eormceivin H has already been claimed by a way ef revealing that ehalllenges OG te apprweaeh riature as an ebieet of research until even the ehjeret disappears fillltllif the ehjeetlesseess ofrs tar1c1irs11gireser ver Modern teehrnelogy as a srerviealirng which erders is thus no mere human dirig Therefore we must t39allte that ehallrllenging sets upen man to ruler the real as starndisng rsesaerve in accerdanee with the way it shewas itself That ehralllrenging gathers man inte rderirri This gatheriii eerr1cent r39lates man upon erdering the real as stand imgeeserve Thai which prri111erdia1lr unfolds the meuntainrs irnste meuentain rarres and eeugrses through in their fellded togetherness is the gatlhering that we call lG ehiirrg mountain ehairi v oerriginarl g3tl1 lIlgfIOII1 which surifolld the ways in which we The ues39tian CIerieerniingj T ChHDED y 33931 quothave feelings hf ene er anether we inarnee CTen1iit dispeszt ttienj We now enamel that challenging ela irn which gathers s te ircler the seilfrevealing as st anditngresewetz Gei lstta en frta KI dare te use this wer d in a sense that has been thereughly unfarniliar up ti new Aeeerdiing ta erdinaty usage the quotworld Gelstell frame nieans same kind at apparatus eg a heeikraeh Gestalt also the name for a skeleton are the ernpleyment at weer Gesteil entrant ing that is ne ar erequlired at us seems equally eerie net to speak at the tatrhitrartiness wittih which stress at a mature laingnage are so misulsed Can anyetihitng h were stiratnge Surely net P this strangeness A an old eutstnrn nit thought And inclieead thinleers tel ilew this custnrn pteeiseljy at the peilnt aiheirtei p is a irriatter at thinking that which Z highest We late hern are no longer in a position he apreeiate the signii eanee at Pillteis daring to use weird aides fer that which in e39aerything and in each particular thing endures as present For eides in the eennuen speech meant the eutwatd aspect Ansieiht that a vlisile thing hers tn 9 physical eye Plate exacts ht this ward however senietliing utterly eltetraerdinary that it nannies what preeisehr p not and never weill he pereeivahle with p39hjsical eyes But even this thy ne means the tull extent of wheat is eittraeI dinary here Fr idea narnes net only the nmselnsueus aspect en what is physiea39l1y visible Aspect idea nanies and aha is that whieh eenstitutes the essentce in the audki hleh the tasteable the tactile in ieverythin J in was accessible C039mpar ed with the demands that Pitat39e nialces en hin gulalee and thought in this and in ether instanees the use of the ward Gestaiji as the IquotiiEil39t tar essence eta n391ed ern teehnelngr which we are veinturing is alnimt harruless Even set the usage anew required rernains soineiizhmg exacting and is epen to rnisinterpi pre ta tien 3012 Entfta rning n1eanS the gathering together nf that 5 tBttiI39tgai11IpT1 that sets upon 1nan ie ehtalltenges him tenth tn I EV E 1 the tea in the mate ef tJ139dEI39i I1g as 5tan dingrestenre Enfran1ing p that way at revetahngg that hels away in the essenete hf mndern teethat nnlegy and that is itself nothing teehnoleegicail On the other hand all these things that are so familiar to use and are Staindfiard quotparents at asse1n39b1Jy aueTl1 as tD iS pistons and e39hass39is belong to the tec1ne ieicat aasembtye itself however tether with the ElfC139EI7I1e39I1 itienied staekparts falls withien the spthere at teehnelegieal aetaitvity Such activity alwtayst m Tf39E391T restpends it the challenge of en frtaniing but it never eemptises E ffa liflg itseif 139 ibrings o tabnut The 39weni etellen 2te set npnn in the name GeStall enftame tag not only metatns ehaietnging At the same time it should pre SE1 VE the snggestien inf another Stelien fmnfm which it stenta namely that prndueing and ptresetntaitng IHer nnd Dar stteIIen which in the sense at pniesis lets whaat pt eae39nees emne fnttih inte uncen cealrtnent Rf prndneitnigja that bringa forth erecting a statue in the temple precinct and the ordering that challenges new L1l71dE t eensirderatien are indeed funalaiment ai1y AdiEerent and ye39t they re main rela ted in their essence nth are ways at reeveailting ef ai theia ln en ftahmitngt that 1L1IlC0 I1CEaimE t enmtes tn pass in e0n t f0rn1it3r wi which ithe work et meelerin teehannlegy reveals the real as stanttdingreserve IQ work F thetefete neither nnty a human ae vi t y net a mere means within such actitrity P merely instru mental n1er ely an39thmpelngieai1 de nition at techno1 01jf 0BM thete fete in princirpile untenahie And it may net be If DUII1dEdt out iy heir tretenea hack tn stocme I1E if3phySiC i at re1igi0us exptanatin that lf1IlCEt giIdSt fE it Ieniains ttne HU ethEES3 that nlan in the tetchntelgitcal age is in a partien1at1yt atttiiking way tcihaillengecl fertih into arevetaling That revesattin eencetrna nature ante all as the chief st nrehtetuae ef the standin enezrj resewe AteenItding1y man39s erering attihe tude and htethavtier display tthemsehres 0 3 in the rise of medertn phjfS iCS as an exact science Modem iseieneeh away of tepresentting 304 BASIC Chrnnelnicalily spetakiing rnedern physical aeienee begins in the seventeen een tnry In eentrast maiehtinetpower teehnelegy de veleps nnly in the aeennd half of the eihteenth e entu139P Brit rnnd ern teehrrelngy which fer Cl1I t39ZI3913910lDglC l reelciening is the later is iron the paint of View Of the essence lreldinng Sway within it histerieally iearlier lf modern rennet resign itself ever inereasingly to there fact that its realm nf representation rerrnairnts irntserntahle and ineapale of hein aisunaliated this resignatien is net gdinietatied p any enrnrntita tee nt resselarehers It ehallengecl ferth by the rule of enfranring which deniands that nature be erelerahle as standtingresterae Hence physics in its retreat from the leindl at representation that turns lnly t eibierets which has been the sale standard until re eently will ntteaerr he able to renounce 0 Anne thing that ntatnre teerte itself in anrne way or ether that is ienti ahle threiiugh cal culation and that it remains nrderrahle as a system at iintern391atini system is then determined by at eanealilty that has changed hence again Causality nerw displays neither the character of the eceasinnitng tliat hrings flnrth inergthet nature of D enutsaj e eiena let anilnnte that at the muse fe rmalia It seems as though causality P shrinlcing innate tan reportingaa rel rting challenged fert39hni sttandingtresenriea that ninst he guarantte ed either siminltxaneenaly er in aeuenee Te this shrinking would eerreapend the process of grnwing resignation that Heinsenherrgis leetulre depicts in an t prlessive a nranneril Beeai1se the esaetnee ef rneclegrn technology lies in enframing n1edeirn teehnnlna rnust e1np1ejr exact hysiealt Science Threng39h its so dining the deeeptirte illusion arises that nrndern teChnnlei39 is applied phyaietal aeienee pwl illnsinn ean maintain itself only an long as neither the essential erigin at modern science inert indeed l Heiiaetnherg Dag Natnrhild in der hentigent Pl1j 395il in Die Kliintste irteeimiaeilran Zleimitter Munich 19 54 d 43 it Seen ailan Heisetnherag Physiea and Philnaeehyt The Revelation in Medern Science New Yetrlct Hairperi 5 Raw l9quot5Ba lEn The uestion Cone errring Teehinology 30539 the essence of nrodern technology is adequately found out t11r39o39ugh questioning b are questioning eoneernin teehnology in rder to brine to light our rtelatgionship to its essence Ij essence of rnodern tech nology shows itself in whats we Call enfraniing int sinrply t point to c iY still in no way to ansater the uestion coneerning teohntole 3 it to answer means to respond in the sense of eorrersipont to bR essenee ot what is bein aslced ahosut 1 do we nd ouriselrres if inrow we think onp step further regazrclin wllat enfrraming itselt actually is lt is nothing teehntoiloga ieal nothing W the order of a nraehine It is the way in which the real reveals itself as stasndisng reserrre Again we ask Does such revealing ha1 pen sotnewherte beyond all human doing P K But nreither does it happen exelusirreily in man or de initiwtely through man Enifrainfling B the gathering together which belongs to IC set tin upon whiieh challenges main and i9 0z in position to reveal the real in the rnode p 9 orderin as standingrteserve A the one who challenged fortli in ithis wary man stands witihisn the essen tial realni of enfrarning He can never talce up a relationship to it only suteequently Thus the question as to how we are to arrive at a relationship to the essenee of teeilrnology aslced in 8 way al ways C U ITlES too late 5 never too late comes the question as to whether we aotuallys erperirenoe urselv1esi as the ones wliose aetirrie ties eaeirsywhere public and privat e are challened forth by one framing Afhorre all neaers to late comes the questin p to whether and how WE aetualfly adn1it ourselves into that wheirein entrarnin g itself comes to presence The essence of rno dern technology starts rnan upon the way of that rerrealing throuh whieh the real everywheret rrrore or less distinctly heeornes standingreserrrer start upon a stray nreans to send in our ordinary language We shall tall the sending that gathers steersamrnelnde Sehiielaen that first starts man upon a G way Df revea391ing dlestinintg Geseheick It 0c fmm j destining that the eisseinee of all histery G Sf3hI39i hquotfE is dieteremiirmeid Hister3r P 1z1either simply the eibjeet of w1it te11 ehreniclei not merely the pIece55 hf K actiivity That a citiiviitjr rst beeemes histery as semething desitiened VAH only the destinin into ehjecetitying l39EpIquotE SEl1 ta titan that makes the hiiStIDI i39C31 aeceseibilie as an hjeert fear hiS t DI39iDgF phy ie fer a seience and on this quotbasis makses peseihie the C1IL1 fIquot It eque39t39ing et historical withi that whichi ehmnicledl Enframing as B ehallengienfirteh int Uredereing sends inte a way hf revieaiIing Enframing ant etdaeining of destinimg as L every way hf rieeveaiiing Bri11gi39ng tforeth ioie3iei else he desti11ii1g in sense Ajiweys 0 uineeeneieelimiemt at that which is ges upon 3 way Of 1 8VE i1i139lgj Always the deetining of revealing holds cempileete sway mrer men Butt that destining is never a fate that eenipeis Fri man becomes truly free iy insofere 35 he heilongs the realm ht destining and so heeemies one whee listens theugh not me who simly tmheys 0F eseenee emf freedm is eriinaily not cenneetieidi with the will DI even the eau5alitr of human wi11itnQ Fireedem gmreirm the open in sense GE l cleared and ligighte up ie the reveaiedi To the eeeurrrenee of teveaing ie at truth tteerdem Stands in the eleseet and meet intimetet ki1 1shi All tev39eaii1391g helongs weithin a harhoreintg and at eeneiealiiieng But that which Er eies thie mysteryis conceailied and always E E I i1 lCE 7i g 0 smelt All ireivealtiing comes out at the open gees illt the open and brings irrte the open U freedom of the open consists meither in 39l1I If HZ I Ed mhiiet1arine5Si her in the e0ns traiIit hf mete laws Free dem O that scwmicieagh in a way ethati epens ti light in whose lighting sihimemiers that veil that hides the essenetia1 0eeurence of all truth and lets the Vi i1Ka3W311T estwhaetHvei15 Fteiediem the realm ef the cieetiining that at 3I1ygiven time starts at l39EVEH1iIi1gquotDI1 its way 4 See quotDin the Essence it Truethquot39 1930 rst editimi 1943 8 8 eheve 0 c The Question Concerning Teehneiegy 307 The essence nf smedern technology lies in enfremsin Exnffrsming beings within the diiestining ef revealing sentienees EIEPIESS something di etent f139en391 the tsih that we hes 39l111IJfI39E frseqnentiy t0 the effect sthst teehinelegy P C the tste of em age where fete mesnss the inesritsh enesss nf an nnelteriishie eenrse But when wet E390 SidEI39 the essence of teichneilegr we esperiienhee enfrsmin as H destining ef I EVB3iiIg in this way we 1fEa7iIquotBamp dquot sjeurning g the epen specie t destining s destiining that in no twisty con nes us tn s stulti ed compulsion te push en h1i39nwily with steehnelgy er what COHIES the the sine to rebel helplessly agsiinst it and eutse it es J ef the devil Quite to the eentrsty whesn we once gpen eursehres espretsetsly the the essence of techsneieisy we nd enrsehwes suniiexpeetedfly taken into 3 freeing claim The essence of technology lies in enfresiming P hniding sway heelengs des39tining Since rilestining at any given tirne srtsrstis snflen on is ways ef reveeiling TI Il 39I1 thus nndeirswayf eenitinustlh sppresehing hriink et the possibility ef pursiuiing and jfpnshing ferwsmd nthsing p whet Ievestlied in erdferi11g and of deriving all his isrtsindsndts en this 39T39h reugh this the ether pessquotiibi1istjsr is ihileelzeid that nlsn niight he sdmiietted more and seevnerr end ester metre PI39iI113iiiiijquot tn the essence ef whet usneeneeisied end he its unr icenees1m ent in erder thset he might esperieneei sis esseinee the reiquisite beilenging te rervestlingt Placed hetween these pessihilities men is endangered by dampestin ing destinsing ef revieaiins is as such ievery ene et its medesh and tshesefere neeiiess1nlr dengr In whs tes39eIs way the 2destining reveslisnig may hold sway the unce11eeel1rnein39tin everythiing that ws itself st any tiven xlziine harhers the dengter that meet me miscenstrne quoteman Cresled and misinterpret p Thus where everytshisng that presences eishihits itself in the light et a csuseseffeet enheternce even God fer reps eisentsitie nei thinllting Cent lessee all that eszsiteci end heily 2 myst erieusness at his distance In the light of esusslislty Ged 308 BASIC can sinfki tn the level at a easuse of eansa 43 then he enlnes event in thtenlegy the God of the phitlelsnphers namely at these when tle nE the ntnteetneealiecl and enncealed in terms of the causality of rnaking witheutt r39E E ennsidetieng the essential erigin of this causality In a 1TSiH1i lf way the uneeientelelailtment in aeen rdanee with d natnre presents itself as has ealenltahle eemplex at the effects at fnirees can indeen permit correct detern1itnatlinns but precisely iiil11quotC1l139h these successes the danger remain that in the at all is eerreet the true will withdrawn The destining of revealing is in itself not just nanny danger but the dtiatngelr when destining reigns in the nmde at enfrazining is the SL1pI39f E danger p danger attests itself to us in tare ways As seen as what is nneenteealed net lnngete eoneerns man even as nhireet but exelnisaisely as sta39ndi39ntgireserve and man in the 0C of nhjeelt39lessness is enethien but the oyrclerer at the standtingareserve then he enamels tn the very ihrink at a precipitous fall that is 4 eeInes tn the paint where he will have tn be taken as stand ing tesen eit Meanwhile main p1fe eiseigr as the one an tthreatiened ezalts himself to the pnsteure est ilinrdi of the earth in way the illusion een391es tn prevail that elverythting nnan encounters exists only insefar as it is his ennsttnet This illnsin geiwm rise in turns to ene nal delusi ent it seems as theugh rnan everywheree and always E CD l1I1 tEI39S anly lIeisen39betg wiitht complete elenrectness pointed out that the real must present itself 1 eentiemperary 39nt1an in this wiay393 In truth however precisely nwhere dees men ete day any longer encounter ihimself ie his sessenee stans sun de cisively in attendance en the ehtatllengitng f0rth at enframing that he dies net grrailslp entraeniing at elaini that he fails to see hitmself as the ene spnllt e n ta and hence also fails in e velry way tn hear in i Des Niatutrhiild pp 613 3130 BASIC uit arhere danger grews The sawing power also Let us tthink carefully aheut these werdits of Heildertinjt W39hha39t ees it mean te save 39 Usually we think that it tneatna only to S E iz E held of a thing t39h1eatened by rain in order ta secure it in 5 fetmerr eentinustanete ut the ve39rh to save raete Te save Y the fetch something heme into its essence in etdet to thting the ESSEHCE fer the rst intte its genuitne 3pIJE I39iI39lg If the E55 EI1CE of tteehane1 egy enfhramin the eattremet dattger thete truth in Hh1dethtt s wards then the rule at enfraraing easmtet eahatlstte self tseteflty in bleethkieng ah lighting up of ettvety revealing all appear ing of truth Rather precisely the easenelte ef teehnelegy must h I39b017 in itself the grewth ef the starving WEIU hut in that case might Anette tan adaequa tea leek inte what EI39i1fE393f i 39 is as ea deetinieng at teveahmjg hring the upsurgenacte of the saving pewere it to ap jpeatat1eet In whatte tespeet dees the saving pewet grew also there where the tdanger 7 fete S U39 16thing gmws there ttahes teat therntee 0 ethritvea happen teeneeatedly and quietly ant their own time But aeeerdin to the werds of the eet we have he riht whataeevet to expect that there where the daltger is we Slfl l d he ahle to lay htetd of the Shaving power timmtediatetly and wtitheut preparation 39Thhereteie we meuhst39 eensider new in atdetanee in what rlesgpeet the saaeh1g pewer n m p139efeund1ty Mn E001 and theme tthrive event where the eat39eme danger heeeitt the htevlditntg away E eenftramitng In order he teenaider this it is necessary as a last step upon our way ta look with yet eteater eyes into the danger AC39C390 139dilg1F we c enetet mete questiezn eeneeming teeth neilgy For we have said that time teC1391n0 0g y39S ezssenee roots and thrivtea the saving peweh Bu39t how shall we hehel d the S V39i g PIJWEI in the essence of quott Ft39em Patten5 0 F rt39Ted rieh H tderIiin Peeme and ragmenta trans Michael Hamhhautger them Atber X Utnihvertseiaty at MitChigtan Press A h X The Questieir C39eneemilng T eerhneliegy 311 trechnerlegy so lea as we de riet em1sider in what serise at less sense it that en tra min 0 Cttt llf the essence of te ehnelegy Thus far we have uiidersteed essence in its current rr1eariin la the iaeademie langrraje ef hilesephy esseriee rrrearis Wh ff semething is iii Latins quid uiddites wlratriess provides the answer tea the questirn CQ CEI139l39llI lg essence For example what pertains tel all ldnds f trees eallts heeelnes birrehieis rsis p same lIIquotEE139t SSi Uritler l Cll1Si U g E11lllS lf39lE r1niversal fall alt areal and possible trees Is therl the essence est teehrmlegy en trarning the eemmon geri1is fr eserytihin iteelinelegical If this were the case then the steram turhir1e the radiye tra39rls1r1ittier and the eycletrii would each be an er1framir1g But the Weird entra1nir1g elees not mean liere a teal or any ikimi et apparatus Stilfl less does it rrreari the genaeral eerieept et sueh reserirees The 1riaehi1res and apparatus are rm mares easiest and ldnds t enirarriirig than are that man at the switchboard ar1 l the engineer iii the drafting rmiii E Cl 1 at these in ewe way irideecl eilerigsi as steekpart iasailable F7Ei5D t1I39C E er eseerrter wit hir1 EI391EI 3 1lI1g bat E39I391lfrIquot I39l llI397lg P neaeiri the essence of teelrrilegy in the seiise at a germs Enframing is a sway of Tf tfe llflg which is a llESlZl I1iiITlg niamrely the way that challenges IEVE Elli g that brings fertih stasis is also a was that has eliaraeter its destiriing But these ways are net li391 lElS thait arraye beside erie ariether fall under the eerieept of resealiant Revealing is tllz iti destiiririg rshi eh e seer suddenly arid ineslieably to all ll1lI1lilI39lg39 apperieins itself into the revealing that lmriaxngs feirtli afml the rreaealirilg that Challenges rand which allets itself te irian The resealiirig tiliat ehal39leiages has eriaegirr as a clestiriiii p ringe ingeierth But at the same time E I1fI39HI39 l I39lg in a way Cli339T3 C lTEf1lSli iC ref a clestiniii ileellts peiesis Tlius errtraIr1irrg as a destiriing ef irevealin is indeed es serree at teehrrelregy but never in the sense of germs an esseirtia If we pray D this semethiii astundirr sttilces us it is teehrmley itself that Mu the deiiiarid us the iZlTliI391llti1391 ariether way what is Iisually u1idrersteed by esserree But in what way P P If we speal at the essence ef a ilreuse and the 39 essenee at a state 39 we C10 net rnean a generic type rather we rnean the wfays in which heuse and state held lslwasy radrninister themselves evelep and deleay the way in whiehi they devlellep wesen Iehann Peter Hehel in a peenr Cheat On Kanderer St39reetquot fer whieh Goethe had a special TEDI ld E395S uses the 01d weird die Westerei It rneans the hall inassnrueh as there the life ef the eenrrnnnitty gathers and vililage existelnee is eenstantly in play eezrnes tn prressencer It train the verb wesen that the norm is eriv ed Wasen nnldersteedls as a verrh is the P as w thren to last or endure net enly terrns elf zrneanilng but alse in 6 ef the phonetic ferrnatien at the word Seerates and Plate already thinlc the f sense at sernet39hing as what essences what eernes to presence in the sense elf what endures Ht they thinlc what endures as what relnains permanenstly Uni And they nd what iendures per rnanentily in what rsists tlrsrietnghnultt all that happens in what rernains That whaieh renrains lthey diseever in turn in the aspect aides Widely fer example the Idea hm1se The Idea huse displajis what arnrthing p that t frashienerd as a ihe1rse Particular real and possihle houses in eentrast are ehaanging and trsnsitelry derivatives at the Idea anl thus belong the what detest net endures But it can nelaelr m any way be established that endurilng is based solely en what Plat thinis as idea and Alrisltetilae thinks as te ti an eineii that whieih any particular thing has always heen er what metapihysies in its a aariedi intlerpretatilens tlimitlli as as slentil fill esseneing enclnres at enduring eel piernf1anen39t endur ing Does the essence at teehnelgyl endure in the sense at the perfrnanent endearing of an Idea that hevers were evelryquotthsling tech nnlegieal RR as smashing it seern that by technology we ITE3111 senrer lmythelegieal rahstraetien W way in w39hie39h technelesgjg essences lets itself he seen enlly an the hasis PS that errnanent enduring in which entrarning eernes to pass as ea destining at rese alirn Goethe The Question Ceneerning Tieeihnieiiegy enee uses the rnyeteritena word fertgewhrn te giant penna nently in piaee at farfwiihren ate endure perInanenty He hears wehreri to endiure and gew hren ta eranti hire in nine unartieulated aeeeirdi h if we new ender imtere carefully than we did hefete what it thait aeituaiiiyiendurea and pEI iTltlPS iaionte nd39ures we Illay venture to say Only what is granted endiiir39e3 l B i1dL T1S prinlelly out of the eeriIies39t heginnin what greintsi As the esseneing eff technology enliraming what ent 1iurea Des enh aniing iheild away at all in the sense of granting deuhit the qiiestien seems a iherreindeua ibi1Jli d il39I For aeeei ing ta everttihing thast has heen said E39 f I I1i g tather i Cleatiningt that gathers itetiethet into the revealing that ehallengea ieirtht Chai1eng ing is anything but a granting it 5661115 50 leng has wet do not notice that the eha11enging 39Eertih int the erdetin at y real as SiiEEl IldIliI 1g t39ESEI i39 still remains at diestiniing that starts man inpen a Way at raeveaiing has this desittinitng the earning ten presence at technology gives man entry into sentething whtieh at hiirnseiig he can neither invent net in any way ntake For there is ne such thing as a man whee E i5iiSStiI1Kgif and solely en m town But if k tdeatining enEraming the E39 ttt39EimE c1ange1r nit enly tot I i coming ta teaenee hat fifer aii revealing as such sheaid this azlestining c he eaiierd tat granting Yes meet EH13911 tiC3iiiF a in this destining the sawing power is said tie IDW Every deatinin ef I39E t39 a1i g comes the pass quotitem a gran ting and as each a granit39ingj Fer it gtanting that tst eenveys to man that share in irieveialint that the eennntgtepass of rieveiailinge ineeda Se needed and used L Y egieiein to beieng ta GX eie n1iing tapass of S p U granting that sends one way 01 anetiher inte revealing is as SiJxCi the satin power FD the 5avin pewter lets man see and I1iZE139 4I to the hih est dignity ef N essence VN dCiA39 39itjJ39 iiea in quotkeeping watch were the utneeneeaize entand with it frem the the eeneea1rnent at all canning to preiseniee an this earth It is precisely D enframing quotin Die iWt li39WEIW3 CitSEh REIT pt 2 ehaip 10 in the metal Die iWuiediert iiehen Niateihberekiinder 3M BASIC P 5 threatens to sweep main away into ordering as the supposed single lweay of revealing and so thrusts man into the danger of the surtaender of his hf39ee essenoeeit 0 precisely in 0 eatente danger that innetniost indesttuetile belongingness of man within granting 00 eonie t liht provide that we tor out part begins to pay heed to the essence of steehnologfy the coming to presence of technology hiathors itsezlf what we least suspect the possilhie 39I1p5UI g CE the saving power EVEi39f39v thl g39 then depends upon this that we ponder this arising and that we reeiolleetsinsg wai t eh IDVEI it How can this hapgpent Above tattle through our ieatohing sight of wslhat eornes to presence in teehnoilogy instead of merely aing at the tECil1I1 lrUglCHl So long as w represent technology as an We reinain trains xei in the will to n 1asterr p e P press on past the essence of teehsnology seen howevesrV we asllt how the instn1mental comes to presence as a kind of ca usality then we experiience eoming to piresesnee as the destinin of a rsevealingi Wrhesn we enssider nally that the oon1ing to presence of the essence of teehnlog comes to pass in the granting that needs and uses man so that he may share in revealing then the fitlsoswing lECD11 1B39S ielear The essence of teehnoloigy is in a lofty sense ambiguous Such a1nhiguity points to the mysteiry of all reavealisng ie of ttnith On p one hand enfzramisng challenges forth into the frenzied ness of otderin 0 6 hiloeks every isiiew into the eionf1ingt39optass of revealing and so rtadieailly endangers the relation quotto the essence of trlath On the other hand einttamiin eonies to pass for its part in the grantin that lets man endiiremas yet ineazperien o eid hut perhaps more esperie39ne ed in the fusturei that he ma he one who is needed anvdi used for the safekeeping of the sense of stmth h oes the arising l the saving Powetr iappear irxresistibility of ordering and the rses39ttainit of the saving power wdbraw past each other like the paths of two stars in the The nestion Co39neeming Teehnotiegy 315 oourse ot the heanetns But precisely this their passing by the hidden side of their neasrness When we loolt intor arrlhignons essence of techntolo gy we hehold the eonsteltlation the stellar eeurse of the znrysttetry The question concerning t eehnoilogy is the question concerning the eonstellatin revealing and concealing which the coming to presence truth comes to pass But what help is it to us to loot into the constvelltatioen oi truth p look inte the danger and see the growth of the saving pwerr Through we are not yett issued Butt we are thterenpon sum rnonecl to hope in the growing light of the satin power Hioiw can this happen py ere and now and in little things that we Q foster the saving power in its inerease This includes hnlding 3hW3fFS be fore our eyes the extirenfle danger Corning the prelsentoe of teehno1otr threaetens reseta39lieng threatensi it wit39h the possibility that all revealing will he eoensurned in ordering and p everything will present itself only in the eornealid39nesis of stanclfitngreserite Hnnsnan aettiatity can never reetly counter this daner Hnrnan aehipevementt alone 0 never banish i 0b hurnan re ectiont can ponder the fact that all saving power inmost he of a higher essence than what endangered though at the sarne ikgindred to not Hllglll there not perhaps he a more prirnally grante reveal ing that tctontld bring the saving powers int shtitningfertht in the of the danger that in the technological age rather cone oeals than shows itselfe There was at time when it was not teehnlogy alane that hre the nan391e teehne Once that reveailiing wlrieh rings forth trnth in to the Splendor of radiant appeazranoe was also called teehne Once there was a 6 when the hringingetorth of trne int the heianttifnlt was called techne The poiesis of the y ne arts was alts cralled teehn i the ou Iset of the destining of the West in Greece the arts soared to the snpiremte height of the revrealing ranted They W P P 5i l Z SishustEn lmz f 39IImquot 5 Ann FquotrpE39r3 mm P39 39m 39 P39p 21 411 2quotJ63UU by DiE3 E391 iC39 TI E1quotaE 1 an i 1393n39 ed EEli1 gas lquotJ39T I TIU3931 SCHLISIEF Imz Pg q LC From h39s39l 39JlhElquot Betli11Charlmtienbur MattienEurgerl Lllee 43 11 April 1943 Dear ietricln I wanted t send you a greetitt ftamt ancl to t elllye11 that welte always P f lug ef yen 0 knew yell at Se p are con dent that EV6fFtl 1l g twill r Dlltl well altd we lmpe 50011quot Pp all out ptsesentl dlisquiet eantata Praiise the Let which yweu pmdlueetl for w sevetnty aftll1l birlIl1da y1l thee twee yeungerl generatiens E tl1e famtilly remtainsl y sglendid melmelry and et1e that we want to keep alive I lmpe that wes1mll be able to u witih jmut Px Lmring reetit1gs el n1ethet Renate and ane aet 39 L your old Father A er reeeivitltg petntiseioln We sent y llll on lleclnesdayl P k a Parcel g bread and ether feet a cj and la woellllen vest etc Ta his parental Tegel I14 April eat par el11ts I do wam yelu te Be quite k that Fm all tigl1t sorry tlmat I was net altlewed to write to yen slener but I was all l39lgl lt during the first ten days teo lsttangely e11erul the disceaeelntts that one genetally laasmiates R Prisan life the phylsiealt l 1a ClSl51lPS hardly the r11elatall One can even have tloltlgll to eat in the msernT ings WZ brleald Q get a tatiety of extras me The hard ptisan bed ees not worry me a bit an one can et plenl39jr f sleep lbetweelt 8 XV and gT l have l3EEI1 parltitcullatrlly S11fP1quotlSB 05T I lhavel hatdly felt lany nexedi at all fat cigarettes since I eame here but I N that i11all tl391isthe psyellict faeter has played thedltatrger part vielent mental upl1eat39al suellm as 4 prlodueedl by a sudden attest briins 0 the need to talte ene s mental v tome tel terms anentirely new situatioln l all lthisi means that p 39 y P take a 9 seat land lesel their impair quot75 CE and it g I P d be be a reel enrich1nentefn1r ezxperlenfee I P not axe unused tie being alone as mllier people are it 39 jg la geed R Turkish p The enly 5 G that bml1ers O er weulcl betnher me is the itheinght that yu are being ter 1II132l1lEEd by 0 aeul me are not sleiejging or eating Properly Fergiv39e me fer ciansin yevnl so much nwerry but I think a hostile lfatve T Inre tn P thanl 391quot e set eff against ithart it IS need to need Paul Gerharcltis hymnns and learn them heart as I am deing new thntI have Bible end some readixlg matter Efelm the li7brarjy here an enengh writin IPQPEII now You can P rim lI39n1l most partieularlr 39 J J ions about d ene el4 the rnenlent a germ eel for 11er1eibear espeeially Wh en has 1113 recently lest her father an bmther in thee East x Elle deughtler of an ee er she Perhaps P in1pIisen especially lmrd tn take Ifenly I could hwe e few wer s I her New you have ten Clo Perhags 5l1ewill eeJme to mun in E Berliln That weruld be The ise39venty ftli birtl1idalyl celebrations were a fnrtnilat ago today It was a splendid day I can stsill ihlear chcoriale tliet we zniierning evening all the voices and instru ments Praise tie the Lerd the y the euf CfE3 39tI0I1l p Sl1Ei39teES thee V o wings yea and gently susteinetilni Tint is Irue 0t it is wl1etwle must aliways tell em Spring Pz really qz new You 0 have PIE 39tf39 to do v tile garden zr here that Renate39s x preparnatiens are p p Here the prison yeazcl ithere is a tlil lsil p t r limeentifnllglr in r merineilng and new in the evening tieo One s grateful for Miti l l tl ngs and that is surely a gai11iGeocl l3ye for new g thinking nf yen same the rest of the family ancl pwf with ggmtitudle and love j Di tri ll When you l1a 1rei the chance cenl 1lren leave here for me slippers neetleces black lelngf shoe polish wrig papex and envelpes g snielceris card shaving crean1isewi39ng things and Q Yb I can change Illlll Many thanks for evieryithing I 22 Pram wthejudge Aamp39wVcate fths P Court to hi39fsfa her Thcudge Ad1mcaFteof S e War Conn 395 Bcrli n Char1ttembuIg A 14f43 20 April 1943 39 W39itzlebenstras seA P TVc1ePhone 0639 31 Te Professor Dr Bonh0eEEr In the action against jmur 3011 Dietrich Bonhaa 7erJ you are in formed in reply to ymjl letter 0f 17 VApr39il I943 the applica timl for quotPrn ssion to visit w lfefused Stamp of War 39C0l1It39 I3 Signature t nrder Army Tnsprctor oifusVtic39e signed Dr RVc1edcrV r 23 Pri1 I943 From arI Fri39edrich Banlws r5 eipziw Dear D ietricly One doesr ti always 1 s m the Anmst o bvious tl ngs q I ve only just leam1 p Berlin that j pnssifblc to write to Wu and in j waxy at least tn give GI1 an inclicatiml in your is0lai oI1 that people are p i g 1ting about you One 1135 a great many heartfelt ques1ions but this Imte cannot be more P the Vneed to tell you all f of inonseqvueI1tial mattcrsA Af murse we all very much hue that by new yml will stzujn haw the tiII1E Of testing behind you and will man be Ieleascd again I ve aft en bean in Befsrlin dur ing the last You med not worryabm1t the grants of ccufse they are shaken but 1111 cf cml dencc and trust that the matlser will sown came mlt all right 1 substant17a1 part nf our mnversatio11s O bE39EI1ACUI1EBIiquotI1EC1 what you 2116 ta 0 when y u Acame out 11t you will have to talk abnut the ques tim1 ton 2 Fm reading tl1esBibleia eeel deal H 0W it is the enly heel f ees net keep 0 p tiheugl1tsstra39y R rnerning Matthew Luke 22 2394 0w 63 0 7e I haves never befleres been 5 struck R w remarkable divergemes heesreen the F he eva11gelists B hear much I 39ree uld te them ever p I hear fren1 Uriseltl1 tha l P crhjtltdrlem are in iFriedriel1s7bru1m11 Ours i ea ef a perfeet heliday is there I want you to know that 0 grateful to you for everything that yet have been and are re r11y wife ehileren arid Se goredbyesi u Your Hans To his parents Tegel Easter Day 25 April 1943 Dear Eaareinrts At last the 1et1tl1 day has eeme reuntil anal w allerwed tel write te you aair1 Tlimt se glad the let yen lrmelw that even here rm hariiig a happy Easter ledquot Friday and Easter free us to pR aheut ether things far heyend eur personal fate aheut the ultirnaite r11ean ing ef all life and tevents V We lay held ef a great hepe Since yresterda y has been rnarv elleusl r quiet in the lreuse I heard many Peilele wishing each ether as happgr Easter and erle aees net hemdge p anyene quotwhet r en utjr here itis a l1aI7CliDlI In the still11e5snewI C l alse hear Easter reetings f yetfre tegether 0 5E f39an1iljr tees and tlrinking ef Geed Frlieday was Martial lJ1ll til lla quot If I didrft F c bravely she heres the ef her father her laretl1er and eeesirrs ef Pj was Vpartieularlfy fend last year weeld he really alarmed ailzaeut her M Easter will eemfert her her large family will be there to lsuppert her arldl her Werl in the Red P will eeeutpy all lrer time Givei her love tell l1er that I leng fer her C much 0 that she mt te grieve but te he as brave as shes has always been She B y se quotVE39I F yevung that the hard thing Filrst of all I must tiharll z you every mulch fer all the p u that yeti breuglrt a11ampferfather39s atllcl Ursel s greetings 0 can t 3 I forget aemetimes for a little while whreare I am 19111 bein imagine What it means to be 39sL1dClenlr tem methett an sister and bmtl1et39 have just been l1ete and tlhefve left 5111etl1ing for 39eu39 The mere fact you have been meta nae the t39at1gibl e evilden ee tl1at yae u are still tl1lnling and caring abeut rue of cgmirae I really kntlw is eneulgh to keep me happy afar w rest of the dayt Thai yeul vetrye niaueh indeed for tevetylthing Things are 0 all ritglat and I ani well Ilr a allewed eat ef dimers afar l391alfat1 heur efvery day and anew that lean agait1 I even treated well and I tead a goa deal 11ewapapers novels and abmre all tl1e tfible C aI1 tlC 11CEI1E139at6 eneugla yet for series lwerk blTl l dating Hely l I at lasti manaaed ate worlt gselidly tlamula a part P the passion ste139r that has eccapitecl me a teat deal for at 1011 g time the l1jgl1 ptiestly prayer I39ve eaten lbeeI1 able to expeuntd to myself a few chaPtets elf Pauline ethical material I felt that to be very imparttantra See I teally haveet a great deatl to be aretjr tl1at1kful fer Haw are thittgs with you l39lre yelu still enjoying the masses el Kglaietus birthday owers j tare year Plans fer travelling p rather afraid that new fan Weft be geing into the Blael Forest gee and I1 C SS3I39 0 tltat weuld laave been And en atop ef neveryathing there are new the grepatatie11s fer Renate weampclmgt I Want to make it clear tl1at it pW my express 5 thal U39f SCTl should not pestptehe the date by a single day bill Sh039l1ld l l Lenate get married as seen and as hapfpilty as possllbilegt dealft let her worry Anything else would ently distrelass rt1el Renate knows all the geedi 0b fer her in my tlauhta an how much I share Llaet 0v teleent years we htlavte I39E3ll39I lleatnt haw mluehe anamp aerrew can anamp g ll the liuman lleatt at one p the time 130 the se e11e1 tlte be t39tE1T De give her tltevle I we tlld alse very lilce to haw tlmina ate 9 Maria s graendmethter Please denm eeneeal from me I D died Maria ar1tdI liave bath hung DI1l391E I a treat deal a couple elf requests I WUL1lad39V I7 1l1Cl1lllCB the brawn at better still the lblaek beets laces PY heels are gaming suit is very muell in nee ef etleatninkgg I Wmtld like to give it ta yea an to lhave the other brawn ene insttelatl P also neecl at l13If39 brash lots ef matclaa a pipe witlla tlbatcee pouch ancl ClE 3I1EI39S39 26 and eigsrettes Beeks S ehi1lir1g Metals Veil II en is sreisunse ef Stifter Excuse me for treuiniirig you Meisniyr I It is 5111 Pti39EiI39lg how quickly the days pass here I can hardly believe that I have beetle here three W I like geiiig te bed at eight icslecllz supper is at sfeuer and I look forward te P I never P before Wise 2 source ef pleasure that can be ream every d9quots sine always sbeut siemeithirig pleiasant Bi if f I ge to sleep I respeet te myself the verses that I shave learnt during the disyi en at 6 like to read psalms anti iii p thinie 15 fee all and that yu are ethinking ef H The day is were new aI1di1DPe jf0L1 are feeling as peaceful as I am I ve tea a let ef good k s and tiieuihts and h epes hssfe Been pleasen39t tee But it wuid put mined very h st irest if one day Maria were quietly with mu Give p letter to her to reed else to Remtei13 I always have the shores I10tES from father and erase in front ef and I keep reiedfeing Geneizayie fer new and excuse all the worry that Fm esusiii yeia Greetings te ail rest efithe famiiyn Leave and thanks with all my heart yeur iDiet1ich From U masher V Chsrletetenbuirg W ednesampey after Easter 28 Ahpreii 1943 25th annsisrersarty efiiWiaietier s deet1i114 My dieer Dietrich 9 eutside yesterday Susil en breu i1t yell the 0 hepe I see seem reusghly whet yen ted v m11ist39see that you keep your strength up tee WLei ve just had as Ietteii fien1 yeu as1amp are eseerly waiting fer the next It all hsppenee tee sucidenly 39 wuid iieve thought p possible that such a ti 0 e39eL11d happen te yreu are trying te get rid efieur old idea that being in iprisesl is e disgrece msk es life unnecesiserily di eultquot J heve te realiize that in en iieelt times as good deal n1istr39ust in uences pees1e39is epiniens ef a man it may be veiry to esreid q But we are eemrinc39eamp tihsst when you hear the ehisrges that 27 quot 08 Alitil 194319 To his parents Dear Patrienn Many t11anIlts for ti1eiiettersf1ten1iInether 2 Friedrich 2 Riidiger 3 an gla that quotyen are at ease and cnn ident and also that P Friiedtznjich can be yen fregiueintlyn I m sure that it p em for Jzne personally te nnderge afLl and I belietr thait no mre is laid npn any man than he eain ree eiare the strength to hear The hardest for me is that yeti must bear the burden ten but the way in you do it again einitiel cheering a great strfenth ten 5 iini ver39y mpieas ed that Maria hats Wriitten ate iyeiut so ibraveiy and an full nf con dence HeW nne lives entirely on a basis of trust Withnuat trust is iI 1PD39VEriSh Ci new iearning evetry day how good a itwaafys being width yen in tadditien I39m learning to practise mjaselfwhat o have said to eiiti1ier peeVP1ein siermnsa and 1 boeka I39ve new ha four 4 gin prison u wi1ereaa I was abie the outset to accept 0 let enngseienalyi I39m now getting used to it in a kind natural and nneenscinne Way That is a relie bill it raisies problems nfiitrs ewn for ene rightlyr does net Want to get used to bein in this jpnsitien I think yen wiil feel the same way abnut 39 You want tn knew mere a39bent my life here Te picture a eeli deeds not need n1nehin1aginatien the less yen nae nearer the miatrk ynut 0i be lit Eaatier the Demfache 39eme139ne Zeitzmgi 3brenht out a reproduction frm Diiireifsi Apecaliypse 0 I pinned up on the wall 1 snme bf tMiaria a prtimultas arestiIll1e1e ten ur day lasts feurteein hears w which I spend about three wait up and cell at sevwerai kiletnetres a day besides haif an hciur in the yiardt It1 ead learn and Wntl AI gaitieularly enjie3reid reading Gettiheif aain 0o rcleavr iwihreleaimi serene style iirn getting on ali and lteeping weii The iwei ddini at the Sehiteiaehiere seen be here new and I wen ibe able to write again before then Fare lately been reading in7ean Paul athiat the only that can stand n res nf 3dVEEE5ity arejeys iniii1e1ne ithey quotberth understand that and think that they understand it veer Wei as then i ean see ninthin ibnt graeiat good 29 fortune for 7 marriage and I39m alreia y iee1ei11g ferwerciEe11e day to ehari11g the kjeys iefquot their home Very scion they eutght to read tegether39eremias Money and S pirit it 7 better than eI1y speeches eeuid give them I would like to give them the spinety which airea jr heifheiengsi to them mci else e1sI vealreeciy said to Ure ei eentrihutietl to the piane as much as they need I 11096 they 0 get it seen I G he H39EI39 17laPP day erithh all S heart an he thezrei them P many happy thoughts and I weuild so like it they U emiid I Y efzme only 8 happy thoughts rneemerhies and hopes Priecieely at time when iene is hhwhing rather herci persenal expe eenices one can ensure that the reel jeye of Me and a wedding eertainiy39 one ef these i keep their due prepertiens I I7e139e in squihiemeisis Ii hope that one ea we shall e lll he tegeither to eeier39ete and Meriais wedding day Q When At the moment F seems fmciful x e spiendicih hope and 3 teat me It s all rehth er a let fer Urselg hew A I iweuld ten help her mevze and plan New she has all the trouble ever me on rep 0ifEVEIYti g else Much love to ieveiryine at hen1e end eepeeieiy to the hepy couple Congratulations to the Sehieieher PampTIL fI 1t S en eir twenitieeth weddine enniviersaeee3 L They eughti to teke e euple ef phhetegrephs ii once again thanks fer everytiliing that you breru ht fee all 39reur tretlhie ensideratien and love W edn ee ahy is always such he specially god day and how iii lee fearwerci te it E anti a few reguestis e elethes brush mirror towel faeescleth if keeps heinee eeld P s een1s to he warmer today a eriarim p enci i e11g seeks else Hell Cherh Hishrery the vehlme en the iWest and something 1 51110kei Wi13Lt39BVBT is going and smile metehies I ion euneersitandh either yeu ee11 t P suit and jacket Isuppeee that evi eryene new 3 hows ebeuht the engegen1em But still in family Aecerdingi pB eeuneit quottQhe immediate ifamilyquot en heth Asides adds up the mere than eighty eepie see it pmhehly net reimein 3 sevrert fer Ieng My main ceneernh N to observe hMe39rii1 e meetiieris Special thanks to Marie the her greetimilgsi iitis epleliciid P things are hetter her gran mefher she me has a heavy burden to hear five sons and grendsens kieiied and seven still out there greietings be her 5 suite 30 she39s tl1inli11g af U7nfammaately won be ale to thanls Ellisabelthga far the aach cantataa Please rememlmrrl me ta her as 0 39W390lf s which M lovely smug azf H11 we haairea 5 saareral times ilataaly Ubaar Nachltj ber Naclht kammt Fraud and Laid and ah daF39a galdachtk varlnssan Eel ma gahart dam Harran law Sagan wia du afla gvetragen a It all an that l1aw more impmtam athan tl1atl1appans ta ymt a11tsida allays all the av aletias aabaut p9 s0n1atiInea tarmant Tliank you again very far lremamberinl every day afar all that you are do u1g and pulztiug up on x wsountl D beat 0 to the fanlilly and friae11 sl Tall Renate ta raallly happy waclditng B I10 sad lthaughts n ta real 339SSlI1 Ed that even here I join in hat happiness allowad ta sand the next letztrazr 0l1Ttl1E 15 so I a11all be aarriltin an the day bafora tlie wadianga Iquot By 0 4waya ilfllm hrara on 39W7aclr1esclay will giva yam the dirty st1aliagl1t lafwiay mlhcrWiaa to wait here a lwlmla welcla always have to ba Praslenlt wlhen parcel is unpacked I hope tzlflat every Worry will soon removed fmm you and all of k 8 all my heart yaur grlateful TDiatlri clh Ilarajust hear that one of nay sliatars has been lwzrea with the parcel Once again 9 I see from the c11tvantsl that Ietter of the 25 llaa still nt lraaclaed yarn Fm vlalrga sorry far ylvur sakas E pmkably it often takes a loria time Wrilte ftan l The cigars seam ta coma P Stattin34 Many thanks Ta Ham vars Dalmanyi Tagel 5 flprilll 194335 dear Hans Yoirur lattaalr so aurpriaadll delilghtad ancl rnoved me that l pb malt refrainla at the very lleast from lattampting to raply to m Wlhathaelra this iettiiear reael1es js GL1 does not lie within 8S ewer but I hope P U fervently For yen K K N there P T net evein an a1en1 A repereacib er ibittemess in kP about 0 has befaiien ether twin 0f Sneh P3N cbrne from Gad and frieim him alone and I knew that VIV am ene Wit139VD1139aI1tamp Christel in be1ievin39i that before J there can nly e subjectien persieiveraneei patienrce anti gratitude So everjr qnestmn fails silent because D has funamp its arnewier Until reenentily p C fatherquotse sevenw fth birtI1day have been able to einj 034 Sn nrianjr geeci things tnigetiheir that 4 wnuld be almost Presnrnpruene were we nr alien ready to aceept haersbinp quietly bravely and also 1eaiiy gratefully I fgkneiw that it is more di iciuliti fer bveseaneeefCi1ristei1and P 3 chilidrengi but I p Chnristei enough te be trembled nly fer a Ineimienic ever iier inner diiepesintien her one p wneiii be that you tie net Werry about here I enema want yen to know not tee burdeenr yell sifnipiy to delight you and r eniabie you t sbar39e A by that sineejannuaryr I have been engage re Maria wen Wiedemeyerni eeause nfi the deaths of her efatber and b rrher it T net to be nrentiened til the rsummieir an LI only ten tell 01 piarnenis 1tquots a severe trial fer Maria rnnther wrnitea quotthat sire P brave eheeirful and mn ampent so is a very great enie0urage1r1 ent tn p Y I am mnviniceci that e piernieine e is eqd the the twoquot of us even if it is stiil so incemprehensible Se rejeeicie with me X reading learning and w r39ng a great Heal and s yst en1ati C3zijF andL have a quiet time in the nmrning and the evenien to efali manyquot people at home and in the eld quotwhern one would and should commend each dayei ten GM I need not that I1OW39yquot03911 and Chrixstei have a special place anmng them you a not an need net wnerry about b at all aininteher U nw taken worry ffrenr you What cannot d p new simply let go nfandii leimir ourselves to what We can and sibeuLlamp doquot that is be manly an strewn in l39ir 1ISt5 p in the nfiouri s11 dering I expect rye11 know that o by Hugo Uiaer Necht iiiibeir Ner39ht Freud and Laid and eh dab edeeht venr leseen dish beid and gehen idem Herrera 214 seen Me in rgff etregenn Expctrzilmcc of the past plremrvatican tlmanksl 139eVret lConscim1sLness Elf time 1101 the results 39 present anamp tllerefte past Nmrlalils Possessfans Gen 3 tEc clesl3 Rev 10 S339YiI1g cf the mtrnth and 3 I1 I 6 l In expectaltl 0nsl youth slowlyl 11jphill but then fallls away quickly old Woman lets ti111e glide by Q is freedorm pegacefultly silttllilarr great dalngelr F0ttl P T lmre mmposure D11 freedtml l in yristln eW t but g quite composted 39ijf death Y of day peasant but not th tL Expertaknce oftime as experience af separatism tengaged tuple frot11 God Past 39 P all wet in ma quot rears andi nmzz until recently was everytlming gocad M No patsessmim A oultlasts ttinw no mile J lbeflore tthe elxpertie cc 0ftimcindrcatn1st ttrrar ml awaker1i11 here in the drean plastl 2 ItL11e timeless Teeth of time that gnawing uoftime 39healing time scarring illcitble Emptiness 0ftimE dlcs itie a11tl1atfill7s 2 Elllca timc very cli lsrctnt L39DVE P 239 Sayln ofl the Hl tjllgs tiI I1E as help as lturmcnltt as enemy Borezlatml as an ex1pr eslsi t11 of dllespatirl 3 3 I 1639 3 4 Fran M5 miether Charlntteenibueg g 0 f 1943 8t dear ietrineIl1 O11 Saniriday iris the weeddizig rj we iniitend to eieieibrme it happily in accordance jg yen express 0h You are right ifa heareet g mightily dis pesed sermw enriijny b have 3 place in it Vg evening befnre Biislrbeil P bring the garilanid of rsee nnd lieniiie Chrisetinne will be the fk ff and bring sail and ir39lead All the young people will Po them that beauti nl aid fealksang inf Siimern Daehs Aenneheni f Therm Demthee GX bring ithei gaisland rnfniyrtie I X eet that there will be LSCJIIIE iehnmber niusie tee quotWeire eniy getting together after the csnpper J iareid ing nleagn the ibetreethal is at 30 feilnwedi by a simple meal at Siielileiehersi For this Ursel uM e1ea1ed nut Cl1ristine 5 ream decera39ted it 0 G ismne pictures N your rennin and lai the tigiiei IE5 aniezing hew 5F things have La Place si e by sxi e 0 G lieiart 0 senses B B Ged bless yen Ylenr Mether From Kaeri Eri39ee39rich Benheej er Leiizig I 5 39 1 B Dear Dieitriclh Your leners fjrenii prison are always a great pY6 to us 8 long ingly wait until the ten days are up an i yen can ewrrite tn again or rather WE quielzly hepe p 9 the net letter will be nvertakein your own reappearianeei For 6 is gra uallye iettieng time for you to be let out Iine learnt fmm jmur lette1si tint yet are secretly enagiedi You eannt imagine haw rnuch tim delightedi me Tm in preincipie seriry fer any iinninrrie man riampieuieus ti1on4gh thins eenfessinn may 4s39een1i But p ease in R view was 3 very special ene You are ene of those are na 1 be des39rifiyed to be an bacheier end VpreeiseIy in the i eeuitieis iyeur calling brinequot it tedzay you need 3 gen and competent wife Urseil has since told me meny enice abeut your yeueng aneee ee and the parents who Preebabley knew efit befeerehaizld are also very pleased abeeuet her p I hope too seen havei an epper pC tee get to knew her Tehinkixr your ancee tlmugh 39quot0iuf presem sietuaIie11 must be partieularljr irkso111ee and Fm really amazed at equanimity yen aeeepet it as misfortune without any repreaehes Today it39s the ewedding at the Sehleeichers and at yeuer it has became 3 real feastt EI3I1S tEI39 whom we had here in the house recenthr for a ceuplee of heuirs en w t39hreugh tanned and leaking well fed is cenling enr leave Fm very Pleased ebeeuet that fer Urs ele s sake All Q we39ll P us Keep as well as yen can and sure that you come out son 50 that yen a139en t cheated M of the ewllele of wo11derfu1 spring Many greetings from us all Yur KarlFreiedrieh To his parents Tegelji 15 May I943 Dear pareents By the time you get letter all the nal preparations an the wedin itself will be ewrere as will t bit of leinging tee be there myself z Fm l0ok7g back t0day in greaetitucle fete the liaeppy time s that We have had aI1quotd hajgpy about t39hE13911 ell enxieues to heat ewllat the text of the sermon was the best I can d of Reemms I 31 Fire ofteeene mysel splen id summer weethere they re having I expect this em erningquots f was Gerhardfse The golden After a lengthy interval received7 yeutr letter ef the 9th very quickly 0111 II May Many for it fmyeene fer whem the parental home has became sue much a part ef hi39n1seIfaLse it F fer eme E speeia ey greeteful for any message from heme If enlj7 we eeuld see each other r talk together 7 a eshert time a meat relief weuled bee eeeuirse peeple eutsie fmd di ieuljte tee inia ewhate Prison life H1e N situateieen eine Q tlmt is each siI1gle moment a p perheps net 50 very ei ferente here freem anywhere else I read 33 meditaIte write pacer rig drawn P cell Without rubbing nwself sore against wells like a paler lzzear The great tlll g P tee to what He sell has e do there is still plenty left nezt to be dominated the tlleught ef39wl1at one er veer de and by feelings ofererentrnent p as Ielearly as I 4amp0 hrerez whatthe ible Luthere mean by eteemptaI tien p sud deenly and for no apparent physical or PS539Cl1D39l gI i d diseententi I39m sure I nerve realized E cal reasen the peace cemlmeurer Itliat were SL lPPDfquotIT39II1g me are jerrecl and the heart 39beeemes c erIe111iah s errpereesiee phrase 39 deeei 5111 rabevel all I rigs and desiperately crrupte whe can P 0 it It feels IVE i1wasien from oeueteide as if by evil Perwers to role Okall of is viltarl nee deulbt these exipeerienees are gamed and nereressraryg as they teach one to Iur1der stancl human life better Fm new tryir1g ehand at a litt1er39stuamp3r en The feelin of tir11e39 a t I T fer Iexan netin One of Preclseeessers here has sciibbled ever the cell sler In I00 quotyears it will all be ever was way P Itrying to counter the fee1ing that life spentI here is a but therer 0 a rear that P be said abeut t and I sheIu1 d7lil er rte it eeere p farther time is in u u v 3 p is the ible 5 zmswer ut in the Bible there is also rx question ether tlxreeterlre to eminatie everyller Things continue te gee Tv me and I Y be ratefi for 03u past 1x weeks Fm particuler ljr pleased Pdu Marle s rzlether has been wietlh you Is ptherre pLn news yet ef KDI1St aI1tlI1 q Tuni7 sia 3E Tl1at39s i tlhreugh mr heacl a great eeel i I j ef Maria rd thee family nlly it isnlt tee long before I see Maria jai39n encl we get p h i P i need 1 ceeeer re reallgr seen there are all ser ts efletl1eI139 le1rthljr wishes that erle e 39f39l1e ercel 0flaundf39ry has IJEVEII breughet again Yeulve new idea where ajoy ernd srrerllth eretn tl391is indirect link b Many thanks and please X p 39 2a specially for all the help that she givir1g you W 06 also very pleased that yet lure get the P hZ Ia sweets again they airer11es39taeceptable Fire already made 139I1jJquotSElf a mirror here Inweullcl be ranIeful fer so T staiin 39 Ag tliet T apeeialely relevant rte enyer1e Wh R ltneiimg held I g here How Along 0 Q 39 eentenetnmeetvtg 39 T x We have feed t e1e eLg with these we shall be content r d Give lI1EithIEI39 pevezty net riches feed me the feed e 0 nee for me lest I be ill deny thee say Wfhe is the Lord quot or lest I be poor and steal and Profane the name of my P Prmr 3e3f Flee f Ev II1iw the M of Eaebyleen was not healee P P Ferseke her an let us go EECII to his own country Jere 5 L 9 have gre PH up 0 I11eexperienee efeur parents and grend parents that a can and pl develop shape Pt life and that life has a P1117PDS39E about which a men 8 PT up k 0E 0S x 0 g g S t we have leaxtnt by expeerieneee we cannot plan ween for the P eclagyz that ewhat we ehave Built 4119 n destreye ever night and that our life cenetfreaet te tliat of our parents has become fermless 01 even fragmeeentaty In spite of that lean only say tl1aetiIIheve 110 Wish ten any other time than 0111 vewI1 even theugh see inc0nsideraet e of our eueL1veramp We bein y ereeelize mere elearlgy fenne y that P world lies S ethe and grace of Pl Pv read 0 39Thus says the PG Beh eId I have am 1139ea39lringe dewne and g I have planted I am plucking up 4 p An do yen seek greet P P efer yourself Seek them net for beheld IAambri11gingeevil euepen all esh p 3 but I will give your life as a prize ref war in all places the which you ge If we can save eour souls unscathed euet of the wreckage of eur material pess essiens let be esaetiese ed with tlmat If the Creator cfeetreye quot5 own handiwerle39what riht eheve 0 to lammt the destruction of ours It L be the task of en generation not to seek great p gs but to saere and preserve our souls out of the cheers y ten realize it the only w we can eerry as ea pizize fmm the burning 0q Keep your heeart all vigilance for fEOII1 D WS 39iLe sprimlg oltf39liefelt39 Perev n shall have keep em lives rather 0 them to hepe erather u p1an tee lml eut re lere then march ferwercl 0 weed 10 went te preserve fee you rising generaen what F p pessible for you Ate p1m build up and shape a new me betteer life T 397 Are we rnevninng tewards 0 age of rcelorsslaln organizations andl eel elective instlitutiena er will the desire of l ll l I alblE peeple fee small n1anageable pereenal relationships be satis ed r they be n111tuall39y eneluslive it not be that werlcl eranizatilens tl1en1sel39ves their n1esl1 es will alllew 39n1or e aeepe for persnnal inter ests Sinlilarly the questien whether we are nmvingl etewards age the selection inf ttest ie an aristea eratiic soeiety or to fjIlfD 1 I11ilquot in all material and spiritual aspects elf life ltlll llli there has been a very farareaellin equal iaatien Ineree siensliltiveness ninalll elf seciew fer the human nanlnea ef jslnstice laehievenlent and CD111 aE ceuild create an new seleetinn efpeepnle f be allowed tlme right to ppreavicle stren g leadership It will not be qy fer us tilI396I10i liiCE our privileges rlecegiiizing tll jllsftil c1Dfl 1i5EDIT u may have to face events and changes tllat italeel no account f our naisl1iea and our rigliiss os fr see we p2s not give Way to e1nb itterecl and learren pricle l3Tl1tCI l scieuslye to divilne juelgment and an prewei enraelnes Worthy to p n by identi f pp ourselves Xj and un sel shly witln the life of the een1n1nnity and the su ieriiigs i ear fello39w men But any nation wlaielfz brin b neck under the ynlie of the kiri of Babjrllon and sefnei him I 0 leave on its own land to till it and dwellthere says the Lord 7 211 I Seeillttl1e Welfare ef tl1EltCltY pray te tlie pAZ on its been J T quot e1 Come P W people enter your cillanibers LY Z your dnefras bell S id you hide yourselves for an Ii39tt1E W T quotthe W1399t39l1 is past Isa 26iae Pearl his anger is U fer a n1en1entl and his faveur 0 for a laifetinme Weepiin Illa tarry fer the night ibnt PQ mines Wltll the T lg Ps 30 Today you R be baptized a All these greai ancient wers eftlie Cllraistinan proclamation will be spoken ever quotyou and tll1BiC011 lI11 lf1Cl efjesus D to baptize J be carried nut on you W39ithDUlt your kneawing anything anul r But we are nee again being driven right A tn the luegiinni1i1gs ef en 39unde1stanamping TReeenciliatien Y reclen1ptien regeneration and the Heel Spirit lnve of ear enernies crests and resuarnreelzien life x 9 and Chrinstilan Clisciple lllp all these things are so diHleuIt and so rermetie tlmt we harclly x any more no speak them q the etradia tinal weeds and acts x suusepect there P t be eeumemin quite new and f39EVUll1EiC3I19fY though we v as yete r raep or exp139ess it That is em 0 pLg few Our church Zs ufhes been gheirmg in these years only for 0m self preservatieenu39 as l that were Ek end in itself k incapable ef the ewerd of recenuciliatuie11 end reudenipetieu to g f T i and the wer1Tdu139 earlier weeds are t11ere fete bound te lese their force and cease and our being today will be 0 f to b prayer Y reighteous aeteiern amenue BZ rU V 739 pq ta A spe oa and ergjanieixlg be Bern eut of a prayer r ectieju By K time fyeu havee grown up the eehurehe form have e get greatly We are not yet out of Y muelti11g peteu S 0 R atteimpt tee help the ehurehu premeulreley tree a new exausien of its organization will meereeuly delay its cenuversien anamp NN z quotee catinu Q is not for us to Pre phesjr thee clay 7Iheugh fliE ay H came Wl1en men v enee more be called use to utter K G ef aG that the world D be ehangee A renewed by pH It P K be a new language per Imps quite neniIeeligeie us but lifberatielg gI Iedeen1ing e F was Jesus language it shock people D yet weereeuie them by zC power it will be the language ef a new right eeusuess trurth 13meIaiLmiI1 peace 0 men endu the ef kingdom A PA fear and trenible beeause of all ethe god e prosperity I previdegfer it then the PT cause wi be a and a hir Vbut there Pl be these prey eand e right 0y wait fer A 1 5 tiee May yeu be one ef them and 2 be saidl efyeeu use eafy The path of the righteeeus is like the light efVudaw i 2 shines riuhter G brighter till full ea PEUV p u To Remote s bsrhsrdi Bethge I Tegel I9 May 1944 sDesr EberE1srd Renstees I cssrft te yoeu 110W delighted I was your visit sends your courage in c1eeidir1 to come in the of together was slendid If Miser waesrfi sue11 a peda11t T nlight Vperhsps have lasted even longer But even so it was quite marveH ous To talk to you seaiu glorious I QI lik to knowquot whether u others people could say as much P rnske themselves eunderstood ss swell as their of 0 an hour and a hs1f takes prssetice m is now eneterir1g etensth a right 0 is the tenth year N really proud oftlrsts EI deeplys rrloved by you tol about H reeem experiences F111 in too great a hurry tr go into etails tday a bove all I hope you will the peace both and Without thste you need after your upsetting experiences I39m so sorry p the alert was on just Vfh ll your Cosme 5 I breaetheds 31 sigh of reliesf when the commssn anet brought 39youre telephone s1I1esssge The uestion of the rnesaning of thins rft39e11 burr demsmre but dorrft yorl s is very importanI that we at least know ewehy all K necesrssr7y and has to be endured s1st1o11gl1 the p for N prohleamstical That elearer for hero The person who Vbrins 1s etteerr24 also bring quotyou warmest greetings for 0 day oftheAbaptisn1 ancl insstructions for s bsptismssls presen1s Perlzsps even therPreese11titse1E I39m very glad e391hst this K ossible yu J Certainly get on seq well the friesndly mesrsesngen c tell 3 great deal sn let p motes so that I can lessm everyrtrhing 0 will also be glad to tell you sbosut t and life 1391ere p H that 0 every nice of s to arrange oonetaeet betwerens on partic for day By the way 11e E gr est m 11sieisr1 Perhaps you can arrangequot soniething teoether Later 0T would very mueh like to see the quotShiietz which pleased you so much 0 c Iquotse aliwrsys been eager for the day when yo some for the rst tim1e yfrom front I never doubted that you would conle back the some person who Went and 2 we would 361
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