Advanced Japanese II
Advanced Japanese II JAPN 3002
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/02/15
Chapter 10 I Using the pronoun 0 and the noun 3 A Using 7 as an inde nite pronoun The pronoun 0 can replace a concrete noun such as place time person thing etc when the referent of is clear from the context azM w B F El Fi J39GxiZ hkTth Nfco HFWJTXiX UCETUggif ampflw Em E FEI fie gt H FEIXiX ukfuzig lltf t6 i WEN gt H FEIW JT Agg zef ai zix Urao gt H FEIWEJTXiX uamp lltf b bi faggot Note that what comes before 0 is always a plain form That is fC QiLfl in the sentences above results in ungrammaticality When the copula 9 or a 7 adjective comes before 0 7X is used instead of 73 Thus Bk aifyamiic wmaiiruwmiifw gt ryami f lt 2 7 5 Barman I mEU Di f lt 2 7 5 WiWMk m TwS Wbi f f Zioamp5 i a b T W U can refer to either tangible or intangible things zowmiaa EP ua 9 Ta jowmiEHEP UUDZT 7 U of ii EH UU is strictly speaking a particle as in Y 037 The noun following ll EEl UU is omitted in this case B Using 2 as a noun is a noun that refers to an intangible thing and can be translated as 1hing or matter It can be used in a nounmodifying clause Note that the form used before 3 is the plain form Furthermore it is 72 instead of 715 that is used in the case of the copula and the iiAdjectives 24 ammi mmwtxa Limaaf arip fibD7 ai El I thwf f ampf Cf fiwurxmi mxialtr n WVLv Euiilc39 0 55 D 733350i 9k7 lo 3 Can be modified by demonstrative words but 0 can39t ampLi Liuamp5f 3 7 gt Cf raw3m Lihk5f f gt can stand by itself but 0 can39t 1201 DMfiwfi 0301 U57L U7Li 3 can be modified by demonstrative words but 0 can t ampLi Liuamp5f 3 7 gt Cf raw3m Lihk5f f gt Noun U 3 is often translated as about N when it is used with verbs such as 0117in LOTWE IN and JIIP J IEH uli 7C 1X amp7 Jiltf ofbfo d 77 EPT Wyjfdit 7Jlt UDZHEEEEZ LEG TE u amp733 fio II Forming noun phrases with the nominalizers 7 0r Ck A Using the nominalizer 7 Nominalizers are those which make a predicate nounlike nominalized phrasesclauses so that it can appear before a particle Where Japanese uses nominalizers 0 English uses gerunds toin nitives and thatclauses El ZEEE Noun Monkeys are interesting li El 1 Nominalized Making a pig a pet is interesting sk v yMz bmi El 1 phrases or Iwatch the bear eating the fish ibi g x m clauses I don t like to come close to tigers kgoi K K lt aib Rgfi It s frightening that nature is a lt orb lt 7b 2bb The nominalized clauses can be either a subject or an object 25 73gt awniams muu subject 375 ma a152 Wail fug f i wbject The predicates coming before 0 have to be in their plain forms Going a step further for the copula or a fatAdjective use 72 instead of 715 before the nominalizer U TEjf umeyms ga fdxwfimoi aw TEnZ wbi zts a L lt733 a m7 fir77bi 7572be B Using the nominalizer 3 The nominalizer 3 also transforms clauses into noun phrases Like U the plain forms have to precede 13 In addition 72 is used instead of 715 for a 7 adjective Unlike 0 fich 5T JE has to be used for the copula 715 before I amp TE u7bi li 3EJ753 ltU7 7Lilt 7i f ofbi77 gt TE u yf7bi 2 fffkl 5T 6 fiampf ofbif gto The differences between 0 and 3 are personal events a amp Nature of Concrete Abstract distant indirect general clauses immediatedirect events Cooccurring Verbs of perception Verbs of thought predicates Reactive emotion Idiomatic 01 31 183 phrases Zk73 3 1 3733 T33 WkliOVC ampT 9 A Compare i073 E 7 7 Olt 03 2 k aki7 2073 zwrle t 7 gvlt lt 2 03amp 26b rthvx o EI jiggngU q z i fCUDLl o my personal feeling El ggigQUgi j l jli ll7Lio general rule Ub 7bi oTli5 03 P 8 iii 26 f47VVF733 El 7ltl lE TLi5 lt 2 02 g e maxim E wmmm amer bbwmmiu Wvbi gaifw aampuo if7 gto Ll o cw i eAf Ei fE ODCk li7fU Tliilt JEylt k 7373i HAYNii d mnebw 5amp Dbmewg lt A A ltKotUDae eE meweeiniguwwwa efwwij35E6lt e 755th emi arg remg a OD8 li tiito III Expressing a change of state using JZ5lC7ZCZ This pattern is basically a 73 pattern similar to the familiar patterns Adj lt7i E or Noun LUKE Like the latter two patterns this pattern also expresses a gradual change of state or behavior and it is often translated as to get to the state where or to reach the stage 0f The only difference is that what comes before 73 is a verb In order for a verb to come before 72 the verb has to be nominalized first using J25 Since J25 itself is a noun it follows Noun LUKE The result is verb plain J15 l 73 See the below E e llf 726 gt E ll k 5 Noun nominalizes the verb gt E e M 45 mace Cf Noun K725 The verb preceding 73 is often a potential verb 753 El El g i g bflUDT El lf 7 3 i 6i5lli wibflo El 7S3 TE753 H5J15Hamilfie i fi JT 7bif 5cli5llii0ibfio The opposite of VclialCiiE is 72lt7L 6 mi El amp amp ibf 3 li fx wibh Wli 7 U7 L73 l3 7libf733 lil i lti 0ibflo 7 E natural occurrence vs N143 intentional change This 73 pattern keeps the same implication as the other 73 patterns in that it describes a situation as something which naturally occurred as in the sense of it comes about that 27 N39 This makes a sharp contrast with the 1 3 patterns which highlight the efforts put in by the actors performing the action leading to the change In Japanese the 73 pattern is preferred over the 43 pattern d f ampbfwibfo more natural ag fzyxmbiw g 39 BJ PuliJS UODE S J 0 LT NEH VU7l753 o 4 4 7 a gAT o 7C2h75gt gAT o kf lgbeVhJfCODTf R fxwyif ykwbliiof 5lk f l a Eklofd iglbb iit7llt U ibx Auywy 953 1 Ln 2bl ag KW A k Ema 1 El b li Eli 2 EliWU l i i h i 7719770101 bi iio 3 T ibi wfbiof 4 fllt h 7bi pof LUSTTLioflo 5 U7 Vlib05l 575gt5775gt6 f 1amp753H11395E 733 la lil o l 75gtj975gt572cbmfx amp73 Hj 7 bo 6 9T JltT j ltb 733ijlo i7337Elt u Liofd Lllf 7 7 gtof lbf7c5fia 7 lit gix i 01ofamp753 0i733 kf b Tie 28 IV Expressing opinions indirectly using AJUXJ7JW 92335 The plain form N Breath 75 ltE1E55 expresses the speaker s opinion but indicates some uncertainty It is similar to fi 5c j 5 5 but it is less certain X uli El 73Ain certain X uli El fib o X uli El ZKAfi kf X uliEljiAfiuU i WREFE O uncertain A39 ADJ GKW is the negative form of ME 0373 therefore what comes before AUquot 721 is a plain form and 7X if it is a fatadj ective or noun AU v 721 V73 does not indicate a negative but rather emphasize uncertainty The variants of NuUJ PZil klj include WuUJ PfiU Tj lTbia X NU Jefotb7 gt7tDfe7ltb7 xba wwwocw Note that all of them include the portion implying uncertainty such as 75x 75gt7Zi75gtL NADf U r g 1 LA D bi t a fiampbir gto fxubwocwsxa wi cim N f me El Z ibDw i fiii F nEJELCfiJTUEkFEJEf 2 V Expressing conjecture based on indirect evidence using 51 and direct evidence using JZ 57 E77 7tll 75 A 51 I understand thatI hear that the word is that 77197701017113 VDXxyhyw i gLU 0 said by someone after talking to his friend in USA 7fUiJT i7VV y X Zk7b a El 1xLHj 6Lwo wimp 4 ww ogbi webw 72mm 4 raga lllibh wlixV 5y xbb 0 29 A39 Note that in the case of iiadjectives and copulas only the stem form appeals before gLl A39 VLb is used to express conjecture made by the speaker on the basis of information obtained indirectly such as through print or word of mouth A39 39gLl and 57L both base their assessment of the situation on the second hand information but gLl indicates a stronger commitment on the side of the speaker JHXLCJZEk 77 iix y AkBli Nw b filihlifx7x7 gtofbb o JHXLCJZEk 77 ixgl jfltli Nw b filihlifx7x7 gtof7c5fio A39 Ngbl itself cannot be negated as Llt7ib Its negatives are ZibLb 7 7 gto7 bb Ey nylj 7777if X 7yllli 65 I7iIgLbo t194 1y li f f 7 y l fbWimbo mm A39 In addition to the conjecture the Nominalgbb pattern expresses an idea that the subject of the sentence has a quality described by the nominal xci gw a It seems that the boss is a woman Our boss is so womanly ladylike 10314 0193 gU 0 JJ EH ulijtii U o B Expressing conjecture based on direct evidence using NiafiA39KZV 73 39It appears that39 L f 39 ili u 7X E i5fi ii i ih L f 39 ili fet 39iil ded ifil fd i a 7C2Wi Boamp U07 i5fiiw ck5fio 70W 75oamp U0 fbfi v lkbfio 52 Ha17biotltmgtotwa 7xuwaibixbgtorxario at 139 kIIJAWNH AAAAA Like V gLl basically plain forms appear before 26736973 73 However note that U is used for a noun and 7X is used for 7 adjectives before 2573 instead of 73 For both a noun and a 7X adjective only the stem is used before 7773 73 The form 7773 V5 is more colloquial than 575 A negative conjecture is expressed by 7311Ji5fiW7cib flb fiN7X 75gtO7LCJI57LiN7X7 lofl7i7blbfi The auxiliary adjective 425713 expresses a conjecture based on firsthand reliable information usually visual information and the speaker s reasonable knowledge The stem 57L it looks like N indicates a guess based on the speaker s sensory input so the reliability will vary T Li5f 55 express a conjecture that is not necessarily based on any information and often is a mere guess Looking at a piece of bread in front of his eyes Looking at a long line in front of the bakery Getting information from your friend who is a food critique Seeing a rating of the bakery in a newspaper After tasting bread jawbw LEVI7C5in jswwnk fi mwwgbw jswwvc fi Ekbb 15 1 Fred 573 It seems It appears N auyw uai wt EEfiwaimt u LCszyf me 6chin Hj7iibck5f cko aihf gtbwebb7sgto apf7bgtwctaf fcto John Doe 2 11975gtbf bi575gt0 2b7bw0gtk f fcko 2X i572 Nominal UVWHVUDCBKALUXWEW fy Luiau aiwaxi bilzgitufi f wax if bmu 31 Chapter 8 K I Doing and asking favors using V 39C WT bhlf BB b WEEK In Chapter 7 we learned verbs of giving and receiving Giver01 Recipientl Gift7i Verb of giving R33 U vz L f lt11 335 Recipient01 Giverl7 gt Gift7i Verb ofreceiving 65 b ffilt If the speaker feels closer to the recipient as below lt 217 is used instead of 2 W73 lGiver 01 Recipientl V 39C Verb of giving lRecipientli Giverl7 gt V 39C Verb of receiving 313le mm lt mg an 3m mw olt orlt mc 93 EatingVa 7M T ofco Ha zx EHEP M 7M mmr ofc 52 5 a 2M Root ejak 5 ucwz wraoofc 2 Mam gonna Lori L730 a2 Mam gonna xofzhbfi L730 m 2 22 we aw L73 Hm w 22 mom aw L72 slay g zz wfcfi i L730 HSEEL 5565322 E fwfcfi i L730 No gift or obiect N 8 is needed for V TVerbs of 39 39 39 lug ampfiampf Ml ofca Hamp b7 oampf gt Hli Ms 6 Ward ibf Hats 6 Eg lii o Caution vaou are about to offer to do a favor to someone it is best not to use verbs of giving It may sound offensive authoritative and not too modest since you are verbally declaring what you are doing is a FAVOR Toff3T lfi i o I will help you as a favor gt LETDEV LiLJ illo Shall I help you Earlier we explained that V TliLl cannot be used as a request to a superior Use V T 5 b WED l 7 713953713911 instead CHE fii L11 AT W AUE I want you to look at this gt 12h 3Tb 7 71 5373 ATj UE I would like to receive your favor of V is an 73 cannot be used with anonperson nature a 2 ml tear LE Va Lit Iwould like to receive afavor ofraining from it a gt W fxo fliu I mnt it to rain which one is similar in meaning 7 tb 739 iiLb TIIQTLEL TH m fw 73gtoTiiLb mrhgwtw nthmwh ofreceivinE 655 wtfi Rewrite the following using TL ltfi tb want to receive or t Wm 77 a 7 w or 1w77 7ltfb 1 EVJI h fliLwo39 t a 2 nv h 1t1Llt rto1ta lt r is an honori c fonn oflthZL 3mm 2 is ahumble form of lf L T sz can receive is apotential form ofw Mr Suzuki is visiting Mr Yamada s of ce Ms Tanaka is a subordinate oer Yarnaola Division Manager 5995 Suzuki Vz ff kL5Li i IQEEE Ei2inVEOLD iT gtu Tanaka in w fo w al w Tanakapages Suzuki butthere is no answer L5Lblf wi h i Huh 4 iifLTf DiTa Suzuki 614 Dr lJJ 835419239 l h iothvsriliiwmt Tanaka 2h m 455 Eb k W iTa IBM SONY Note 1 Neutral Vzrm f oi IBMVJUJ 833M my orwgiLtt Vzrm f oi IBMVJUJ 833M my atworw 70 Mr Suzuki of SONY brought a congratulatory gift to Mr Yarnaola ofIBM Later Tanaka says referring to the action ofan outgroup person VY HUNWW ubi JJ Eli3575660 himWE roT TT milf T Later Yamada says referring to the action of an outgroup person V f lt u733 ll jai m roT TT l ilf T Later Suzuki says referring to his own action for an outgroup person no JJ Eli3375660 ERIN ronoT LWfilf i Note 2 Both beLTl foiUi d ui and beLTT U i iu are polite request forms bflbfl flfiljli dfui humble Couldn t I receive your favor of handing i this to beLT T b i iuih honorific Would you give me your favor of handing T this to II Using honori c expressions to show respect 18 V stem I 7 26 2 1 0T7 m ism 0T7 ism 0T7 ism js bdx js bdxofl r ism E of ism 54 Verbal N iii g 1 liiifa F w Irregular forms 1 VTT w LT w 1 LPG2T7 LJSI TbliiJTT W T w 1 1 T VTI L EVstem LEVsemi igFwagoL e l tpfi JEEFBT I w w E c of f l EWQKKE EWQKKOTT imp jabbwi BMLUocoTT w um A 231 3 A A f All occurrences of T b i iuigt T can be bffi i dfu7 gt i 351 07201 lt T T wi mw T mawam m T bffioj i u7sgtlt T Double honorific expressions are possible with some expressions 351 Kiro T Mi 161BTTUOLUET 351 Kiro T wgomow W T Some adjectives and nouns can be honorific 73 Ti mx w T Tiia mv lt T lt T ngob ewi W T 0 almanoaimmli er fb2 u16 bT1675gtV T 1 3e mi ltgt 2m iwje mifgi j ea Ufb Mit 77bi16 j if i T gt221 31607 gth i T Tfo 16 lt T Lil g f x if The subject of G ll f golX Ilt ET must be a person J j iEHEP u5E3 i El A hWC V l lt LWE etc Tbobi ebij o If the subject is a nonperson it must be inalienableintegral part of the person This is a semantic judgment rather than a grammatical one am EH EP urmgouewi kwjimi gui CSTWol ebifo J ji ilt3 ai hE m wgobewi gtIlt J ji ibugt5wi j zwewgouewiar Hei w ar gtIlt J ji f r i ay fmgou ewi HT 2 Iifo gtIlt wjimea vc i 1234567 ngouewi eff W aro if T5 b E T can be used with any animate or inanimate subject III Using humble expressions to show respect 18V stem ash Note 1 Request form is not possible with humble form Typically humble forms are possible when the action somehow affect the object of respect eg Something is done for the benefit of the person Note 2 Not all verbs can be made into a humble form Noun 333 6 Eg f Eg bibi5 73 m Lib Irregular forms 1 J l IV Making or letting someone do something using the causative form Formation Irregular verbs 6 gt d j 35 gt 39f E Verbs Er gt E d Ei j Q gt Q i Q Q 39f 5 Verbs ax gt design x gt 73Mi6iv w U gt 9 iflt gt Lg Q 5 gt MILE gt A l The make causative with intransitive verbs lCauser 01 Causee if Causative intransitive form eX L vgiaii J IEH u 31 flo 55530 70 xfltpi d fla 3375 uii E ELC WJU733ltE5 Wi7JltE A 2 The let causative with intransitive verbs lCauser 01 Causee L Causative intransitive form ex167 gt u i ZEN Uy y le z lwff ZHWi 7 V397L vflw ih A 3 The makelet causative with transitive verbs lCauser 01 Causee l X if Causative form transitive With transitive verbs no distinction between makecausatives and letcausatives are made because transitive verbs necessarily involve a ifmarked direct object and it is not possible to have another if marked object for a causee eX fth fth CT 7 U7 A7i 27311157 SEE 7 Uf ix7 z arrUHF fth d l c jll 7 Uy A7E gcheckga o The letcausative can be explicitly marked by combining the causative form with a verb of giving which implies that the causer is doing causee a favor eX ELiU lEH ull i d flfflo FEEL ir LLC COD7 1K i i TT 2f SEE TLUE 2LE TT 2fo B Requesting permission to do something using the causative form 39C F b eX 563 inlj TT ln 563 75gtH f bii u7 gto Liw u fT w Liuw u ffi i u7 gta MVMwacw iiii m M V Zb fwtfi i mho 779 16ltWb r webVa Mfume Note In the pattern Tish W Tj l NT can take the causative receiving verb but not a humble form Thus gtlt Egg away i WWTWVJ 0 3E k fbffibfb INNT WVP V Expressing completion regret and the realization that a mistake was made using V 39C LE5 V C Liz lid zN Tli gt xgrga euf bi gt athUuaa A Expressing completion ex je u Laudin LTLiofCUD 85 55A it fth 5wS u TEEWE ifizz an M gwarmfybo B Expressing regret and the realization that a mistake was made ex X 035 LJsuf2labe7cb Y z 7C2hd 60 fTBJ e ybo X E5L7LCuT 939AZ J Y 1V7VVF7b3 Elztibdeofbiofduf Whether the form means completion or regret totally depends on a context Talking about the reading assignment 63 JIuUJ POfCufio fi gtE E93 El 7 XHZIZ fib Ui58fi Confessing that he actually read the letter he shouldn t have read 63 JIuUJ POfCufio buii b g 1 1 7v v7bi wbao 57sgta ampibb gt 7v v7bi LUDZOTWEVYPB NTLiwiLb 2 E B bu ObWJ a CODRWEEWWWCLTT I o gt 3 iama w mamoweysxa e w aaerm 4 rawm ma e aaeaw a EEEJS 2 Create your own conversation similar to the example below ill