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Pol Phil & Ideologies

by: Andy Weber

Pol Phil & Ideologies INTA 2210

Andy Weber

GPA 3.92


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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andy Weber on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTA 2210 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/233968/inta-2210-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in International Affairs at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.

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Date Created: 11/02/15
IMTAQN 0 NOT ES INTA 17FEB03 LIBERALISM a society established to provide individual freedom of choice MARXISM a society established to remove toil and class suppression Hobbes was not considered liberal thinker 1688 1679 his ideas were used by later liberal thinkers studied the organized cohesive power of society natural law and natural right the state of nature and the law of nature before established society the social compact of government government based on the consent of the governed sovereignty government based on absolutesupreme paramount power Hobbes was deeply in uenced by the ideas of Machiavelli and by the scienti c revolution that was occurring around him in society Newton Galileo Cicero developed the ideas of natural law 106 43 BC man is a rational creature Hobbes Masterpiece Leviathan 1651 translated means the large monster sovereignty the title became a metaphor for the sovereign state he postulated that people are governed by passion passion to dominate want to feel superior to others they fear being dominate reason was a set of calculations to achieve these goals and passions reason created om human passion causes people to interact in society the state of nature is a commonly recognized sovereign social compact people agree to an authority to be dominant over them for the purpose of group security lose a small amount of freedom to gain security and peace of mind state of nature is full of violence and the strongcunning will dominate Hobbes even the strongcunning can be defeated by the foolishdumb in the state of nature state of nature is very unstable natural right each individual has the rightpower to choose what he wishesbelieves is right property rights exist even in the state of nature Locke before social compact government established through social compact must have the power and must do whatever necessary to maintain stability and secure the rights and blessings of the people if the state feels threatened by liberality of society they must do whatever required to secure the safety of the government individuals who agree to the social compact must obey whatever the government does the people can not petition the government or object to its actions objecting the rule of the government can undermine the society and introduce instability social compact government absolutists government Hobbesian dilemma People start out equal and free they must sacri ce their eedom for security and group rights John Locke Locke s father fought for Oliver Cromwell in the 1688 glorious revolution 16321704 removal of absolute king Charles II in England William of Orange became King of a new English government based on the consent of the governed Burn a Flick Cromwell Richard Dre usl sent to study at Oxford Where he excelled worked as a physician teacher philosopher application of rational analysis of science onto the societal interactions of politics individuals have unalienable rights that can not bed violated justly by government govemments are established to protect individual rights legitimate government derives its just power from the consent of the governed state of nature no superior power above yourself reasonable individuals seek security and safety in a sovereignty eedom is possible because people are rational and reasonable 1st Law of Nature self preservation 2mi Law of Nature preserve all others enlighth self interest an important value of the state of nature is property people have a natural right to their own person wealth is not a factor in the state of nature eedom and equality of wealth INTA 24FEB03 Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations in 1776 17321790 universal brotherhood of all people identity with natural law Scotish people shoald live based on natural law reason and rationality moral philosophy philosopher of eedom 1767 Problem of Freedom Hobbes how to prevent killing cheating stealing and swindling in a truly free society total freedom leads to chaos absolute allpowerful government is the solution Locke s View rationalreasonable people can control themselves with less government laws of nature selfpreservation will maintain freedom Locke s solution is based on the rationality of man Adam Smith witnessed the monarchies of 14501550 people are self interested self motivated to provide for themselves the necessities of life good shelter clothing Theory of Morale Sentimetz 17 59 people interact with each other because of their own selfinterest mutual advantagemutual gain How do you motivate people to overcome obstacles in the road how to best use your assets for future rewards self interested decisions yield maximum results Wealth of Nations 2 sum total of economic transactions how do markets lead to wealth decisions of labor arise om the idea of natural liberty you never produce for yourself that which you can purchase more cheaply from others division of labor results from selfinterested people specialization INTA 26FEB03 Why do we have free society God given unalienable rights Understanding of reason and natural rights state of nature the key to intellectual progress is realizing when you are wrong and adjusting to compensate expose conclusions and beliefs to a multitude of diverse ideas suppression of advocacy of doctrine 1 doctrine may be true 2 doctrine may be false it behooves society to have every idea challenged people are intolerant we need to be tolerant because in democracy the ordinary people are in charge of leading society Mill is trying to develop a persuasive argument for tolerant society and free speech truth and discovery zresults from free speech and the advocacy of opposing discovery of truth doctn39nes expanding your horizons greatest society greatest of happy individuals conundrum happiness is the goal of human society yet truth can bring unhappiness truth 9 human progress and evaluation of institutions 9 reform of such institutions greater happiness deeper intellectual understanding is essential to progression of relations INTA 28FEB03 Epicurus 342270 BC utility utilitarianism David Home 17111776 J eremny Bentham 17421842 precursor to Mill James Mill John Stuart Mill 18061823 Progenitors 9 classic founders 9 1 Modern Liberalism social democracy Hobbes Locke Mill Maciavelli Smith middle Nietzsche 2 Classic Liberalism Modem liberalism American Liberal social democracy Keynesian economics choice more government Classic Liberalism American conservative responsibility over choice less government Good Society greatest amount of human happiness Free choice happiness Minvoluntary in iction of pain on another can not be part of ee choice J S Mill s good society good life marketplace of lifestyles maximum personal choice 9 increase in individual happiness greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people utility lNTA IOMAR03 Bloom freedom requires ethics theoryphilosophy of ethics inculcation of youth stable order of freedom reasonexercise of reason American freedom today moral relativism Moral Nihilism no standard for right or wrong free choice America embraces moral nihilism as big as western embrace of Christianity classic thought moral nihilist thought modern thought life is sacred shi to importance on individual choice suicide is not acceptable persona1 choice of death is more sacred than life quotpop culture is self centeredM even if what individual feels is nonre ective Fredrick Nietzsche radical diminution of the role of reason 18441900 reason is instrumental can teach how to do not what to do reason can t tell you how to live your life So where does it come from how to life your life u1timately from The Will free choice good and bad arise from The Will out of nothing Ubermensche Superman the creators of primary values people that give meaning to life they create value for people s lives many ubermensche have been mass murderers mankind is falling into an abyss of moral relevance mankind needs a new ubermensche to change the outcome American Nihilism with a happy ending Bloom we need a happy ending lNI A 12MAR03 MARXISM St Simon scienti c rational explanation of society Jacobean socialism French socialism I urn a Flick Danto v French Socialism British Political economy German Idealism Marx Grand Theory St Simon Locke Smith Hegel Wage Labor Capitol pamphlet ti working class of Germany France and Britain Marxist History a chronicle of human exploitation Capitalist Exploitation goods produced for use goods produced for exchange selling commodity exchange facilitated through monetary system money federal reserve capitalism generalized commodity production feudalism production for consumption living labor labor provided by people in the process of production dead labor labor produced by tools which were at some point produced through living labor value of labor power as a commodity cost of labor amount of labor required to produce given commodigz Mwage lt labor power value living labor dead labor surplus value value of commodity variable capital constant capital INTA 14MAR03 MARXISM scienti c socialism the inevitable condition of human existence Heraclitus idea that nothing endures but change 6th century BC a man can not step into the same river twice for he is not the same man and it is not the same river understanding the dynamic key to everything Hegel human condition human mind 17701831 human self awareness all human being are equal human beings were striving towards the ends of equality and freedom and equality progressive realization of human selfawareness dominant awareness of human beings liberal democracy the dialectical model of selfawareness in any time period there is a set of ideas thesis people begin to understand the errors in the system and become disillusioned and wish to do something antithesis a merging takes place where the thesis and the antithesis clash synthesis combination of parts of the thesis and antithesis of civilization thesis Greek city statepolis 9 antithesis Christianity 9 synthesis modern thought liberal democracy Marxist Theory Development of relations of class struggle understanding the class The forces of production 9 production 9 9 struggle dominant ideas Of any period linked to Class struggle types of social change qualitative and quantitative petty commodity production standard of hiring will be reduced to a bare biological living standard enough to stay alive thought the forces of capitalist production ammiseration of working class courtesy of competition Marxist theory of revolution can be sued to explain the social revolutions of our time that brought about the end of socialism in Russia the means of the production and the forces of production were no longer synchronic and the system collapsed INT A 17MAR03 Marxist Theory of Production change in forces in production changes in relations of production qualitative and quantitative changes can occur when forces of production change there is a contradiction between the new forces and old relations we have the technology to end scarcity and free ourselves from toil new forces but we can not achieve this under a system of capitalistic private ownership Marxist Theog of Alienation human essence set of intrinsic human characteristics man as man post Darwin human essence species being humans are conscience willful creatures who take selfdirected activities to change societyreshape relationships of society reshape themselves and improve human kind production through voluntary selfdirected activity the worker becomes an adjunct to the machines in capitalism work is toil and workers hate toil as an instrument of capitalism labor ought to be seldirected activity human alienation increases under capitalism man should be selfdirected and creative not an adjunct to a machine by attributing history to god he is not taking credit for his own abilities false conscience because of alienation under capitalism people will not clearly see the truth of the human situation Mthe true realization of human essence the selfdirected creative process that is satisfying to the individual and Marxism INT A 21MAR03 The Proletariat Revolution strati cation of society rich capitalist poor proletariat proletariat will revolt because of the contradiction between social process of means of production and the forces and relations of production crisis of overproduction unemployment capitalist economy bust cycle economical collapse and proletariat rise from the ruins class in itself becomes a class for itself class in itself a class de ned by the relations of production for a particular part of the history of exploitation of the workers class for itself the realization of class conscience moves to destroy the state that exploits the workers and to create a new state to serve the interests of the proletariat why did Marxist social realizations not occur why did the proletariat revolt not occur Lenin s Solution to Marxism where does revolutionary class conscience from the educated class something between workers and capitalists the proletariat is not the catalyst of social change the educated class will teach the workers to build towards revolutionary crisisshowdown in which the proletariat will seize power How will this occur war creates the opportunity for the proletariat to take down capitalism the capitalist state will lose control of the ability to rule and thus the means and forces of production if the proletariat is ready for this moment when the capitalist is vulnerable then they will seize power and create the proletariat state capitalism produces war war is brought upon humanity because of a nations search for new markets imperialism the colonialization of the 3rd world by the leading world powers Burn a Flick Dr Chivagol The revolution Germany gives Lenin funds to return to Russia and start a revolution 1917 revolutionary part must have military discipline must be able to function in secret very repressive conditions of a society out to destroy them iron discipline this lends to armies of revolution between the capitalist forces and the revolutionary forces of the proletariat if everything is planned correctly then the proletariat will be successful democratic centralism was the method used to control the party democratic broad directives of party are designed to be decided through a democratic process by the workers centralism leaders issue orders and directives of the party that are carries out in a central fashion centralized power of the party INTA 24MAR03 The Bolshevik Revolution after the czar was overthrown a democratic market system was established Feb1917 in November of 1917 the Bolshevik revolution makes Russia into a socialist nation the interim democratic government is overthrown Lenin believes a utopian socialism to be the future of humanity State and Revolution was written before the November revolution but not published until after French working class government Paris Commune of 1871 established during the F ranco Prussian wars 1866 until Prussia marched on Paris and eliminated the commune government Russia in 1905 post the J apan Russia Wars sees the establishment of a communist state for a short time Organization Soviet assemblies of factory councils center of state power Higher government of cials elected by lower o icers Complete democracy for of by the proletariat Absolute dictatorship over the old bourgeois and capitalist Russian social democratic labor party RSDLP Bolshevik s m139nority communist group Menshevik s post 1917 Bolshevik s became the ruling communist party Use the Power of Government construct a society based on the interests of the proletariat has to be a dictatorship opposition of the communist party would be dwelt with swiftly and ercely no mercy within the proletariat state exists a complete democratic system among the working class of capitalism Instruments of the State secret police destroy the supporters of the old bourgeois regime Red Army Proletariat Army terror tactics killing murder genocide tyranny Early Days of Revolution lots of struggle between workers and the capitalist for the workers to success ruthlessness of opposition of communism was essential once old capitalist class is destroyed the class struggle ceases elimination of classes what emerges is classless society no longer an existing state social struggle 9 communism end of history no more class struggle no more scarcity INT A 26MAR03 Lenin s syllogism Capitalism 9 monopoly 9 war 9 revolution 9 socialism machines impart less value on products thus pro t falls and economy declines revolution and war are a result of the busting economy resulting from the automation of the capitalist economy advanced capitalist counties can not will not have proletariat revolutions because the workers have adapted a bourgeois mindset they are paid off by the hour eois revolution must occur in the nonadvanced capitalist nations 3 world and colonies trusts coordination between banks and producers to control a particular industry market pricingproduction decisions monopolies set prices higher and raising pro ts surp1us monopoly capital when most industries are monopolized out1et for pro table investment colonization John Hobson developed colonization economic theory 185 81940 Imperialism colonization circa 1902 1916 Imperialism is the highest form of capitalism Lenin monopoly capitalism lead to war 9 colonies collide and countries ght over control of their colonial possessions the ability to control and exploit the colonial markets Lenin s theory revolution will occur in the colonies of the capitalist state world revolution will not occur in advanced capitalist nations Lenin war is the key to the success of the proletariat and the overthrow of the bourgeois capitalist INTA 28MAR03 Hobbes systematic approach and rebirth of natural law legal claim asserted by the state sovereign state protects us form chaos and anarchy the idea of a social compact between the sovereign and the people govemment by the consent of the governed Logs quintessential embodiment of the English Enlightenment a defense and continuation of Hobbes natural law and the consent of the governed Marx vs Lenin social revolutionary conscience and mobilization of the proletariat were spontaneous they would simply happen when the revolution was ready when the worker was ready and the time was right Marx the revolution would gain an opportunity that needed to be seized by the party Lenin substitutes the party for the proletariat revolutionary vanguard Marx was a democrat the power of the majority workers Lenin was a coercive believed in dictatorship of the proletariat for the betterment of society dictatorship was essential war is central to the revolutionary overthrow of the bourgeois Irnperialism leads to wars that unite the proletariat Lenin Lenin is more eclectic than Marx capitalists who turn in favor of the party should be brought into the party communist party split during WWII the antiwar faction became Lenin s Bolshevik s anticommunists can be democratic socialists withering away for the institutions of the coercive state jails courts police etc an essential of the revolt is no more scarcity Mills utility the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people Marx exploitation value produced by laborer through labor power gt wage wage is the minimum value for the labor power that a capitalist can pay the proletariat to produce and reproduce the labor power stay alive INTA 02APR03 CB Macpherson in uential political philosopher of Anglo thought ideas of social interest Marx dominant idea that the owners of the means of production are the group that promotes their ideasinterests Macpherson is a Marxist o Deconstructs the text of bourgeois elite Hobbes and Locke deconstructionism analyze the logical structure of an argument to show that it is mdamentally unsound and is constructed to serve the ideas of the particular group Macpherson most concerned with class purpose demonstrate that Locke s philosophy is put together to serve the interests of the property owning bourgeois capitalist Deconstruction of Locke 2 purposes of 2 Treatise o l justify the unlimited accumulation of wealth by the capitalist hire labor of others to get surplus value leading to inequality of wageincomewealth o 2 to createa theory of obligation to respect this unequal distributionof wealth must apply to everyone in society especially those at the bottom to respect the wealth at the top wants to defendprivate property and results of capitalism as acceptable and desirable achievements of these objectives requires demonstration of a fundamental condition of equality 9 so beings with a state of nature to establish desired condition of equality because all have natural freedom and act in any way they think appropriate important to demonstrate equality of material condition limitations of inequality in this state of nature 0 mixing of One s own labor power 0 spoilage 0 an abundance of resources from these limitation we get I justi cation for unlimited accumMation I theory of obligation spoilage capital is invented to facilitate exchanges but makes possible unlimited accumulation of wealth purchase of labor of others who mix their labor with something creating property not for themselves but for the buyer of their labor power solution critical availability of economic opportunities capitalist society creates many opportunities for employment if you accept something you also accept the consequences of that thing INTA 04APR03 Marx Gemeinschaft form of social organization where people relate to one another on basis ofother persons needs high degree of empathy mutual support 9 precapitalistfeudalist ociety moral society esellschaft people relate to others on instrumental basis enter into relations because help achieves their objectives impersonal 9 capitalist society Emanuel Kant moral behavior and normal behavior both necessary moral behavior in a higher sphere Macpherson uses distinction to attack fundamental premise of Locke s 2quot 1 Treatise the essence of humanity is selfdirection decide for yourself your course of action freedom starting point abSence of controlrestrictions or restraint by others Macpherson nds this premise to be incorrect humans are fundamentally social animals always members of a moral community class is important as a community people receive satisfaction from being a member of a community Locke people are proprietors of their own responsibilitiescapabilities give up their labor power for something else Macpherson possessive individualism people have their capabilities because of help form others so inevitable result is market society 9 unequal accumulation of wealth o Leads to amorality absence of sense of justice or knowledge of rightwrong 9 replaced by selfinterest 0 Consequences 9 callousness of human suffering extreme Gsellschait 0 Society becomes a jungle of selfinterest and bonds of moral solidarity dissolve Macpherson s idea of democracy The Real World Democracy democracy has two valid meandingstraditions 1 original rule in the interest of the people the many the poor goal of the many became to seize the wealth of the few 9 lead to a tyranny serving the interests of the poor tyrannical democracy 2 focuses on how decisions are made 9 the many have ways of actually making decisions Allows masses to participate in the process of democracy bourgeois democracy this book 1 gave reasons why communist countries could claim to be democratic 2 provided a critique of capitalist democracy INTA 07APRO3 Renaissance Machiavelli Moore Locke k c Smith J 8 Mill E Burke de Tocqueville Marx Keyies X k Moder11 American liberalism classic liberalism a S conservativism utopian anticapitalist tradition Edmond Burke one of the founders of conservative political thinking enlightenment 17291797 practicing politician active in political debates supported American rebellion critical of English rule in India British policy in Ireland French revolution inspired him to comment not a systematic political philosopher skeptical of the role of reason fearful of rationalistic ideological being used by a state to expand its power would lead to freedom suffering supported bene t of state power is improvement of human condition but in fact Burke sees a decrease in human condition and eedom argument of complexity human society is complex beyond comprehension 4 o 0 factors have interest which produces reason but also passions and interests W L and imagination and habits motivate ones behavior A A at 154 c m Burke supports conservative change rather than radical change of institutions w all 6 3 0 any social institution serves multiple purposes and weight of each purpose shifts over time from person to person people differ greatly in their capabilities luck interests 9 Natural differences in rank and status state power restricts this natural complexity of society political reasoning is not like strict logical reasoning 9 involves the sensible combination of opposites harmonious balance inVolve determining not what is good and bad but best way to balance good and bad more subtle than formal logic abilities limited by intellect onclusion any human attempts to use logic to examine society will be profoundly awed in cheir conclusions Law of Unintended Consequences gives you at best a gross simpli cation of human society results of destruction of old society will be profoundly different than what the architects of that destruction intended


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