New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Art & Arch in Italy

by: Burdette Rempel IV

Intro to Art & Arch in Italy ARCH 4127

Burdette Rempel IV

GPA 3.92


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Architecture

This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Burdette Rempel IV on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 4127 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/233970/arch-4127-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Architecture at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.

Similar to ARCH 4127 at


Reviews for Intro to Art & Arch in Italy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/02/15
COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology Pr Doug Allen CONSTITUTION OF THE EARLY REPUBLIC T his is assembled from a variety of sources including copyrighted material The bulk is from ChristopherMackey Associate Professor of Classics at the University ofA rerta I have added to this It is available for our use under the Fair Use provision ofthe US Copyright laws It may not be copiedfor distribution beyond individual use Thefollowing outline is not meant to be exhaustive ofRoman institutions Rather it is to give a briefoverlook at some of the more important o ices Such an understanding even in outline form will help digest the vast amount of material presented to us in the historical literature Although the Roman republic looks today like an unnecessarily complex and contradictory set of institutions there is at its core the seed of an idea that will emerge into the modern world absolute power corrupts so a balance between competing interests must be struck Thus the complexity is really an attempt to prevent too much power being held by one man One example can serve to underscore this point the institution of the Tribune of the Plebs people created by the Senate after much agitation and general strikes by the plebian order was granted veto power over the actions of the magistrates yet only matters put forth by a magistrate could be taken up in the popular assemblies Pomerium The first thing that must be discussed in any survey of the Roman constitution is a fundamental division of the world signi ed by the pomerium This distinction was valid throughout the Republic even long after it had ceased to make any sense The pomerium was the sacred boundary of the city represented by a furrow ploughed around the city in a religious ceremony supposedly by Romulus The ceremony derived from the Etruscans and was used as part of the foundation of all Roman colonies The area behind the pomerium was called quothomequot domus in Latin and everything outside of the pomerium was referred to as militia in Latin that is the quotarea of military servicequot Crossing the boundary between the two areas necessitated that a magistrate take special auspices to determine the will of the gods This conception clearly derives from a time when the military threat began immediately outside the gates of the city The early Roman constitution was pervaded with the distinction between the civil activities of the domus and the military sphere of militia A fundamental aspect of the distinction between domus and militia is that the full power of life and death of the holder of imperium see below was invalid within the pomerium This was signified by the fact that within the city magistrates removed the axe from the fasces bundle of rods that symbolized their imperium This protection against capital punishment was thought by the Romans to have derived from a law the lex Horatia Valeria passed in the first year of the Republic This law guaranteed that capital punishment could only be carried out when authorized by the centuriate assembly Because the law was passed by consuls with the same names as others who passed similar laws in 444 and 300 it is often argued that the first two laws are simply doublets made up on the basis of the later law Whatever the case of the specific statute it COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology is clear that the restriction on capital punishment within the pomerium goes back to the beginning of the Republic The right against execution and ogging was based on a right to appeal to the People called quotprovocatioquot Magistrates The magistrates set up at the beginning of the Republic were few in number and their functions fairly simple but the basic principles governing their actions became fundamental for all magistracies set up later Characteristic of Roman magistrates are Collegiality With the exception of the dictator not a normal magistracy Roman magistrates always came in boards called colleges this simply means quotboard of colleaguesquot in Latin All members of the college had equal powers In the event of con ict between equals the negative wish prevailed that is a colleague39s opposition was sufficient to thwart action on the part of another member of the college Early magistracies seem always to have come in even numbers Popular Election Roman magistrates were always elected by the Roman People in their various assemblies Of course these assemblies were not democratic in our sense of the word but nonetheless a magistrate39s power always derived from the People Annual Term of Of ce Apart from the 18month term of the anomalous censors Roman magistrates normally held office for only one year While in office they were not subject to legal prosecution but the restriction of office to only one year meant they were soon accountable for their actions By the fourth century this restriction was found to be inconvenient and the principle of extending the term of office quotprorogationquot was instituted to allow magistrates to continue in office for more than one year This extension could only be implemented outside the pomerium and the magistrate lost his imperium if he crossed the pomerium No one ever had his term of office prorogued within the pomerium Prohibition of Direct Election from one Of ce to Another Although it was not apparently a fixed rule at first the Romans soon developed the idea that a magistrate should not be elected to another office while already holding another one The reason for this is obvious given the immunity of the magistrate from prosecution Any magistrate who could secure election directly from one office to another would be theoretically immune from any criminal prosecution Imperium The power to command that the chief magistrates of the Roman state inherited from the kings was called in Latin imperium The etymological origin of the word is not clear but the verb derived from it means quotto commandquot which presumably re ects the understood sense of imperium The holding of imperium was symbolized by the magistrates being preceded by attendants lictors who carried the fasces that is bundles of rods tied around an axe The axe symbolized the power of execution and the rods the power of ogging These powers COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology represented the magistrate39s right to enforce his will through corporal and capital punishment As we have seen the exercise of imperium to execute citizens was prohibited within the pomerium according to the literary tradition since the foundation of the Republic This power then symbolized the ability of a magistrate possessing it to command armies outside the pomerium The fasces derived from Etruria as did the special seat of the magistrate with imperium the sella curulis and his purplestriped toga Consuls The chief magistrates of the Roman Republic were the two consuls The consuls served as the eponymous magistrates that is the Roman year was named after the consuls holding office in it quotin the consulship of SoandSo and SoandSoquot The fasti record the list of consuls going back to the start of the Republic The literary tradition describes the establishment of the two consuls as one of the major acts in the immediate aftermath of the expulsion of the last king This act is sometimes denied by modern scholars on a priori grounds In particular it is thought that the early Republic could not have afforded to divide its power in this way Also some other Italian communities are attested with a single magistrate But this argument is by no means conclusive and if it is true that the literary tradition and the fasti are false then there is literally no evidence for early Roman history and no reason to believe any given suggested alternative Evidence indicates that in the beginning the consuls were called praetors The term praetor was later applied to a junior colleague of the consuls a position first instituted in 367 At that time the older term for the eponymous magistrates was restricted to the junior position and the older office called consul Praetor seems to be derived from a Latin word meaning quotone who goes in frontquot and presumably refers to the command of armies though later usage would indicate that it means quotone who recites a formula to be repeated by otherquot quotConsulquot is clearly related to the verb meaning to quotconsultquot but it is not clear why such a title was given to the chief magistrate The consuls had the power to raise and command armies While their power of execution was restricted within the pomerium they had until the second century the unlimited right to execute citizens in the area called militia and they always had the right to execute foreigners at will In the historical period there is preserved in an archaic formula a designation of the consul as iudex quotjudgequot in Latin If this derives from any earlier judicial activity on the part of the consuls we have no evidence of what this would have been Consuls had the power to summon the Roman People to assemblies to preside over elections and to convene the senate Consuls also possessed the right to determine the will of the gods through taking the auspices examining the ight of birds When a consul went on campaign he made a vow to Jupiter Optimus Maximus the chief god of the state religion and if successful he could enter the city in triumph a formal religious ceremony of victory Dictator The term quotdictatorquot has negative connotations in English but in origin it is a perfectly respectable element of the Roman state In times of crisis one consul would appoint a dictator thus he is an exception to the rule that magistrates had to be elected by the People though it COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology seems his power had to be con rmed with a lex curiata The normal magistrates continued in of ce but the dictator had a form of imperium superior to that of the consuls and one consul could be chosen by his colleague to be dictator Dictators normally held of ce for only six months The dictator appointed a junior assistant called the magister equitum master of the horse or cavalrymen and the original title of the dictator was magister populz39 master of the populus Here populus seems to have been used in its original sense of quotarmyquot see etymology of populus At a later date dictators were appointed to carry out necessary tasks like elections when the consuls were off ghting far from Rome The name of the rst dictator is known but the exact time of his appoint seemingly was not about ten years after the establishment of the Republic Presumably the dictators were not recorded in the fasti as scrupulously as the consuls The fact that the rst dictator belonged to one of the gentes or Gens the families claiming descent form the founders prominent only in the early Republic suggests that this attribution was not a later ction Censors The holding of the census that is the distribution of the citizenry into ve classes was originally the responsibility of the consuls but in the fth century the of ce of censor was establish to take over this duty Censors were rst elected in either 443 or 435 this is one of the instances of confusion in the fasti Two censors were elected every ve years for an 18month term Thus the census was taken in ve year increments rather than the ten that we use Eventually they took on other tasks They let out state contracts and by the late fourth century were entrusted with the task of reviewing the list of senators first known is 318 BCE This review had a moral aspect they could expel from the senate members they considered immoral which gives the word its modern sense Quaestors The consuls each had an assistant called a quaestor who did not hold imperium It seems that the quaestors were originally appointed by the consul but began to be elected in 447BCE Two more are said to have been added in 421 and certainly the number did expand greatly until there were 20 in the last century BCE Their original power is not clear but eventually they came to be nancial magistrates some operating independently two controlled the treasury in Rome but most being attached to a magistrate with imperium whose trusted assistant they were supposed to be According to the Roman conception the quaestor was supposed to be like a son to the magistrate to whom he was assigned and the position thus served as a sort of initiation into the of ceholding class Military Tribunes with Consular Power Between 444 BCE and 367 BCE the Roman tradition asserts that the consuls were replaced by colleges of magistrates called military tribunes with consular power Between COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology 444 and 427 two consuls alternate with three such tribunes 426 and 406 the consulship alternates with three or four tribunes 405 and 367 boards of six tribunes hold office with only one year of consuls A military tribune was a subordinate commander in the Roman army and for some reason in the early Republic it was often decided on an irregular basis to replace the consuls with colleges of three four or six military tribunes invested with the powers of consuls The ancient tradition has two explanations The purpose is assumed to allow plebeians to hold the chief magistracy in the state while maintaining the exclusive patrician claim to the consulship This can hardly be so as only two plebeian names appear among these tribunes before 400 Increased military needs While it is not apparent that the larger number of tribunes was used to command an expanded number of military contingents the increase in officials may have something to do with the expanding role of the public administration in the later fifth century BCE e g the expansion in quaestors establishment of censors and of the plebeian aediles Whatever the motivation for replacing the consuls with tribunes the tribunes were clearly distinct from them They did not have full imperium and did not have the right to celebrate a triumph Nor were they allowed as initiates into the Colleges of Priests This was reserved for the senatorial class The office ceased to be used after 367 when a general reform of the Roman magistracies was implemented But the term was retained for use in the popular assemblies Livy tells us that the Tribune of the Plebs was granted the power of veto over Senatorial decrees See below and Outline of History to the Late Republic in the course folder Assemblies The Roman People had technical control of a number of important spheres of public policy and their theoretical powers suggest a strong role in the administration The assemblies had the following responsibilities 1 Elected magistrates 2 Passed laws called leges singular lex and named after the proposing magistrate 3 Decided on alleged violations of criminal law 4 Decided on declarations of war Yet a number of peculiarities of the Roman assemblies greatly restricted popular interference in public policy 0 Lack of power of initiative A Roman assembly could only meet when summoned by a magistrate with the right to do so The People could not meet on their own initiative COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology Lack of power of deliberation or modi cation The People could vote only on a proposal put to them by a magistrate and could only vote for or against They could in no way adopt any measure other than what had been put to them by the summoning magistrate Voting by unit While every vote did have one vote these votes did not have equal weight because they were not counted individually Instead the voters were assigned to different units in different assemblies and the majority of votes in each unit decided that unit s vote and all the votes of the individual units had equal weight In the centuriate assembly the units of the wealthy contained fewer voters than those of the less af uent and in the tribal assembly the rural tribes contained fewer voters than the urban tribes Curiate Assembly This was a holdover from the period 0 kings and is an older assembly based on the curiae that were replaced by the Servian tribes It is typical of the Romans that they maintained the assembly long after it had ceased to mean anything The curiae were each represented by one lictor and the thirty of them ratified the elections previously held in the centuriate assembly Centuriate Assembly This was the main assembly of the early Republic It elected magistrates with imperium decided whether the Roman people should go to war and judged capital cases Originally it was the Roman army drawn up outside the city it could not meet within the pomerium It was organized by centuries which were originally military units of 100 men but in the form in which we first meet it in the early Republic it was no longer organized by any military considerations and had been considerably modified from whatever form it had had when it actually was composed of military units It consisted of 1 93 centuries or voting units 170 were distributed unequally among the five Servian census classes that is of those who property was rated between 100000 and 11000 asses an as being a small coin Of the centuries assigned to each class half were given to those of the age of full military service 1745 and half to older normally assigned only to garrison duty 4660 Thus the votes of the older many outweighed those of the younger All those with property rated below the minimum figure the majority of the population were grouped into a single century The people who did not meet the lowest qualification for the fifth census and voted in this single century were called the proletarii in Latin the term signifying that the served by the state by providing children proles rather than by serving in the military In addition 18 centuries were given to men serving in the cavalry Since owning a horse was an expensive proposition these cavalrymen were presumably young men who would otherwise belong to the first census class The five remaining classes were given over to various professional services in the army like carpenters and horn players on what basis they were chosen for this honor is not known COA 4127 Art and Architecture in Italy College of Architecture Georgia Institute of Technology Here is a table showing the distribution of the votes in the ve classes for the period up 242 when a slight modi cation was made in the number of centuries assigned to these classes Census Class Property Quali cationi Centuries Total lJuniors Seniors 1 1 More than 100000 1 40 391 40 W 1 II More than 75000 10 i 10 20 l 111 More than 50000 10 K 10 20 391 IV More than 25000 10 10 20 l V At least 11000 15 15 l 30 lSupernumerary lCavalry 18 lProfessionals 4 13roletarii 1 lGrand Total 193 We can easily appreciate that this distribution not only gave a disproportionate vote to those who belonged to the ve classes but in fact if the rst class and the cavalrymen who were basically a sub group of the rst class voted unanimously they alone formed a majority 98 votes out of 193 As usual the working man had one representative Tribal Assembly The tribal assembly elected magistrates without imperium and voted on noncapital trials ie those involving a ne It was modeled on the voting procedure of the assembly of the Plebs the voting units were the geographical tribes and was of limited importance compared to the centuriate assembly or the assembly of the Plebs Senate Under the Republic the senate never had any legal power but eventually came to have great moral authority and it took a powerful man to ignore its wishes The origin of the institution and its powers under the early Republic are not clear The word senate comes from the Latin word for quotold manquot seneX and hence the senate was in origin a council of elders Presumably it was the council of the kings who were able to appoint whomever they wished to it Under the early Republic the consuls appointed men to the senate periodically reviewing the lists of those eligible Normally eXmagistrates were admitted to the senate though it was possible for others to be appointed Eventually the senate came to be conceived of as the assembly of eX magistrates and thus provided a pool of experience for the present magistrates to draw upon By 318 the censors drew up the list of senators see above on censors


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.