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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laney Strosin on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HPS 1040 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Michele Kliem in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/233975/hps-1040-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Health Sciences at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
anage Stress Chapter 6 Lecture Outline Part I Defining Stress Physical signs Part II Nervous System Somatic Autonomic Endocrine Part III Stress amp Disease Immune system Cardiovascular system Memory Personality Part IV Sleep Basics Sleep cycle Insomnia Part V Stress Management Part Defining Stress I m stressed out I What is stress i Stressor situations that trigger physical amp emotional reactions i Stress response reactions to the stressor I What is causing our stress S VMPTUMS BF STRESS Hairless Hat and ushedfaaef HeadacheEa mig rain 2 Hingiiijg in tlje ea rs Dry mnuth I Grinding teeth Neqk il iuulda rh gljrtan Falpiiatians quot 3 Dining I Hearthum 39 1 Faml craving39s a Incr gise perspiration Ii iwlndigastiun E Skin rashesquot 39 I 3 guys inf appetite i Upvsle Emmadifngaiiigea39it Clamps f39 gquot a quot Backache iquot quot DiarrhuEa 39i 5 1 Handgfmigimwty u iTap39Rj Singers A 5 i Increas uri ri inna d famtio n Na il biting E39i n8 quott EiI M uscle t39 itchi ng I I Shky rtigl39n liegs e oi Saggi rig skin V39n I iquot Tapping feet f i I 5 Cold ind i39eaigyfae t Stress can be good amp bad I Eustress l Distress Tl Helpful in small doses Cl Fight or flight Tl Motivates us 1 Adversarial it Keeps us alert Cl Alienate people Cl Burnout General Adaptation Syndrome A nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it Universal and predictable Applicable to any sort of stress good and bad Attending a party Failing a test Nonspecific stress response Both situations result in some degree of wear and tear in the body Part II Nervous System Stress Response Nervous System THE HEREMS SYSTEM C entral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System f 39 J H quot 0 n a spmal I rd f H Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system Ff rquot quot5quot w39ohmtaiy mus ole s 3 If quot Sympathetic nervous system Parasympa letic nervous system hesitate blood ow blood to tissues from got Central Nervous System The Stress Center Hypothalamus gA Dependent on perception of external events can shape physiological response Somatic Nervous System I Consists of neurons that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles I Under voluntary control Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic Division I In control when you are relaxed I Aids in digesting food storing energy elimination I Keeps body energy use as low as possible I Uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division Fight or Flight l Activated during arousal or emergency s ua ons Severe pain anger or fear I Uses the chemicals norepinephrine epinephrine amp cortisol Nutrients are released from energy stores Activates sweat glands blood vessel muscles Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System Paramnpa m c Stimulates 39 quotw olsali w Ganglion Q medulla ohlongata 5 oars F 7 hearth eat 39l39agus 39 n enre C onslricts 1 bronc hi l Stim ulat es peristalsis an d a ecreti on Stimulates el ease of bile C ontracts Mad d er I Dilates p upil nhihits fl ou oi saliva Accelerates heartbeat Dilat e3 bronchi In hi hits peristalsis r and secretion Conversion of glyc o 9 en t n gl in us e Secretion of adrenalin e an d noradrenalin e Endocrine System I A system of glands tissues cells that help control body functions by releasing hormones into bloodstream I Helps body prepare to respond to a stressor Endocrine System I Regulated by the hypothalamus amp pituitary glands in the brain I Adrenal glands on the kidneys m Adrenal medulla I Secretes epinepherine amp norepinepherine I Actions blood vessels 3 Adrenal cortex I Secretes cortisol I Actions energy Stress Hormones Conbol I Two primary functions during stress 1 First mobilizes energy I Glycogen 9 Glucose Second promotes eating I Help protect body from stress 1 l inflammation counteracts allergic reactions I Involved in adapting to environmental change Stress Hormones Epinephrine I Increases heart rate blood pressure I Activates sweat glands blood vessels muscles I Helps deliver oxygen amp nutrients to essential organs Stress Response I Somatic nervous system Voluntary respond to sensory information I Autonomic nervous system Sympathetic system emergency branch I Arteries relax to deliver more blood oxygen to muscles l Reduces blood flow to skin kidneys digestive tract Parasympathetic system I Acetylcholine is released calming effect I Regulates body function I Endocrine system Maintains body s internal functioning by releasing stress hormones I Epinephrine adrenaline cortisol Part III Stress amp Disease Health Problems Linked to Stress I Cardiovascular disease I Colds infections I Asthma allergies Cancer Psychological problems Digestive problems Headaches migraines Insomnia fatigue Injuries Endocrine effects pregnancy complications Acute Stress Shortterm stresses I Cortisol amp epinephrine Facilitate movement of immune cells from bloodstream to spleen I T immune system activity Chronic Stress Longterm stresses ComnaryArtery I with a tarceclarosis gWeakened muscles Suppress immune system I Epinephrine T blood pressure amp heart rate I T cortisol and epinephrine Hypertension obesity atherosclerosis Comnary Artery I l Chronic Stress Effects Telomeres Memory I Low levels of stress improve memory I High levels of stress impair learning amp memory l l Associated with shrinkage of the higgocamgus Stressful Behavior I Type A Competitive aggressive timedriven impatient I Type B Methodical unhurried easygoing I Hostility Combination of anger aggression cynicism I Type A and heart disease Excessive competitiveness timeurgency amp hostility Summary I Somatic nervous system voluntary sensory I Autonomic nervous system automatic functions i Parasympathetic system at rest restore i Sympathetic system emergency branch I Stress Response ll Hypothalamus perceives stressor 9 pituitary gland 9 adrenal gland is Chemicals I Cortisol energy hunger I Epinephrine adrenaline T heart rate T blood pressure i Other systems affected immune cardiovascular i Negative effects occur with over exposure to cortisolepinephrine Part IV Sleep Facts about Sleep Sleep Is Essential to Life amp Health College Students I 2001 Survey results 11 had good sleep quality 73 had occasional sleep problems I Most students need 8 hrs f Deep sleep occurs early in the night f Dream sleep occurs late in night f Both required for learning I Allnighters interfere with your ability to learn new info Sleep Is Essential to Life amp Health N College Students I Sleeping pills i OTC work 23 nights I Become a good sleeper I Good sleep habits can improve sleep patterns fiyourhea h fiyour grades Complicated Interrelationships that Connect Sleep and Health Maintain healthy weight Injury amp infection Inflammation 80 different sleep disorders sleep apnea narcolepsy and insomnia Associated with other diseases and conditions high blood pressure Parkinson39s disease depression Sleep Cycle l 39 I j Stages of sleep for a normal person l Awake 39 Light sleep Deep sleep mun lmp Sleep Cycle 113 Sleep L th in 455 I 4555 0 524 u 3215 1 2025 iLI 39 l Heap Bmatl nlmg Illnap when Very dang Elapld aya El l pattern EM biw I l manmm nctl vlij IlaI39m heart Into Bralul gin Eh hmhl HiI39IIII39lWEVHI dawn slam am III in gonnaIt gt n npac up and SIM delta Umm 39 Eli39ilimill39liji nthHy Erdn Gasman mulch badly twitching tauprawn 7 mill l im i was FIEMEM daltl Internal SleepWake System I Wakefulness Acetylcholine histamine norepinephrine serotonin dopamine hypocretin I Wake 9 Sleep ll T adenosine 9 T GABA I Regulated by circadian rhythm light Mhnmln Hypmm n SleepWake System is Disrupted During Stress l Stress hormoneschemicals promote Alertness and ward off sleep Sleep disruption 9 fatigue memory loss Sleep Deprivation That Yawn is the First Sign I Reaction time slows I Microsleep This is your brain This is your brain without sleep Wu et al 1991 Sleep Deprivation Interferes with Concentration amp Cognitive Performance Sleep deprived Rested Purpose of Sleep Why Do We Sleep Is it to refresh the body Is it to refresh the mind Sleeping to Refresh the Brain I Review information I Stock up on fuel I Master skills Memory ConsolidationWhie You Are Sleeping I 1St phase of sleep 1 Last awake experiences I Recent research has shown 1 Firing patterns during awake experience are replayed in hippocampus amp cortex during SWS Ji ampWilson Nature Neurosci 10 100 2007 Insomnia What Causes Insomnia I Transient or intermittent 1 Stress 7 Environmental noise Extreme temperatures 7 Change in environment 1 Jet lag 7 Medication side effects Treatment 1 Treat underlying psychological problem 2 Identify behaviors that worsen insomnia 3 Relaxation therapy How to get a good night s sleep Part V Stress Management Stress Manaqement Techniques I Healthv Livinq l PlanninqlCoqnitive Social support l Time management a Communication l Cognitive techniques Exercise Take control be realistic Nutrition Think amp act constructively i Problemsolve f Sleep Modify expectations I Be positive Maintain your sense of humor Weed out trivia Live in the present I Be flexible Managing Stress Time Management I Prioritize schedule amp carry out your activities I Perform a Time Audit 1 Very important the type of task that you should be doing all the time a Not particularly important something that may need done but doesn t add significant value and should be minimized as much as possible a Worthless Activities that you shouldn t be doing at all Managing Stress Time Management I Ask yourself EiCan you modify the order of tasks or your schedule to make better use of your time iiAre there distractions you can avoid iiCan you stop lowvalue activities iiCan you shift to more highvalue activities Managing Stress ExercisePhysical Activity I Maintains healthy body and mind I Taking long walks can i anxiety and blood pressure I If you don t physically exert yourself after experiencing stress f You are not completing the energy cycle 7 Need to expend energy that you built up to achieve homeostasis Avoid Drug Abuse Part I Part II Part III Part IV Part V Part VI Lecture Outline Addiction Drug Effects Reward Pathway Ecstasy Marijuana amp Adderall Treatment Caffeine Case Study Part Addiction Development of Addiction No single cause Characteristics of an individual Environment where you live How does it begin When you think something will bring you pleasure Behavior become central focus Drug Abuse substance abuse Defined as involving one or more of the following Recurrent drug use lnterferes with responsibilities at work school home Physically hazardous Legal problems Social and interpersonal problems Use can be constant or intermittent p 128129 Drug Dependence substance dependence 1 Tolerance T amounts of a substance are required to produce the desired effect 2 Withdrawal Physical amp cognitive symptoms Nausea vomiting tremors alcohol opioids Fatigue irritability stimulants T amount of substance or over a longer period of time than was originally intended Need to i intake of substance T amount of time using obtaining or recovering from effects i time spent on social work school because of substance use Continued substance use despite recognizing that it is a psychological or physical problem 9 N99 Tolerance or withdrawal 2 physically dependence Anxiety or irritability withdrawal psychological dependence What s your risk p 136 p 129130 Dependence Psychological dependence Emotional attachment to drug Physical dependence Body requires drug to function normally Part II Drug Effects Psychoac ve Chemical that alters brain function resulting in temporary changes in perception mood consciousness or behavior Classification Depressants Sedatives lnhalants Stimulants Hallucinogens Alcohol Pain killers Ecstasy Amphetamines Nicotine Cocaine Caffeine 7 i m mmwm Slmmmaycsamomr Slilllll TSl h Drug Factors Pharmacological properties Effects on body chemistry behavior psychology Doseresponse function Relationship between dose of drug taken type amp intensity of effect Timeaction function Relationship between time drug was taken amp intensity of effect Drug use history Route of administration User Factors Body mass Health Genetic Drugdrug interactions Pregnancy Expectations placebo effect Social Factors Setting Physical and social environment Part III The Reward Pathway Cocaine Reward Pathway Planning prefrontal Judgement cortex nucleus Reward accumbens Local Injections of Cocaine mea za u mn uquot Cacame nding Siteg Cocaine r K 1 M V f 0amp9 MAX7 U U N 7 ap3min tmnzspurtcr hind nning nun ally wwwnidanihgov Your Brain on Cocaine on cocaine L V Effects of Cocaine Euphoria 520 minutes 9 irritability anxiety or depression Use paranoia andor aggressiveness Sudden death excessive CNS stimulation Convulsions respiratory collapse irregular heartbeat high blood pressure blood clots heart attack stroke Withdrawal depression agitation fatigue Reward Pathway Part III Ecstasy Marijuana Adderall Ecstasy Ecstasy Derivative of amphetamine Synthesized Time of peak effect FEAR Ecstasy Affects Serotonin Functions Ecstasy Functions regulation of mood heartrate sleep appetite amp other things Ecstasy releases serotonin dopamine amp norepinephrine Cortex Clouded t I Jawclenching Effects after Ecsta gy is Game Nonn aw During Ecstasy After Ecstasy piavated mon depressionlike feelings irritablilty Serotonin Present in Cerebral Cortex Neurons Control 2 weeks after Ecstasy 7 years after Ecstasy Long Term Effects of Ecstasy Animal Studies Suggest Neurotoxicity Brain chemistry changes l serotonin amp metabolites levels Brain structure change degeneration of nerve terminals Marijuana Marijuana Acts on the Cannabinoid System H0 CH24CH3 H3O CH3 The Molecular Structure of THC deltaStetrahydrocannabinul 021301 Huwsmfmama Anandamide bringer of inner bliss Localization of THC Binding Sites Effects of Marijuana Low doses Euphoria Heightened sensory experience laidback attitude Moderate doses Impaired memory Disturbed thought patterns Lapses of attention High doses Sensory distortion Anxious panicky Effects of Marijuana ll Longterm use Lungs reproductive system T heart attacks Physiologically THR Dilate blood vessels in eyes lsperm count Abnormally formed sperm Abnormal patterns of sperm movement Tolerance amp Dependence Estimated that 15 of users develop tolerance Withdrawal Anger or aggression irritability nervousness sleep problems decreased appetite or weight loss Last 12 weeks Summary rugs ef Abuse Activate the Reward Sys em Adderall Attention Deficit Disorder Symptoms Does NOT Pay close attention to details Follow instructions Often has trouble organizing activities Often avoids dislikes or doesn39t want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period such as schoolwork or homework Often loses things needed for tasks and activities Easily distracted Forgetful in daily activities The Myth of Smart Drugs Students Seek Competitive Edge by Taking Adderall Ritalin Adderall Cognitive Performance Enhancement Prescription use Side effects Final Exams Cardiac arrest Lightheaded fainting T blood pressure Headache blurred vusnon Numbness Seizure Hallucinations Tics Insomnia Loss of appetite Tolerance Astate in which an organism no longer responds to a drug A higher dose is required to achieve the same effect Withdrawal Physical amp psychological disturbance when the drug is removed Medications for Drug Addiction 0 Methadone heroin opiates o Naltrexone opiates alcohol HPS 1040 Kliem Review ExamI Wellness Chapter One Leading causes of death in US Improvement in public health and relationship to life expectancy Salutogenesis Six dimensions of wellness Health bene ts of laughter Role genes play in your overall wellness Factors that in uence wellness Use of the human genome to improve health Theoretical relationship between longevity and quality of life pW QMrbE N Behavior Modi cation Chapter One 1 De ne amp give examples of risk perception relative risk absolute risk health literacy 2 De ne amp understand the Stages of Change Model 3 Calculate relative or absolute risk from examples 4 De ne internal locus of control external locus of control Critical Thinking Case Study 1 De ne immunization vaccine passive immunity acquired immunity herd immunity cohort epidemiology 2 Be able to critically analyze amp evaluate a scienti c claim identify control vs experimental group importance of sample size and study replication and understand how con icts of interest may lead to bad science Nervous System Brain Lecture Lobes of the brain and function Regions of brain cortex amygdala hippocampus hypothalamus cerebellum medulla pons reticular formation pituitary gland and function Brain developmentrelated changes e g white matter amp gray matter changes and synaptic changes Parts and function of a neuron howwhy neurons communicate Roleimportance of synapsessynaptic connections learning Key ndings in the distraction while learning study and the link between eating breakfast amp test scores De ne concussion 8 Common causes of concussions Signs ofa concussion 10 Strategies to prevent a concussion ll Diagnosis and treatment for a concussion 12 Possible longterm effects of multiple concussions 13 Key ndings in the Purdue study N 1 994 9 gt0 Mental Health amp Disorders Chapter 7 Lecture Outline Psychological disorders Anxiety Mood amp Personality disorders Bipolar disorder Depression Suicide Suicide Resources at GT Definitions Selfconcept Set of core beliefs amp values that you feel describes yourself Selfesteem How you feel about yourself value Selfconfidence Belief in you abilities and yourself Locus of Control p 228229 Internal External p 243246 Common Stressors in College Life Psychological Disorders Genetic differences Underlie differences in how brain processes information and experiences Learning Life events Psychological Disorders ll Anxiety Simple speci c social phobias Panic disorders Generalized Anxiety disorder GAD ObsessiveCompulsive disorders OCD PostTraumatic stress disorders PTSD Treatment Anxiety General Fear basic and useful emotion Modern use selfprotection cope Problem if out of proportion to real danger mmmmm j When is it considered a disorder Experienced daily quot l Amygdala Hippocampus Amygdala is essential for accurate social judgements 25 15 MOST NEGATN FACE W iMQST POSITIVE FACES Approachability Norm Bilat Right Left Ctrl Norm Bilat Right Left Ctrl Bilateral lesions of the amygdala T trust Everyone looks the same positive Anxiety Phobias The fear of something speci c Most common phobias include Spiders insects snakes dogs cats Flying heights Enclosed spaces Sex Blood injury doctors dentists How do they start A dramatic event May be learned Most no apparent reason Phobias Treatment Behavioral techniques Drugs used for depression Compounds that work on the biological mechanisms that underlie the brain s fear control system Overcoming fear requires learning and formation of a new memory Amygdala amp prefrontal cortex Anxiety Panic Disorder Sudden urges of anxiety Symptoms T heartbeat shortness of breath loss of physical equilibrium feeling of losing control Attacks begin in early 20s Often accompanied by depression drug abuse or alcoholism Anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder Exaggerated worry and tension Little or nothing to provoke it Physical symptoms Fatigue headaches muscle tension trembling irritability sweating Unable to relax Can be debilitating gt 6 months worrying excessively about a number of everyday problems Anxiety Disorders Treatment Two main types of therapies Medication Serotonin reuptake inhibitors monoamine oxidase inhibitors benzodiazepines Psychological interventions psychotherapies Concentrate on a person s thoughts and behavior Simple phobias Best treated without drugs Anxiety ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder Obsessions recurrent unwanted thoughts or impulses Improbable fears contaminated by germs Compulsions repetitive difficulttoresist actions usually associated with obsessions Hand washing checking if the doors are locked Treatment for OCD Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prefrontal Definition cortex intense physical amp emotional 7 L di i 39 V response to thoughts amp reminders 1 Lprefrontaimn x k t 4t of the event lasting weeks or months after event Responses feelings of fear grief depression Physical amp behavioral 1latent medial responses prefr onntal cortex If problems become worse or Amygdala gt3 months PTSD Symptoms Anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ll What can you do for Yourself Know your symptoms are normal Keep to your usual routine Resolve daytoday conflicts Don t avoid situations or peopleplaces that remind you of the trauma Relax Turn to friends family for support talk about your feelingsexperiences Recognize you cannot control everything Recognize the need for trained help Mood amp Personality Disorders Mood amp Personality Disorders Serious and common Emotional disturbances affect normal functioning Intense Persistent Schizophrenia Bipolar Depression Mania amp Bipolar Disorder Mania Restless a lot of energy need little sleep talk nonstop Bipolar Disorder Treatment Lithium Enhance release of serotonin Bipolar Disorder Abnormalities in Brain Areas that Govern Emotions Amygdala amp hippocampus Smaller Suggests brain changes are an early feature of disease Orbitofrontal cortex amp anterior cingulate Abnormal brain activity Depression Occurs in people of all ages and social classes Incidence Associated with high morbidity Leading cause of suicide 10 15 30x higher than in the normal population Cause Biological psychological environmental or combination Stroke hormonal disorders anti hypertensives birth control pills Signs of Depression A feeling of sadness and hopelessness Loss of pleasure in doing usual activities Appetite and weight changes Sleep disturbances Restlessness or fatigue Thoughts of worthlessness and guilt Trouble concentrating or making decisions Thoughts of death or suicide Depression Treatment Most antidepressants affect norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain Control abnormal access or inhibition of signals that control mood thoughts pain and other sensations Tricyclic T serotonin amp norepinephrine MAOls T serotonin dopamine norepinephrine SSRls T serotonin Suicide Occurrence 30622 people in 2001 one In 2002 132353 individuals were hospitalized coo Groups at risk Males 8th leading cause of death for all US men Females Attempt suicide 3x more often than men Youth 3rOI leading cause of death between ages 15 to 24 Suicide Risk Factors Previous suicide attempts History of mental disorders depression Alcohol and substance abuse Family history of suicide Impulsive or aggressive tendencies Readily available means guns or pills Physical illness Isolation Hopelessness l levels of serotonin in patients with depression impulsive disorders postmortem brains of suicide victims Suicide Protective Factors Effective clinical care Family and community support Skills in problem solving conflict resolution nonviolent handling of disputes More info on suicide and what to do if someone tells you they are thinking about suicide httpwwwnimhnihgovSuicidePreventionsuicidefaqcfm
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