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Date Created: 11/02/15
The Love Canal Tragedy byEckardt C Beck EPA Journal January 1979 Quite simply Love Canal is one of the most appalling environmental tragedies in American history But that s not the most disturbing fact What is worse is that it cannot be regarded as an isolated event It could happen againanywhere in this countryunless we move expeditiously to prevent it It is a cruel irony that Love Canal was originally meant to be a dream community That vision belonged to the man for whom the threeblock tract of land on the eastern edge of Niagara Falls New York was namedWilliam T Love Love felt that by digging a short canal between the upper and lower Niagara Rivers power could be generated cheaply to fuel the industry and homes of his wouldbe model city But despite considerable backing Love39s project was unable to endure the onetwo punch of uctuations in the economy and Nikola Tesla s discovery of how to economically transmit electricity over great distances by means of an alternating current By 1910 the dream was shattered All that was left to commemorate Love s hope was a partial ditch where construction of the canal had begun In the 1920s the seeds of a genuine nightmare were planted The canal was turned into a municipal and industrial chemical dumpsite Landfills can of course be an environmentally acceptable method of hazardous waste disposal assuming they are properly sited managed and regulated Love Canal will always remain a perfect historical example of how not to run such an operation In 1953 the Hooker Chemical Company then the owners and operators of the property covered the canal with earth and sold it to the city for one dollar It was a bad buy In the late 50s about 100 homes and a school were built at the site Perhaps it wasn39t William T Love s model city but it was a solid workingclass community For a while On the first day of August 1978 the lead paragraph of a frontpage story in the New York Times read NIAGARA FALLS NYTwenty five years after the Hooker Chemical Company stopped using the Love Canal here as an industrial dump 82 different compounds 11 of them suspected carcinogens have been percolating upward through the soil their drum containers rotting and leaching their contents into the backyards and basements of 100 homes and a public school built on the banks of the canal In an article prepared for the February 1978 EPA Journal I wrote regarding chemical dumpsites in general that quoteven though some of these land lls have been closed down they may stand like ticking time bombsquot Just months later Love Canal exploded The explosion was triggered by a record amount of rainfall Shortly thereafter the leaching began I visited the canal area at that time Corroding wastedisposal drums could be seen breaking up through the grounds of backyards Trees and gardens were turning black and dying One entire swimming pool had been had been popped up from its foundation a oat now on a small sea of chemicals Puddles of noxious substances were pointed out to me by the residents Some of these puddles were in their yards some were in their basements others yet were on the school grounds Everywhere the air had a faint choking smell Children returned from play with burns on their hands and faces And then there were the birth defects The New York State Health Department is continuing an investigation into a disturbingly high rate of miscarriages along with five birthdefect cases detected thus far in the area I recall talking with the father of one the children with birth defects quotI heard someone from the press saying that there were only five cases of birth defects herequot he told me quotWhen you go back to your people at EPA please don t use the phrase only five cases People must realize that this is a tiny community Five birth defect cases here is terrifyingquot A large percentage of people in Love Canal are also being closely observed because of detected high whitebloodcell counts a possible precursor of leukemia When the citizens of Love Canal were finally evacuated from their homes and their neighborhood pregnant women and infants were deliberately among the first to be taken out quotWe knew they put chemicals into the canal and filled it overquot said one woman a longtime resident of the Canal area quotbut we had no idea the chemicals would invade our homes We39re worried sick about the grandchildren and their childrenquot Two of this woman s four grandchildren have birth defects The children were born and raised in the Love Canal community A granddaughter was born deaf with a cleft palate an extra row of teeth and slight retardation A grandson was born with an eye defect Of the chemicals which comprise the brew seeping through the ground and into homes at Love Canal one of the most prevalent is benzene a known human carcinogen and one detected in high concentrations But the residents characterize things more simply quotI ve got this slop everywhere said another man who lives at Love Canal His daughter also suffers from a congenital defect On August 7 New York Governor Hugh Carey announced to the residents of the Canal that the State Government wold purchase the homes affected by chemicals On that same day President Carter approved emergency nancial aid for the Love Canal area the first emergency funds ever to be approved for something other than a quotnaturalquot disaster and the US Senate approved a quotsense of Congressquot amendment saying that Federal aid should be forthcoming to relieve the serious environmental disaster which had occurred By the months end 98 families had already been evacuated Another 46 had found temporary housing Soon after all families would be gone from the most contaminated areas a total of 221 families have moved or agreed to be moved State figures show more than 200 purchase offers for homes have been made totaling nearly 7 million A plan is being set in motion now to implement technical procedures designed to meet the seemingly impossible job of detoxifying the Canal area The plan calls for a trench system to drain chemicals from the Canal It is a difficult procedure and we are keeping our fingers crossed that it will yield some degree of success I have been very pleased with the high degree of cooperation in this case among local State and Federal governments and with the swiftness by which the Congress and the President have acted to make funds available But this is not really where the story ends Quite the contrary We suspect that there are hundreds of such chemical dumpsites across this Nation Unlike Love Canal few are situated so close to human settlements But without a doubt many of these old dumpsites are time bombs with burning fuses their contents slowly leaching out And the next victim cold be a water supply or a sensitive wetland The presence of various types of toxic substances in our environment has become increasingly widespread a fact that President Carter has called quotone of the grimmest discoveries of the modern eraquot HPS 1040 Notes Monday February 1 2010 Wednesday February 3 2010 Grou B0 8 Sara Kuthay CompilerQuestions Brittany Wood Lecture Notes Nidah Goheer Lecture Notes Margaret Sudderth Lecture Notes Catherine Quesenherry Book Notes William Carson Book Notes Marlin Holmes Article BumJun Park Article Lecture Notes Monday February 1 2010 Fat and Sugar Substitutes I Sugars chemicals or natural compounds that mimic sugar I Fats can be carbohydrate protein or fatbased developed to decrease the amount of fat in foods Should not have very high consumption of substitutes I FDA approval can take up to six years Longterm use we don39t know ten twenty years down the road what its effects may be Water I A lot of information has been put out about staying adequately hydrated 0 Especially certain groups like the elderly 0 70 of our mass is water seeing the effect on the body of that mass depleting 0 its also important to drink any kind of uid preferred uid being water 0 The body can go 50 days without food but only a few without water 0 Foods provide 8090 of daily water intake protein has less water choose foods wisely I Recommended intake 0 Used to be eight cups for everyone 0 Men 37 total liters with 30 liters coming from beverages o Women 27 total liters with 22 liters coming from beverages 0 Increase intake with exercise Vitamins I Water soluble vitamins you will secrete what you don39t absorb C B complex 0 Fat soluble vitamins A D E K o Antioxidants help reserve healthy cells 0 Ex vitamin E C A derivative betacarotene 0 Sources fruits veggies grains enriched products I College students often suffer from Low zinc 0 Low calcium osteoporosis o A daily multivitamin would be recommended in addition to adjusting diet Important to choose the right foods and not replacing them with supplements O 0 Minerals I Inorganic compounds needed in small amounts to regulate body functions and aid in growth 17 essential minerals I Most common problems 0 Excess sodium 0 Recommended stay under 2400 mgday 0 Iron de ciency 0 Can lead to anemia Low energy level tired unable to focus 0 Abnormally low hemoglobin 0 Can be helped by eating red meat 0 Calcium de ciency 0 Can lead to osteoporosis I Loss of bone density 0 Other common de ciencies o Zinc can affect healing skin 0 Magnesium can affect heart rhythm muscle spasms The Newest in Biotechnology I We are modifying our crops I Making them more resistant to infestation I Issues when genetically modifying 0 Sometimes not for human consumption I A lot of controversy surrounding issue Wednesday February 3 2010 Food Safety I Food borne diseases affect 76 million Americans each year around 5 thousand deaths I Be careful around 0 Poultry Meats Eggs Shell sh Milk products Fresh fruits and vegetables I Issues of salmonella E coli undercooked meats etc I Restaurants being more careful about these issues Preventing Food borne Illness I Cook thoroughly I Separate don39t contaminate I Chill refrigerate leftovers I Clean wash produce discard outer leaves of lettuce cabbage use clean cutting boards and wash hands beforeafter I Web Information 0 US Gov USDAgovnutrition 0 American Dietetic Association Eatrightorg Supplements I Muscle Building 0 Has changed over the years new standard competitive edge in the body building industry I Weight Loss 0 New weight ideal since fty years ago 0 Study analyzed a range of body shapes from very skinny to overweight o Asked men and women what their ideal body shape would be Men thought they should have more muscle mass when women actually preferred less Women thought they should be thinner when men actually preferred a little heavier I Energy Products 0 Ergogenic 0 quotWork producingquot 0 Athletes searching for an quotedgequot on their competition 0 Not limited to the elite athlete I Health Maintenance and Enhancement 0 Many people take supplements for health maintenance and enhancement Dietary Supplement Health Education Act 1994 00000 O O I Broadened the definition of supplement to include o Vitamins Minerals Herbs Botanicals Plant derived substances Amino acids 0 Concentrates metabolites constituents and extracts of these I Unlike meds FDA does not require vitamins minerals herbs and enzymes to be proven safe prior to the introduction to the market I Federal agencies usually take action to stop the sale of a supplement only after seeing evidence that it is hazardous or is falsely advertised I FDA also W the content or quality of supplements If not the FDA who is responsible I The manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed Where Do Consumers Get Their Info I Magazines that feature unpublished research I Companies that misrepresent research I Celebrities Ephedra Ma Huang Banned I quotEphedrafree products have other stimulants o Bitter orange 0 Cola nut o Guarana o Caffeine I Marketed as quotsaferquot than ephedra products I Synephrine is virtually identical in action to ephedrinecontaining products Energy Drinks I Range of stimulant in each energy drink I Raised concern of caffeine addiction and its use with alcohol 0 Causes dehydration twice as fast What are you buying I Often there39s no guarantee that the products matches its labeling I The designation NNFA indicates that the manufacturer has met the National Nutrition Foods Association for quality control USP NF indicates the product meets some minimum safety requirements When you may need a dietary supplement I You eat a very low calorie diet I You eat an all plant diet vegan I You are pregnant or nursing I You have a disease infection or injury or recently had surgery I I 00000 Nutritional deficiency Medicine that interferes with your body s use of speci c nutrients Book Notes Introduction Only 100 years ago food supply was homespun quotdirect and simple with little processing and most families sustaining themselves with fresh or preserved produce picked from their backyards Along with gathering these fresh healthy foods people were more physically t working jobs requiring physical labor as well as effort used to gather materials to eat and survive Also big breakfasts huge dinners and light suppers were common Though we can refer to scienti c advances to know exactly what is healthy for our bodies our society faces a health crisis with minute amounts of our population practicing healthy eating habits Nutrition Basics Nutrition quotthe science of food and how the body uses it in health and diseasequot Sparling Redican p39 Nutrient quota substance found in food that is used by the body to support normal growth maintenance and repair 0 Six nutrient classes carbohydrates protein vitamins minerals and water 0 Macronutrients carbs fats proteins and water compose the bulk of what we eat daily 0 Micronutrients vitamins and minerals only needed in small amounts and consumption not needed daily Naturally found in small amounts in fruits veggies whole grains and sh oils 0 Energy rich nutrients carbs fats and proteins 0 Regulatory Nutrients other nutrients needed to process energy obtained from energy rich sources One must expend energy obtained in consumption for healthy weight Fats have more than twice the amounts of Calories per gram as carbs and proteins 9 Cal to 4 Cal Calorie US common energy unit notated Cal or kcal Amount of heat needed to raise 1 kg of H20 to 1 degree Celsius Energy expenditure is expressed with the kcal while nutritional facts on foods stick to Cal 0 Kilo joule used in other countries Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as betacarotene that occur naturally in plants The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health but are not yet established as essential nutrients While there is abundant scienti c and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables there is only limited evidence that health bene ts are due to speci c phytochemicals Known to act as antioxidant hormonal antibacterial and to block formation of cancerous tumorsquot Wikipedia httpenwikipediaorgwikiPhytochemical Carbs and Fiber I Body s main energy source for cells 0 4 Calg Make up the majority of daily calorie intake at 55 Starches are polysaccharides complex molecular structures found in bread rice potatoes cereals pasta etc Sugars are monodisaccharides found in fruit milk processed food and drink including candies and sodas Complex carbohydrates in fruits and milk also offer ber vitamins minerals and water and should be ingested more than candies and sodas Complex Carbohydrates take longer for the body to process than simple sugars supplying energy to consumers for longer periods of time Foods with simple sugars are often referred to holding quotempty caloriesquot as they lack nutritional value The US claims sodas as top sources of added sugars Fiber roughage the indigestible part of plant based foods 0 Soluble Fiber may improve cholesterolglucose levels Found in oats dried beans and some fruits o insoluble Fiber prevents constipation adds bulk to stool and reduces risk of colon cancer Found in veggies whole grains legumes and fruits Americans take in about 1015 g s of ber 3 day rather than the recommended 25g or 38g per day Five or more serving of fruits and veggies are need per day The CDC has many initiatives to jump start American healthy eating habits Fats and Cholesterol I Fats lipids should constitute about 30 or less of daily caloric intake Satisfy hunger thanks to low absorption rates Also help maintain cell membranes and absorb vitamins ADE and K 0 Saturated Fats found in animal products like meat poultry eggs and dairy products Palm and coconut oils also contain these fats Become lard at room temperature High amounts of saturated fats can lead to high cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease I No more that 10 of daily intake should consist of trans and saturation fats 0 Trans fats veggie oils chemically converted to a solid form Increases shelf life and avor stability Found in margarines and promoted as a healthier option for a while but are considered new as worse than saturated fats o Unsaturated Fats plant based and liquid at room temperature 0 Polyunsaturated fats corn saf ower and sun ower oils are healthy choices 0 Monounsaturated Fats olive peanut and canola oil and most healthful I Fish oils with omega3 fatty acid also found in ax seeds can help your heart Protei I 11 Protein found in every cell of the human body necessary for tissue growth repair and maintenance Found in plant and animal sources secondary to carbs and fats as an energy source Poultry meat seafood dairy legumes nuts and seeds are rich sources of protein and should contribute 15 of daily calorie intake Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins 22 amino acids are processed in our bodies but only nine of them are essential as our cells can produce the other 13 0 Animal proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids in bounty 0 Plant proteins are not complete but can be eaten with others for holistic gain important for vegetarians Complete Proteins contain all the essential amino acids ie Meats The size of one body determines protein intake 8gkg of body weight daily Americans eat too much protein leaving the amino acids to be stored as fat Lean meats skinless nonfried and plantbased proteins are healthy protein sources Vitamins and Minerals Found in small quantities yet are micronutrients essential for human health Prevent and treat popular chronic diseases 0 Examples Sodiumhypertension E A and Cantioxidants Ironanemia Water Reco Most essential nutrient Insuf cient water intake shows symptoms of lethargy disorientation of death Most water is lost through urination perspiration and respiration o 90 oz of water is needed for women daily and 125 oz for men 0 80 of water intake comes from drinking beverages and 20 from food 0 9 glasses of H20 a day for women and 1213 for men 50 of excess calories are obtained from sweetened beverages Individuals can lose 13 percent of body weight in a couple of hours with no hydration during physical activity Thirst is the rst indicator of dehydration Checking weight daily is another was to measure water intake mmendations for a Healthy Diet We are bombarded by information about our health Convenience rules and we eat foods that go against all of the recommendations ie abundance of saturated fats 200 types of fruits and veggies in supermarkets but about 20000 items stocked on shelves Must make smart choices and establish healthy habits I The federal government does not advertise scienti c dietary guidelines in respect for consumer demand I USDA provides nutrition information and advice to Americans for a century I The USDA formed center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion in 1994 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans I Federal nutrition policyeducation distributed by the US dept of Health and Human Services and the USDA since 1980 I Dietary Guidelines helps Americans choose diets that meet nutrient requirements promote health support active lives and reduce risks of chronic disease Based on expert ndings of diet and physical activity 0 Important because they allow the government to consolidate views of healthy lifestyles Direct nutrition programs research labeling and promotion 0 Developed in and 3stage process 1 independent advisory board of scientists prepared a report 2 Government of cials and scientists reviewed report and with agency and public comments made the Dietary Guidelines 3 health communication specialists translated the guidelines for public consumption Turned into the My Pyramid Guide 0 9 different areas of recommendations 5 say what and what not to eat I Fat Recommendations 0 Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mgday of cholesterol and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible 0 Keep total fat intake between 20 to 35 percent of calories with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids such as sh nuts and vegetable oils 0 When selecting and preparing meat poultry dry beans and milk or milk products make choices that are lean low fat or fatfree 0 Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated andor trans fatty acids and choose products low in such fats and oils I Carb Recommendations 0 Choose berrich fruits vegetables and whole grains often 0 Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners such as amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan 0 Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar and starchcontaining foods and beverages less frequently I Sodium and Potassium o Consume less than 2300 mg approximately 1 tsp of salt of sodium per day 0 Choose and prepare foods with little salt At the same time consume potassiumrich foods such as fruits and vegetables I Alcohol MyP O 0 0 Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderation de ned as the consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by some individuals including those who cannot restrict their alcohol intake women of childbearing age who may become pregnant pregnant and lactating women children and adolescents individuals taking medications that can interact with alcohol and those with speci c medical conditions Individuals engaging in activities that require attention skill or coordination such as driving or operating machinery should avoid alcoholic beverages Food Groups to Encourage O O Consume a suf cient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs Two cups of fruit and 2V2 cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2000calorie intake with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day In particular select from all ve vegetable subgroups dark green orange legumes starchy vegetables and other vegetables several times a week Consume 3 or more ounceequivalents of wholegrain products per day with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or wholegrain products In general at least half the grains should come from whole grains Consume 3 cups per day of fatfree or lowfat milk or equivalent milk products Other recommendations given by the guidelines are food safety weight management physical activity and general nutrition yramid Guide This is a consumer friendly version of the Dietary Guidelines Replaces the original food pyramid guide created in 1994 because the old pyramid had confusing information on servings and mentioned nothing about good and bad choices for consumers The purpose of the Pyramid is to encourage better dietary and physical activity in quotsteps to a healthier youquot Six points 0 O 0 Activity represented by the steps and the person climbing them as a reminder of the importance of daily physical activity Moderation represented by the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top The wider base stands for foods with little or no solid fats added sugars or caloric sweeteners These should be selected more often to get the most nutrition from calories consumed Personalization To nd a personalized recommendation of the kinds and amounts of food to eat each day Proportionality shown by the different widths of the food group bands The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group The widths are just a general guide not exact proportions Variety symbolized by the six color bands representing the ve food groups of My Pyramid and oils Foods from all groups are needed each day for good health Gradual improvement encouraged by the slogan Steps to a Healthier You It suggests that individuals can bene t from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day Supposed to be simple route to a healthier you but my pyramid says quotOne size doesn39t t allquot Food Guidance Systems gives and educational framework in topics such as calories physical activity grains and veggies into tables of what how and why Helps implement healthy changes with the My Pyramid tracker o The tracker will give an immediate rating of diet 0 For best results use three days worth of nutritive info in the tracker o Tracker can track progressions up to a year My Pyramid s plan has all foods grouped in 12 different caloric levels Tracker factors age gender and activity levels Gives suggestions for daily amounts of digestion Gives advise for all ages 0 0 Food Labels I Federal law standardizes nutrition facts labels Serving amount is de ned by the manufacturer Serving size Calorie line has total amount of calories and calories from fat Shows grams for energy nutrients Total Fats listed in trans and saturated Total Carbs listed in dietary ber as well as sugars Sodium usually listed Vitamins A and C Calcium Iron and ber are also listed in hopes of consumers choosing those with more I Allow consumers to quickly determine nutritional characteristics of food 0 000 Food Safety I Food borne illness a gastrointestinal order caused by contamination of food by microorganisms or toxic chemicals resulting in nausea vomiting and diarrhea 0 Known commonly as food poisoning Most caused by bacterial viral or fungal infections For example Salmonella is caused by the bacteria E Coli Nearly all cases are caused by poor safety precautions Notably less cases result in accidental ingestion of poisonous products 0000 I Restaurants are routinely inspected to ensure they are following safety guidelines I Safety tips include 0 0 0 O 00 year Clean hands food contact surfaces and fruits and vegetables before usage Separate raw and readytoeat foods while shopping storing and preparing Avoid crosscontamination by washing hands and utensils after they have been in contact with possible contaminants Cook foods well to ensure microorganisms are killed Refrigerate perishable food quickly to ensure safety Avoid unpasteurized milk juice and undercooked meat sh and ggs 1 in 4 or about 75 million Americans suffer a case of food poisoning each Food poisoning kills about 5000 Americans a year More than 200 different pathogens have been identi ed in causing food related illness 0 Americans eat at home between 3050 of the time v Food related illness is most dangerous in people with weak immune systems such as infants the elderly pregnant women and their child and people with immune de ciencies Dietary Supplements I Dietary Supplementsnutrients added to diet consisting of vitamins minerals herbs botanicals amino acids metabolites constituents extracts or a combination of these ingredients 0 0 0 0 O Controversial issue as effectiveness and safety of supplements varies widely Over half of Americans use supplements mostly multivitamins and sports supplements Supplements are not evaluated by the FDA before marketing but are instead to reactionary safety restrictions The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act broadened the de nition of supplements to include what it does today and lifted FDA approval requirements FDA must prove that dietary supplements are unsafe before they can be banned as shown in the case of ephedra After 5 ephedrarelated deaths the FDA banned all products containing it only to be challenged in court by Nutraceutical Corporation a Utah based supplement rm and have their ban struck down by a Utah judge The FDA appealed and had the ban reinstated by the Court of Appeals What is a Healthy Weight Healthy weight a body weight at which you feel good and physically function at a high level of wellbeing Similar terms optimal weight ideal weight and desirable weight for Athletes 0 Homo sapiens average male who is signi cantly taller heavier and leaner than the female Large variability for height weight and leanness are in uenced by gender and heredity O 0 Body composition the relative amounts of fat weight adipose tissue and lean weight predominantly muscle and bone and is reported as percent body fat Body Mass Index BMI I Body Mass Index BMI a ratio of weight to height that is widely used as a measure of 0 Healthy weight 18525 lowest relative risk 0 Overweight ZS299 increase the risk 0 Obesity 30 and above increases the risk greatly o Underweight less than 185 as bad as overweight Body Composition I Body Composition Fat Guidelines for adult Too LEAN LEAN MODERATE OVERFAT Men lt4 412 1322 gt22 Women lt12 1220 2130 gt30 o The challenge of using the body composition approach is that the measurement of percent fat is not straightforward like BMI where only height and weight are needed Common eld methods skin folds circumferences and bioelectric impedance Common laboratory measurements hydrostatic or underwater weighing or dualenergy X ray absorptiometry are more accurate and reliable values 0 0 Body Fat Distribution I Pattern of body fat distribution another factor to be considered in determining the degree of risk high or very high for obesityrelated cardiovascular and metabolic diseases 0 Upper body fat may be more dangerous for longterm health than lower body fat hips buttocks The Obesity Epidemic ln Concise Guide the term obesity is used only in the scientific or medical sense Obesity the consequence of chronic energy imbalance in which the body stores excess energy in the form of adipose tissue 0 Genetics also plays a role in the likelihood of developing obesity 0 Person s potential for obesity is associated with highenergy intake low energy expenditure and genetic predisposition o In 2002 CDC reported that about 30 of Americans meet the criteria for obesity BMI gt30 0 Obesity and overweight contribute to development of many medical conditions and diseases high blood pressure lipid abnormalities and diabetes Prevention 1 the right combination of individual lifestyle behaviors 2 supportive public policies that are accepted by American society 0 Eating Disorders I Eating disorder include a spectrum of clinical disorders involving disturbed eating patterns with the two main types being anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa Most common in adolescent girls and young women 0 More than 90 percent of those with eating disorders are Female and the number of Americans affected by these illnesses has doubled over the past three decades and continues to rise in the worldwide I Complex psychological disorders like depression anxiety obsessive compulsive disorder and alcohol and drug abuse I Two types of eating disorder Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa o Anorexia nervosa dangerous condition in which people can literally starve themselves to death 0 Bulimia nervosa ingesting an abnormally large amount of food within a set period of time often occur independently of anorexia I Treatment teams psychiatrist or psychologist a physician who provides general medical care and a nutritionist Energy Balance Energy Intake VS Energy Expenditure I Energy Balance the relationship between energy input caloric intake and energy output caloric expenditure If input and output are matched then a balance occurs and body weight is maintained I Energy De cit energy input is lower than output I Energy Surplus energy output is lower than input 0 Energy balance is a concept fundamental to achieving a healthy weight and to treating weightrelated problems Translating Knowledge into Action I Dieting is not an effective longterm solution I Most special diets are restrictive not without risk and seldom successful not to mention monotonous and illogical the rice diet the grapefruit diet the detox diets I Strategies of behaviorchange 0 Make a commitment Be speci c about what you are willing to do 0 Draw on support from others Rely on spouse family friends professionals 0 Set a realistic goal use the energy balance principle monitor be patient 0 Learn to enjoy healthier foods Explore healthy foods and dishes Get active stay active Engage in regular physical activity 0 Article Magnesium Supplement Helps Boost Brainpower ScienceDaily Feb 2 2010 New research finds that an increase in brain magnesium improves learning and memory in young and old rats The study published in the January 28th issue of the journal Neuron suggests that increasing magnesium intake may be a valid strategy to enhance conitive abilities and supports speculation that inadequate levels of magnesium impair cognitive function leading to faster deterioration of memory in aging humans Diet can have a signi cant impact on cognitive capacity Identi cation of dietary factors which have a positive in uence on synapses the sites of communication between neurons might help to enhance learning and memory and prevent their decline with age and disease Professor Guosong Liu Director of the Center for Learning and Memory at Tsinghua University in Beijing China led a study examining whether increased levels of one such dietary supplement magnesium boosts brain power Magnesium is essential for the proper functioning of many tissues in the body including the brain and in an earlier study we demonstrated that magnesium promoted synaptic plasticity in cultured brain cells explains Dr Liu Therefore it was tempting to take our studies a step further and investigate whether an increase in brain magnesium levels enhanced cognitive function in animals Because it is dif cult to boost brain magnesium levels with traditional oral supplements Dr Liu and colleagues developed a new magnesium compound magnesiumL threonate MgT that could signi cantly increase magnesium in the brain via dietary supplementation They used MgT to increase magnesium in rats of different ages and then looked for behavioral and cellular changes associated with memory We found that increased brain magnesium enhanced many different forms of learning and memory in both young and aged rats says Dr Liu A close examination of cellular changes associated with memory revealed an increase in the number of functional synapses activation of key signaling molecules and an enhancement of short and longterm synaptic processes that are crucial for Ieaming and memory The authors note that the control rats in this study had a normal diet which is widely accepted to contain a suf cient amount of magnesium and that the observed effects were due to elevation of magnesium to levels higher than provided by a normal diet Our ndings suggest that elevating brain magnesium content via increasing magnesium intake might be a useful new strategy to enhance cognitive abilities explains Dr Liu Moreover half the population of industrialized countries has a magnesium de cit which increases with aging This may very well contribute to age dependent memory decline increasing magnesium intake might prevent or reduce such decline Citation Cell Press quotMagnesium Supplement Helps Boost Brainpowerquot ScienceDaily 2 February 2010 4 February 2010 lthttpllwwwsciencedailycomlreleasesl201001100127121524htmsmsssemailgt Article Questions 1 How do industrialized nations generally quotstack upquot nutritionally when it comes to magnesium 2 Has this theory been tested And if so has it reached Human trials 3 Can you increase Magnesium levels in the brain through normal means Article Answers 1 Generally in industrialized nations about half the population is Magnesium deficit and this only worsens with Age 2 Currently this theory is being tested however it has not made it to human trials and it currently being tested on rats However it shows promising results 3 It is difficult to do through normal Oral means thus the scientist have develop a new magnesium supplement Magnesium L Threonate which is proved to increase Magnesium levels in the brains of mice Questions 1 The recommended intake of water for men and women is a men 45 liters women 35 liters b men 45 liters women 35 liters c men 37 liters women 27 liters d men 35 liters women 27 liters e men 37 liters women 25 liters 2 Which of these statements about obesity are correct 1 Obesity can contribute to high blood pressure and diabetes ll Genetic background does not play a role in becoming obese 11 A BMIgt30 labels a person as obese lV Around 30 of all Americans are considered obese e I II III IV 3 True or False An iron deficiency can lead to osteoporosis 4 Which of these is NOT a condition in which you may need a dietary supplement 3 You are pregnant or nursing b You have an allplant vegan diet c You have an aboveaverage BMI d You are taking a medicine that interferes with your body s nutrient usage g Behavior Modi cation Lecture Teresa Snow 1040 Health Concepts and Strategies Georgia Institute of Technology Research studies during the last three decades have convincingly documented the bene ts of physical activity and healthy lifestyles However most people are still unable to implement 0r adhere to a healthy lifestyle program For Example Studies have shown that over 60 of adults who start an exercise program quit Within the rst month Over 65 million Americans meet the criteria for obesity According to the US Surgeon General at least 60 of adult Americans do not get the recommended amount of physical activity This environment includes family friends peers home school work our communities and culture in general When it comes to fitness and wellness we live in a toxic environment modern conveniences increases in fast food options and portion sizes Most Behaviors are a ProoFuct of our Environment 0 This environment includes family friends peers home school work our communities and culture in general 0 When it comes to fitness and wellness we live in C 39 v 39 0 a tox1c enV1ronment 0 modern conveniences 0 increases infastfood options and portion 0 sizes AND THE REAL mt Burger mg 239 oz 202 nalnrlus 1255 McDonald39s 2A In 110 calnrlos l 9 I U Hershey39s 2 or 297 calories l9 CocaACola a ll l l 77 7 l 85 llnld 01 19 alums H39ll39lllx Mavle popcorn 3 um 11 calerlcs 31001 16 llulrl ax 194 calm m 39 l 21 cups utter 1700 enlnrlns Energy Intake vs Energy Expenditure calories burned Email colleague 1 min 2 Rlde elevator 2 mins 3 Order takeout 1 min 1 Load dishwasher 10 rnlns 23 Watch w 7 35 Go to car wash 35 Play video game 53 Mow lawn riding mower 88 calories burned Walk to colleague39s of ce 1 min 4 Take stairs 2 mlns 19 Cook meal 70 Wash dishes 80 Play cards 52 Wash car at llori 104 Play basketball 280 Mow lawnpower mower 193 age 5 17 who are Classi ed as overweight using BMI already have two or more risk factors for heart disease pproximately 39 of children Children ages 61 wha are overweight by gender 19782006 i Total j Male 1976 1980 58 1983 1994 106 1999 2000 143 2001 2002 mama 151 20032004 168 2005 2005 159 Ovemeight is de ned as body mass index BMI at or above the 95th perceng of the sex speci c EMlfarage growth charts 7 W Wtiz Study Shows Kids Tethered to Technology The average child spends approximately 25 hours listening to music 5 hours watching TVmovies 3 hours on internetplaying Video games Kaiser Family Foundation s39 f ance for Iie lth vsfP FFdFm g i 39 a V Gradually we incorporate many of these unhealthy behaviors into out personal lifestyle Understanding Healthbliehaviors 0 Social Cognitive Theory 0 Health Belief Model 0 Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change Barriers to Change Procrastination Cultural Expectations or Beliefs Grati cation Short term vs Long Term Risk Complacency Wait until a problem occurs to deal with it Complexity IndifferenceHelplessness Rationalization it is really not that bad Invincibility unhealthy behaviors won t harm me To Modify a Behavior First Think About Personal Attitudes toward the Behavior Patterns Which in uence the Behavior Is this a Learned Behavior that has been reinforced over time How The Behavior Change Plan of Action Monitor behavior and gather data Analyze data and identify patterns Set specific goals Devise a strategy niodify your environment reward yourself involve friends and family Make a personal contract HPS 1040 Group B08 Notes Stress amp Personality Compiler Marc Amons Monday Notes Justin Floody Page 2 Wednesday Notes Justin Floody amp Marc Amons Page 5 Book Notes Zach Newton Page 6 Review Questions Shyam Patel amp Andrew Hittig Page 12 Article Carson Britt Attached Article Questions Abhinav Sawhney Page 14 Notes from Monday March 1st Stress What is stress 0 The mental emotional and physiological response of the body to any situation that is new threatening frightening or exciting Stressor a factor that triggers physical and emotional reactionstermed a stress response 0 Getting stressed can allow you to get an infectious diseasecold or flu hurt your memory and cause sleep deprivation Normal stresses of a college student 0 Fear of failure 0 Uncertainty about college majorcareer choice 0 Concern about quotnot fitting inquot to the college environment 0 How can I get my family to support my decision 0 How am I going to juggle job family school personal life 0 Financial dilemmas o o 0 What will happen to my personal freedom if I39m tied up studying all the time The key is to keep a realistic perspective have realistic expectations and to not have unnecessarily lofty or impossible goals for yourself a Three types of stress environmental daily hassles and life changes o Neurological path of stress 0 The autonomic nervous system signals to the brain causing stress 0 In response the brain signals the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems I The sympathetic reacts while the parasympathetic calms us 0 Pituitary gland releases ACTH and it gets in body and travels to adrenal glands and you get release of stress hormones o Adrenal glands produce Cortisol Epinephrine Norepinephrine quotFight or Flight responses to stress 0 Raised heart rate blood pressure breathing rate muscle tension glucose speed of clotting blood flow to essential organs 0 Skin becomes cold and digestion slows bc blood is directed away from skin and gut o Eventually the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to pre stress levels and homeostasis o This system evolved to help save us from physical danger I Does not always help when handling social relationship stresses I Psychological diseases have been linked to stress Effects of Chronic Stress to the Brain 0 Can damage the hippocampus which can lead to among other things memory loss and neuron degeneration o Cortisol is good for waking up and other similar activites but is bad for the brain if circulated frequently Effects of Chronic Stress on the immune system 0 Can weaken cellular immunity 0 Can intensify autoimmune disorders and allergies Effects of Chronic Stress on the Cardiovascular and metabolic systems 0 Increase risk of heart disease high blood pressure atherosclerosis risk of myocardial infarction obesity diabetes 0 Most heart attacks happen early in the day when cortisol levels are high General Adaption Syndrome 0 Problems with model but overall good 0 Initially we are alarmed and are trying to figure out how to react 0 Then we adapt to the different stressors which is the resistance phase 0 Exhaustion is notjust needing sleep but is complete physical and mental exhaustion Positive stress is a motivator and increases performance level Negative stress can deplete energy or lead to poor performance 3 degrees of stress 0 Acute short lived one time events least intense 0 Cumulative building up over time but ultimately can be overcome 0 Chronic the most dangerous form of stress Perception of stressor plays a major role in the stress response Threatened or challenged 0 Those who feel threatened are scared to do it and may appear frightened while doing it ex Speaking in front a large group 0 Those who feel challenged see it as an obstacle to climb and have a better perspective on the situation Personality Types 0 Type A behavior and hostility o Characterized by excessive competitiveness time urgency and hostility o Hostility Component identified as the primary trait that puts people at risk for the development of heart disease and other stressrelated medical conditions Ways to improve stress levels 0 Intervene and remove stressor Learn to copemanage time management friendsfamily supportcounseling center rest eat well exercise relaxation change your perception of stressorsinterpretationthinking 0 Sleep Americans39 sleep level has decreased by 20 in the past century 0 Improve time management 0 RELAX Set priorities Schedule tasks for times of peak ef ciency Set write down and visualize realistic goals Budget time Break up longterm goals into short term ones Learn to say no Be task oriented Take breaks and enjoy free time o LAUGH can strengthen immune system and reduce stress Notes from Wednesday March 3rd Personality amp Happiness Reasons why we should be happy Mind Body Connection Also a survey revealed GT students to be the 2quot least happy of any in the country 0 People that are more happy have less minor illnesses 0 Happiness doesn39t depend on external circumstances a MB gave survey and 11 characteristics came up 0 6 always came up What happy people arecharacteristics 1 Love yourselfhaving good selfesteem a Positive selftalktreating mind right b Sleep well healthy food exercisetreating body right Love other people a Referenced several books in his lecture notes b Love is a willingness to help another person be everything they want to be in the present and in the future Believe they are in control of their life a Internal locus of control if you want something to happen you make it happen b External locus of control many of the results that you receive are not your fault but rather the result of luck or another outside force Optimistic a Studies show people over 50 who are positive about aging live 75 years longer Focus on the world outside of themselves a Extraverted personality b How to 1Get a job 2Enjoy the power of touch 3Give to others Search for meaning and hope to find it Live on day at a timepresent moment living Laugh and smile a lot Avoid selfdefeating behavior a Don t be angry b ABC Gone Withlthe wind i A anger B Blaming CComplaining GzGuilt WWorry 10 Take time for leisure time 11 GratefulThankful a People who are have higher vitality b In 3 ways 1Thank friends and family 2Believe and thank higher power 3Thank your state of being 5 lquot 4s 5quot Logoum Learned 3 things 1 Happiness is internal 2 You39re free to choose 3 Happiness is not a destination it s a journey Book Notes a What is stress 0 Stress refers to two different things I Situations that trigger a stressor physical and emotional reactions I The reactions to these triggers stress response 0 Responses 0 Physical I Nervous system I Endocrine system I You act quickly and appropriately in danger 0 Actions of Nervous System I Autonomic not under conscious supervision I Parasympathetic division in control when you are relaxed I Sympathetic division activated during arousal Norepinephrine neurotransmitter used by sympathetic division 0 Body Systems 0 Endocrine system I Hormones o to influence metabolism and other body processes 0 How they work together I Hypothalamus o Hormonal control center I Pituitary gland o Releases adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Goes to adrenal glands which in turn release cortisol 0 Also release epinephrine adrenaline o Homeostasis a state where blood pressure heart rate hormone levels and other vital functions are maintained within a narrow range of normal 0 Somatic nervous system manages conscious system 0 Personality the sum of behavioral cognitive and emotional tendencies clearly affects how an individual perceives and reacts to stressors 0 Types I A controlling schedule driven competitive hostile I B less hurried more contemplative more tolerant I C difficulty expressing emotions etc 0 Factors that affect stress 0 O 0 Cultural Background Gender I Gender roles control how some people cope with stress Past Experiences I Past experiences can guide how a person may cope with stress 0 Stress and Disease 0 O O O O 0 General Adaptation Syndrome I Eustress pleasant I Distress unpleasant Alarm I Fight or Flight reaction Resistance I Develop resistance to disease and injury Exhaustion I Lowers ability to cope with stress and disease Cardiovascular Disease I Stress can cause a high blood pressure Post Traumatic Stress Disorder I Causes nightmares flashbacks and a diminished capacity to experience or express emotion Sources of Stress O O O O 0 0 Major Life changes I Any change that requires adjustment or accommodation Daily Hassles I Daily troubles that occur Something as simple as misplacing your keys College Stressors I Extra responsibilities and being away from home Academic Stressors I The stress that occurs as a result of striving for excellence Jobrelated I Burnout a state of physical mental and emotional exhaustion Social I Language barriers I Telecommunication 0 Environmental I Background noise a Managing Stress O 0 0 O 0 Social I Sharing experiences and emotions with other people I Having similar stressors can help two people cope Communication I Communicate your stress with others so that it is not repressed Exercise I Helps maintain a healthy body and mind and even stimulates the birth of new brain cells Nutrition I A healthy diet raises energy needed to deal with stress Sleep I Lack of sleep can cause excess stress a Can also be an effect of excess stress Time management I Make sure that you are managing your time well so that obligations do not pile up and cause stress Cognitive Techniques I Think and Act constructively I Take control of your problems and obligations I ProblemSolve Relaxation Techniques I Progressive Relaxation Consciously relax your muscles I Visualization o Visualize daydreams without guilt I Meditation Centers your thoughts and allows you to let go of stressors in your life I Yoga Relaxes muscles I Taijiquan Selfdefense that incorporates philosophical concepts I Music 0 Listening to music can sooth the mind and lower blood pressure Counterproductive Strategies I Tobacco I Alcohol and Drug Use I Unhealthy eating habits o Create Personal Plan I Identify personal stressors I Design a plan I Get help from others developing and executing plans Psychological Health 0 Defining Psychological Health 0 Presence of wellness in your life 0 Realism I Knowing the difference between fantasy and reality 0 Acceptance I Accepting yourself means having a positive selfconcept and having high selfesteem o Autonomy I Ability to act independently of your social environment 0 Capacity for intimacy I Capable of physical and emotional intimacy with others 0 Creativity I Have a continuing fresh appreciation for what goes on around you a Meeting Life39s Challenges 0 Growing up Psychologically I Growing psychologically mature in the proper sequence of stages of life 0 Developing an Adult Identity I Developing a unified sense of self characterized by attitudes beliefs and ways of acing that are genuinely ones own 0 Develop intimacy I Learning to live intimately with others and finding a productive role in society 0 Developing Values and Purpose in Your Life I Finding your own personal values that you respect I Finding a purpose to your life and its direction Achieving Health SelfEsteem 0 Developing a Positive SelfConcept I Begins in childhood I Starts with the parents and their ability to connect with their children O 0 0 0 0 O 0 Meeting Challenges to SelfEsteem I Acknowledge that something has gone wrong and try again when you hit a road block Being Less Defensive I Finding temporary fixes to problems cause a decrease in the ability to develop long term solutions to problems Being Optimistic I Pessimism is learning at a young age from parents Maintaining Honest Communication I Assertiveness learning to insist on your rights and to bargain for what you want Dealing with Loneliness I Socializing by a fear of being alone is not the best reason to spend time with others I Figuring out how to enjoy your own company helps with psychological help Dealing with Anger I Having a high hostility level can lead to a higher risk for heart attack Managing Your Own Anger I Reframe what you are thinking when you are angry I Distract yourself from the situation Dealing with anger in other people I React calmly to an angry person you are with PsychologicalDisorders 0 Anxiety Disorders I Another word for fear I Simple Phobia a Simple or speci c fear of something definite eg lightning I Social Phobia Fear humiliation or embarrassment while being observed by others I Panic Disorder 0 Experience sudden unexpected surges in anxiety accompanied by symptoms such as rapid and strong heartbeat shortness of breath loss of physical equilibrium and a feeling of losing mental control I Generalized Anxiety Disorder o A diagnosis that is given to people whose worries have taken on a life of their own pushing out other thoughts and refusing banishment by any effort of will I Obsessivecompulsive Disorder 0 A disorder given to people with obsessions or compulsions o Obsessions recurrent unwanted thoughts or impulses o Compulsions repetitive difficulttoresist actions usually associated with obsessions I PostTraumatic Stress Disorder Reacting to severely traumatic events 0 Eg war or rape of a loved one or self 0 Mood Disorders I Depression Strikes nearly 10 of Americans annually 0 50 of college students report hindering depression annually 0 Women twice as likely to be depressed as men 0 Treatment 0 Electroconvulsive Therapy I Effective for severe depression I Epilepticlike seizure in induced by an electrical impulse transmitted through electrodes placed on the head I Mania and Bipolar Disorder Mania Restless lots of energy need little sleep often talk nonstop o Bipolar Disorder swing between manic and depressive states 0 Schizophrenia I Can range from mild to severe I Afflicted person cannot tell anything is wrong I 1 in 100 people have an episode in their life I Symptoms o Disorganized thoughts Inappropriate emotions o Delusions o Auditory hallucinations Deteriorating social and work functioning Getting Help 0 SelfHelp E 352 5 N I I Become more aware of selfdefeating actions and ideas and combating them in some way 0 Peer Counseling and Support Groups I Sharing concerns with others I Talking with people who have similar problems as you 0 Professional Help I More objective more expert or more discreet help I Determining Your Need o If problems interfere with school or work performance o If suicide considerations enter your head a If symptoms such as hallucinations delusions incoherent speed or loss of memory occur o If you become dependent upon alcohol or drugs Review Questions which of the following statements correctly de nes stress A feeling of agitation and extreme nervousness The feeling that one experiences when frightened The mental and emotional response of the body to a situation that is new frightening and exciting The mental emotional and physiological response of the body to a situation that is new frightening threatening and exciting What is the function of the adrenal glands a To release ACTH b To release cortisol and epinephrine c To release epinephrine and norepenephrine d To release cortisol epinephrine and nonrepenephrine Which of the following is not a Fight or Flight response to the endocrine system a Decrease in blood sugar b Pupils Dilate U39I 0 no c Endorphins are released d Digestion Halts The parasympathetic division of the ANS is responsible for calming the body down a True b False Which of the following is false about chronic stress a It increases the risk of diabetes b It elevates blood pressure c It increases the chances of anemia d It increases the chances of obesity In the past century the average time of sleep has decrease by a 18 b 19 c 20 d 21 Anaerobic exercises are a very good method of relaxation a True b False Which of the following is true about laughter a It strengthens yourjaw b It s a good way to lose belly fat c It consumes a lot of your creative juices d It helps strengthen your immune system Which is not a characteristic of happy people a Be optimistic b Take time for leisure time c Laugh smile a lot d Search for happiness 10 The quotmnemonic device ABC Gone with the Wind stands for a Always Be Closing b Anger Blaming Complaining Guilt Worry c Anger Blaming Catalyst Guilt Worry d Anger Blaming Complaining Guilt Workout 11 Who is not a person that you should be thankful to as mentioned in class a Thankful to friends and family b Thankful for a higher power c Thankful for money d Thankful for state of being 12 TrueFalse Happiness is the final destination on a long journey a True b False Questions about Article True False Questions Health care costs are now estimated at close to 300 billion annually T or F One recent study did demonstrate a reduction in coronary arteriosclerosis in monkeys on atherogenic diets who were subjected to conditioning exercises T or F Multiple Choice which type of exercise improves cardiovascular and physical function a Anaerobic b Aerobic c Anaerobic and Aerobic d Neither which exercise is not known to be a beneficial emotional or stress reducing activity a Tai Chi b Jogging c Weight Lifting d Calisthenics e All of the above are in one way a beneficial emotional or stress reducing activity From what age must one get a physical examination and probably an exercise stress test to determine current functional capacity a 2530 h 3035 c 3540 d 4045 e 4550 Answers 1F 2 T 3A 4E 5C g Behavior Modi cation Lecture Teresa Snow 1040 Health Concepts and Strategies Georgia Institute of Technology l J A x u r l 7 V A r W 5 y o L LKuAkM g 15 V 63 9 Q Niagam f we 1 gt u Z a 6 l 5 5 heart attack cars stroke airplanes hypertension television diabetes space ight obesity personal computers cancer cell phones osteoporosis internet depression Virtual reality Research studies during the last three decades have convincingly documented the bene ts of physical activity and healthy lifestyles However most people are still unable to implement 0r adhere to a healthy lifestyle program For Example Studies have shown that over 60 of adults who start an exercise program quit Within the rst month Over 65 million Americans meet the criteria for obesity According to the US Surgeon General at least 60 of adult Americans do not get the recommended amount of physical activity quotA111 treSHr 39 INLEBAdixemv I39wuepcmemm39 H y hill596535 IREBEXQC39SHS RZSExe39dsas EadsaCHJegzyesaoilegeSab Sparling amp Snow Res Quart Exerc Sport 2002 This environment includes family friends peers home school work our communities and culture in general When it comes to fitness and wellness we live in a toxic environment modern conveniences increases in fast food options and portion sizes AND THE REAL mt Burger mg 239 oz 202 nalnrlus 1255 McDonald39s 2A In 110 calnrlos l 9 I U Hershey39s 2 or 297 calories l9 CocaACola a ll l l 77 7 l 85 llnld 01 19 alums H39ll39lllx Mavle popcorn 3 um 11 calerlcs 31001 16 llulrl ax 194 calm m 39 l 21 cups utter 1700 enlnrlns Energy Intake vs Energy Expenditure calories burned Email colleague 1 min 2 Rlde elevator 2 mins 3 Order takeout 1 min 1 Load dishwasher 10 rnlns 23 Watch w 7 35 Go to car wash 35 Play video game 53 Mow lawn riding mower 88 calories burned Walk to colleague39s of ce 1 min 4 Take stairs 2 mlns 19 Cook meal 70 Wash dishes 80 Play cards 52 Wash car at llori 104 Play basketball 280 Mow lawnpower mower 193 age 5 17 who are Classi ed as overweight using BMI already have two or more risk factors for heart disease pproximately 39 of children Children ages 61 wha are overweight by gender 19782006 i Total j Male 1976 1980 58 1983 1994 106 1999 2000 143 2001 2002 mama 151 20032004 168 2005 2005 159 Ovemeight is de ned as body mass index BMI at or above the 95th perceng of the sex speci c EMlfarage growth charts 7 W Wtiz Study Shows Kids Tethered to Technology The average child spends approximately 25 hours listening to music 5 hours watching TVmovies 3 hours on internetplaying Video games Kaiser Family Foundation zer w r 7 7 77 Hw Does this Infl zdemic Performance Light Media Users Heavy Media Users l Good Grades l Good I Fair Poor Grades Grades l Fair Poor I School Grades Doesn39t Use Grades s39 f ance for Iie lth vsfP FFdFm g i 39 a V Gradually we incorporate many of these unhealthy behaviors into out personal lifestyle Barriers to Change Procrastination Cultural Expectations or Beliefs Grati cation Short term vs Long Term Risk Complacency Wait until a problem occurs to deal with it Complexity IndifferenceHelplessness Rationalization it is really not that bad Invincibility unhealthy behaviors won t harm me Changing a behavior is complicated Knowiedge Adequate supports resources Incentives and rewards o Beliefs Skillsapq 3939 39 h i s Familygugport 39 l yaf eat magmas Ea u n Predisposing factors Enabling Reinforcing 0 factors 0 factors 7 quot ith assassmants Waltonships mom Vrclse behaviors d d gment and control we m mama decisions BEHAVIDRS I To Modify a Behavior First Think About Personal Attitudes toward the Behavior Patterns Which in uence the Behavior Is this a Learned Behavior that has been reinforced over time How g Motivation Comes from within 39 Is in uenced by external factors 39 Locus of Control Internal vs External ing e t1 i 0 Social Cognitive Theory 0 Based on the concept that behavior is dynamic 0 Interaction among the individual the environment and specific behaviors are subtle and complex nderstanding Health Behaviors 39 Health Belief Model ie39jrc iz susgg3 bilityquot 0 Five primary factors quot P 39 m influencing behavior 0 Susceptibility T i Bergeivedserieuanss 39ofacdnsequ nc e39s Perceived h nefits 1 Df39speg c39acfiqn 0 Consequences 0 Course of action Perc jy d arriers h 0 Benefit of ta king action yo gaggvac gg 0 Confidence and follow through A Transtheoretieal Model of Behavior Change Model of Progression and Relapse krmmahon nfennnce paration fempla on Precontemplali nn The Behavior Change Plan of Action Monitor behavior and gather data Analyze data and identify patterns Set specific goals Devise a strategy niodify your environment reward yourself involve friends and family Make a personal contract Q rJ 31 V lt4 quotg 4 E 39 Cvey s Model of TimeManagement Urgent Not Urgent Important Not Important
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