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Intro to Organismal Biol

by: Kyler Ondricka

Intro to Organismal Biol BIOL 1520

Kyler Ondricka

GPA 3.84

Linda Green

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Linda Green
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyler Ondricka on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1520 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Linda Green in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/233998/biol-1520-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.


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Date Created: 11/02/15
BIOL 1520 Exam 1 Study Guide Earth39s History eons and eras 0 Earth was formed about 46 bya o Archaean eon 0 Part of Precambian o 46 25 bya 0 Origin of life prokaryotes N 38 bya I Electron transport systems for ATP synthesis developed All 3 domains possess it 0 First evidence of photosynthetic cells 0 First evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis I N35 bya in cyanobacteria o Atmospheric oxygen increasedN 27 bya o Proterozoic eon o 25 bya 542 mya Single celled eukaryotes formed N 22 bya Multicellular eukaryotes formed 1 bya Origin of animalsN 600 mya diversification of algae occurred N 600 mya 0 Soft bodied invertebrate animals about 600 mya o Phanerozoic eon o 542 mya present o Paleozoic era 542251 mya I Periods Cambrian 542 mya o Cambrian explosion diversity of animal phyla 542 mya I Ordocician 4883 mya o Colonization of land by vascular plans and animals N 4883 mya o Colinization of land by arthropods N 4883 mya Silurian 4437 mya o Diversification of vascular plants N4437 mya I Devonian 416 mya o Diversification of bony fishes first tetrapods and insects 416 mya I Carboniferous 3592 mya 0 Extensive vascular plants seed plants originate 3592 mya 0 Origin of reptiles o Amphibians dominant I Permian 299 mya 0 Mass extinction at end of Permian period N 251 mya 0 Many marine and terrestrial organisms O O O O 0 Origin of most present day orders of insects 0 Radiation of reptiles o Mesozoic era 251655 mya I Periods Triassic 251 mya o Earth s land masses joined in supercontinent Pangaea up to 201 mya 0 Radiation of Dinosaurs 0 Origin of mammal like reptiles I Jurassic 1996 mya o Cone bearing plants gymnosperms dominate 1996 mya I Cretaceous 1455 mya o Flowering plants appear angiosperms 1455 mya 0 Split into Laurasia northern and Gondwana southern by 135 mya 0 Mass extinction including dinosaurs at end of Cretaceous period 655 mya o Separated into the present day continents by 655 mya o Cenozoic era 655 mya present I Paleogene period 655 23 mya o Epochs Paleocene 655 mya o Eocene 558 mya I Angiosperms dominate 558 mya o Oligocene 339 mya I Origins of many primate groups including apes I Neogene 23 mya present o Epochs Miocene 23 mya I India collided with Eurasia forming the Himalayas N 10 mya I Apelike ancestors of humans appear 23 mya o Pilocene 53mya I Origin of genus Homo appears I Humans appear ice ages 18 mya o Holocene 001mya Plant and Animal Features 0 Prokaryotes 0 Lack a cell nucleus of any other membrane bound organelles unlike eukaryotes o All DNA and metabolic activity are openly accessible within the cell Most are unicellular but some have multicellular stages in their life cycles 0 Belong to the bacteria and Archaea domains 0 Eukaryotes o Eukaryotic cell differences from prokaryotes I DNA amp cytoplasm is separated by a nuclear envelope I Cytoplasm contains membrain bound compartments with specialized metabolic functions 0 Mitochondria chloroplasts endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex I Highly specialized contractile proteins that move cells and internal parts Protists o Eukaryotic microorganisms with relatively simple organization 0 Distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes like fungi plants and animals 0 Either unicellular or multicellular without specialized tissues Gymnosperms o Seed bearing plants 0 including conifers cycads Ginko and Gnetales 0 Name means quotnaked seeds after the unenclosed condition oftheir seeds 0 Seeds develop either on the surface of scale or leaf like appendages of cones 0 Combined with angiosperms comprise the spermatophytes Angiosperms o Flowering plants 0 Most diverse group ofland plants 0 Seed plants like the gymnosperms but can be distinguished by characteristics including flowers endosperm within the seeds and the production of fruits that contain the seeds Arthropods o Invertebrate animals with exoskeletons segmented bodies and jointed appendages 0 Includes insects arachnids and crustaceans o Characterized by jointed limbs and cuticles mainly made of chitin Fish 0 Gill bearing aquatic vertebrate or craniate animals that lack limbs with digits 0 Including hagfish lampreys and cartilaginous and bony fish 0 Most are ectothermic though some larger are not Amphibians 0 Class of vertebrate animals characterized as cold blooded tetrapods 0 Includes animals such as toads frogs caecilians and salamanders 0 Most undergo metamorphosis from a juvenile water breathing juvenile to and air breathing adult o Superficially similar to reptiles but they are not amniotes not adapted to terrestrial egg laying o Reptiles o Terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates characterized by laying shelled eggs except for some snakes that give live birth 0 Skin covered in scales or scutes bony plates 0 Birds 0 Feathered winged bipedal endothermic egg laying vertebrates o Evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period Characterized by beak with no teeth laying of hard shelled eggs high metabolic rate and lightweight but strong skeleton o Mammals o Vertebrate animals characterized by endothermy hair and mammary glands functional in mothers who nurse their young 0 Most all but 5 species give birth to live young MYA EON Era Period Epoch Events 0045 Phanerozoic Cenozoic Quaternary Recent 18 Pleistocene 5 Tertiary Pilocene 24 Milocene 37 Oigocene 58 Eocene 65 Paleocene 144 Mesozoic Cretaceous 213 Jurassic 248 Triassic 286 Paleozoic Permian 320 Carboniferous Pennsylvanian 360 Mississippian 408 Devonian 438 Silurian 505 Ordovician 543 Cambrian 2500 Proterozoic The Proterozoic and Archean Eons are 3800 Archaean sometimes referred to collectively as the Precambian 4500 Hadean


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