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Intro Media Computation

by: Alayna Veum

Intro Media Computation CS 1315

Alayna Veum

GPA 3.81

Monica Sweat

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Monica Sweat
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alayna Veum on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 1315 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Monica Sweat in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/234016/cs-1315-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in ComputerScienence at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.

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Date Created: 11/02/15
651315 Introduction to Media Computation Movies Psychophysics of Movies Persistence of Vision s I What makes movies work is yet another limitation of our visual s em Persistence of vision I We do not see every change that happens in the world aroun us I Instead our eye retains an image for a fraction ofa second 39s were not the caseyou wouhl he aware of your eye ks hecause the worm wouhl go awayquot fora moment 39 139 16 frames and it s motion I Ifyou see 16 separate pictures in one second and these pictures are logically sequenced a That is 2 could logically follow from the scene in 1 i 16 pictures of completely different things doesn t work I You Will perceive the pictures as being in motion I 16 frames per second fps 16 pictures in a second is the lower bound for the sensation ofmotion Beyond 1 6 fps I Early silent pictures were 16 f s I Motion picture standards shifted to 24 fps to make sound smoother I Videocameras digital video captures 30 fps I How high can we 0 39rlorce experiments suggest that pilots can recognize a h of light in 1200quot of a seconu E iueo game players say that they can uiscern a uinerence hetween an fps and co fps I Bottomlines Generate at least 1 fps and you proviue a sense of motion if you want to process viueo you re going to have an fps to process unless it s been mouifieu elsewhere foryou 1 Processing movies I Our frames are going to be JPEG pictures o One JPEG file per frame I So ifwe re going to be processing movies We re going to generating or processing sequences of 1 PEG les MPEG QuickTime AVI JMV I M39PEG QuickTime and AVI are comprerred movie formats 39Hley don t recoru everyframe Rather they recoru some heyfnmes and then store uata about what parts of the screen change on intervening frames MPEG is an international stanuaru from the same people who 39 venteu use AVIisaMicr s ftst a u nuichrime is an Apple stanuaru I J39MV is a file consisting of JPEG frames in an array p All frames representeu 39 i1 Today s class cs 1 3 1 5 l Anatomy of a function Using a function is like organizational delegation Call graphs Media Computation Inputs to functions T Parameters and arguments Example celebrity weddings I Outputs from functions iii Return Values Making sense of functions 39 A function One and only one thing I We write functions as we do to make them general and reusable Programmers hate to have to rewrite something they ve written before They write functions in a general way so that they can e use in many circumstances 1 I What makes a function general and thus reusable Output II A reusable function does One and Only One Thing Like a guild manager it duesn t miernmanage Funetinn It delegates details Compare these two programs def makeSunset picture for p in getPixels picture valuegetBlue p setBlue p value 0 valuegetGreen p setGreen p value 07 Yes they do exactly the same thing makeSunsetsomepict has the same effect in both cases def makeSunset picture reduceBlue picture reduceGreen picture def reduceBlue picture for p in getPixels picture valuegetBlue p setBlue p value 0 def reduceGreen picture for p in getPixels picture value getGreen p setGreen p value 07 But this one delegates details 39 Inputs parameters are placeholders I When we type in the Command Area gtgtgt makeSunsetpicture Whatever object that is in the Command Area variable picture becomes the value of the placeholder input variable picture in def makeSunsetpicture reduceBluepicture reduceGreenpicture makeSunset s picture is then passed as input to reduceBlue and reduceGreen but their input variables are completely different from makeSunset s picture it For the life of the functions they are the same values picture objects Input variables as placeholders example def sayVoWsspeaker I Imagme we have 21 mm r Speaker r blah blah weddmg computer def pronounceman woman r 8411 and A VT01TBU def marry ausband ware prmt I now pronounce you sayVowshusband prmt You may now 1055 the erde sayVows vnfe pronounc ehusband ware e defklss 1 2 sshusband M p p prmt slurp Sn haw dn We marry Brad and Angelina Input variables as placeholders example I Imagine we have a wedding computer def marry au band ware sayVows shamequot sayVows e pronoun e usbilndware 55husband ware def sayVowsspeaker mt I m speaker blah bLahquot def pronounceman Woman mt I now pronounce you quot dermssp1 p2 prmt slurp 39 Input variables as placeholders example I I h def sayVowss eaker mag1ne we ave a pmtpeaker blah bLahquot weddmg computer pronounce anan woman punt Ifch you defmarry ausband seyVowshus SS 1 2 sayVows e p slurp pronouncehus 39 lass ausband ware Variables within functions stay within functions I The variable value in def deereaseRed picture decreaseRed is createdwithin quotme gamed P the scope ofdecreaseRed setRed p value 05 w That means that it only exists while decreaseRed is executing l Ifwe tried to print value after Hg decreaseRed 1t wo 11mm work ONLY if we already had a uld variable de ned in the Command The name value within decreaselted doesn t exist outside of that funct inn We call that a local variable Today s Class Networking CS1 315 Introduction to Media Computation I What are networks I What is the Internet amp what kind of network is it I What is the web and how is it related to the Internet I What do web clients do and what do servers provide Manipulating the network a Networks Two or more computers communicating I Networks distinct computers communicate a Rarely does the communication take the place or 01 voltages overa wir More conlnlo Networks are everywhere I If you re driving a newer car you de nitely have a network insid n is the use ollrequencies modem in ouulator uem ouulator takes your computer39s 0 s lllll 1 s lllll translates them into sounl lrequencies that can comprise a telephone call 0 k owk c There are lots of computers in your car controlling air flow gas flow making the air bag work and they communicat I You can have a network in your own horn e or even on an airplane a can use radio signals for communication wireless 7 or can string a cable between two comwters Networks can be connected diffemntly diff topologies 39 I 39 1 Networks have layers I Bottom level physical D Wires Radio lrequenc39e I Higher levels encoding of data 3 one hit at a timeA hyt or in packe Ethernet A common midlevel substrate protocol I Ethernet is a common midlevel protocol 5 Miler usel in single huihlings or ouices 9 It I til 9 I It speci es some aspects ofhow data is encoded and 1 395 quotquot39quoty hy s39 com ters are spe l ed I Even higher protocol a ror exam le comp ter a How uo l address a particular computer l want to talk to or many computers p ach u o tnetworh a ueepuown insilethe omputer ahlress that humans it uniquely I But Ethernet can work over a Variety ofphysical a How do I tell a computerthat I want substrates to talk to it that I m startin to senl it IlatWllatit39s supposel to do with itwnen we re uone For example you can run Ethernet overwireless nuio or over coaxial cahle where you hear terms like quot1oluse39rquot orquotcat 5quot Ethernet cahle Today s Class Networking I What are networks I What is the Internet amp What kind of network is it I What is the web and how is it related to the Internet I What do web clients do and what do servers provide 39 The Internet is not new I The Internet agreements date back 40 years I It Was originally set up for military applications destroyed damaged or subject to censorship I The Internet originally had only a handful of computers nodes on it but it has grown dramatically in recent years Internet based on protocols agreements on encodings A way or associating domain names with these numbers wcnncom which really is a name that resolves n name servers i o s s I How computers will communicate it quotlat illhe p 39 to packets quotlat computers wi talk to one notllerusing TCFIF H w packets are routed around the network to nd their destination I One of the rst applications placed on top ofthe Internet I The File Tramfer Protoco Internet A collection of networks I The Internet is a network of networks I If you put a device in your home so that your computers can talk to one another you have a network A wireless base station oran Ethernet router perhaps vou can probably reach printers on yournetwork orcopy tiles between computers I If you now connect your network through anIriternet Service Provider ISP to the global Internet your network becomes yet another part of the Whole Internet 39 1 Internet Designed to be robust l The Internet grew out ofARPAN T E which was funded by Department of Defense W L ldea was to see how robust a network would be if it had no center r important practical question f for military command and control during a nuclear war Lack ofcentral control accounts partly for Intemet s WildWest culture Which topology is most likely to survive attack Protocols on the Internet I But all that just lets us pass data back and forth Wh a say r What doesthe data do was electronic mail quotfile mail protocols have evolved overtime to their standard lorms today 1 FTP allows computers to move files between each other it delines what one side says to the otherwhen co nle over eg sro nlenamequot and how the le will encoded Today s Class Networking Worldwide Web WW I What are networks I The Web dates only back to the 1980 s before there were graphical browsers like Netscape Navigator Internet Explorer and the rst NCSA Mosaic I The Web is again a set of agreements started by Tim BemersLee I What is the Internet amp what kind of network is it I What is the web and how is it related to the Internet I What do web clients do and what do servers provide on how to reierto everything on the lnternet1he URL Uniform Resource Lacafar L on now to create documents that reierto things all over the Internet HTTP Hypertext rransier Protocol on how those documents will he iormatted Using HTML Hypertext Markup Language 39 HyperText Non near text I It refers to text that is non linear Wllich the computer makes possible The point of the Web is Hypertext I Tim BemersLee Wanted a Way to create readable documents that could reference material anywhere on the Internet in a hypertext format I There are technical aws in What he did i For example the phenomena of dead lin s couldn t happen in earlier experimental hypertext systems Linear text is a sequence of pages or text sections Usually read in the order planned by the author Hypertext IS a network of pages or sections You read them in the order th t interests you I Hypertext breaks down authority of author and publisher I But it worked and has become a Worldwide standard 39 a 39 I HyperText Transfer Protocol HTTP Unlform Resource Locators U RL I URLs alloqu to reference any matenal on the Internet strictly speaking any computer providing a protocol accessible V URL r Just putting your computer on th urea ever URLs have four parts Th protocol to use to reach this resource The domain name of the com puter where the resource ls HTTP defines avery simple protoeol forhow to exchange information between eornpu e s It de nes the pieces of the eornrnunreataon 39 What resource do you want Where is it w okay here s the type of thing it is JPEG HTML whatever and here it is Andthe words that the eornpute e Internet does not n that all of your files are accessible to yone on the Internet 5 say to one another Low level statements like GET PUT and 0K 7 The path on the computer to the resource L And the name of the resource Example URL httpwww cc gatechetluimlexhtml Four pans ftpllcleonocgatech edulpublguzdiallpapa slsigtse2003pdf 1 2 3 4 What if there is no path I Web servers programs that understand the HTTP protocol typically have a special directory that they serVe from 39 at spe al directory are directly referable w hout specifying a path Eg www gatechedu I Subdirectories within the server directory can be accessed in terms ofa path 39 But search always starts from the server directory so even if your coin puter is a sewer not everything on your computer is accessible by clients 39 Today s Class Networking I What are networks I What is the Internet ampwhat kind ofnetwork is it I What is the web and how is it related to the Internet I What do web clients do and what do servers provide 39 1 Clients and sewers Generally the data llows from server to cheat like rmding a le Clients and Salas are programs but the words often apply also to the computers that rim the programs A browser is a client I Your Web browser is called a client accessing a Web server I Programs like IE understand a lot about Internet protocols 1h w to interpret mm and di 1 ic Ilt e HrML relerences otherresources Ilke use pic client letches them and displays them where appropriat Vollr client knows the details of the HTTP and maybe rrr niailto gopher protocols so that it can request the resources request y res the e You don t need a browser to be an Internet e nt I Python and other languages have modules that allow you to use these protocols Remember that in Python we can read any URL as if it was a file gtgtgt import urllib gtgtgt connection urlliburlopen httpwwwajccomweather gtgtgt weather connectionread0 gtgtgt connectioncloseo e is at eefm dien gr s a vi CS1 31 5 Introduction to Media Computation HTML What it is how to generate it Hypertext Markup Language HTML I HTML is a kind of SGML Standardized general markup language ti SGML was invented by IBM and others as a way of defining parts of a document COMPLETELYAPART FROM HOW T DOCUMENT WAS F ORMA TTED E a r o ocument would be decided by the client browser and its limitations I For example a document would look different on aPDA than on your screen or on your cellphone Orin IE vs Netscape vs Opera vs Evolution of HTML I But with the explosive growth of the Web HTML has become much more 2 Now p o want to control the Iookamlfeel of the page down to t e pixels and fonts 2 Plus we wan to grab information more easily out of Web pages Leading to XML the extensible Markup Language ML a1 kup languages that say explicitly identify prices or stock ticker codesfor business purposes We re going to be focusing on a version of HTML based on XML called XHTML Markup means adding tags I A markup language adds tags to regular text to identify its pants I A tag in HTML is enclosed by ltangle bracketsgt I Most tags have a staiting tag and an ending tag 2 A paragraph is identified by a ltpgt at its start and a ltlpgt at its end A headin ltlh 1gt a g is identified by a lth1gt at its start and a I nd quotgt lthtmlgt ltheadgt Yes that Whole lttitlegtThe Simplest Possible Web Pagelttitlegt thing is the ltheadgt DOCTYPE ltbodygt lthlgtA Simple Headinglthlgt ltpgtThis is a paragraph in the simplest possible Web pageltpgt No It doesn t matter ltbodygt Where you put new lthtmlgt lines or extra spaces What it looks like in IE 5 The Simplest Possible Web Page Microsoft Internet Explorer at am View Favnmes Tools Help cam m O 15ml Favcmes Mema I v v D a nue lg Duzumems and SemngSWark mummy Dummentmslmplamml v an M A Simple Heading This is a paragraph m m Emvplesrpnsslble a pig Is this a Web page I Yes I The only difference between this page and one on the Web is that the one on the Web a has been uploaded to a Web server and b placed in a directory that the W server can access See the Networking chapter I Easiest way to try it out as a Web page Attach this file to your CoWeb page or use FTP to transfer it to a Web space you have access to Other things in there I We re simplifying these tags a bit I More can go in the ltheadgt Javascript for interaction we will discuss this later css for formatting we won t discuss h39 eferences to other documents like cascading style sheets and scri I The ltbodygt tag can also set colors lthndy hgcnlnrquotFFFFFFquot textquot000000quot Iillkquot330000quot alillkquot000033quot Vlillkquot 0 quotgt These are actually setting RGB values What if you forget the DOCTYPE Or an ending tag I It ll probably work I Browsers have developed to deal with all kinds of HTML which does not follow the rules But if the browser has to guess then it may guess wrong I That is not what you expected or meant is when your document may look different on different browse A tiny tutorial on hexadecimal I You know decimal numbers base 10 01234567s91o111213141516 I You Ve heard a little about binary base 2 00000001oo1ooo11o1ooo1 I Hexadecimal is base 16 01234567s9ABcDEF1o 16 base 10 Hexadecimal colors in HTML I FF0000 is Red 255 for red FF 0 for green 0 for blue I 0000FF is Blue 0 for red 0 for green 255 for blue I 000000 is black 0 for red 0 for green 0 for blue I FFFFFF is white 255 for red 255 for green 255 for blue Emphasizing your text I There are siX levels of headings defined in HTlVlL lth1gtlth6gt Lower numbers are larger more prominent I Styles ltemgtEmphasisltlemgt ltstronggtStrong emphasisltlstronggt I ltigtItalicsltigt and ltbgtBoldfaceltbgt ltbiggtBigger g and quot quot 39 quot ltttgtTypewriter fontltlttgt ltpregtPreformattedltlpregt ltcodegtCode such as Pythonltlcodegt 1 a l r r r and L a Examples of styles FIIE Edit View Favuntes Tums Help Searh Favuntes Q Mema mumlWy Datum X ltigtnancsltngt A Simple Headmg rm mph smpieapnssmmw and ltsubgtSubscriplsltlsubgt Elnrkq39uue m 1de asilf m bath 5mg Sugrxnpr and mix 139 Finer control ltfontgt I Can control type face color or size ltb0dygt lth 1gtA Simple Headingltlh 1gt A Simple Heading Thls is m HEKVEUDA ltpgtltf0nt facequotHelveticaquotgt This is in helvetica ltf0ntgtltpgt This is a bit bigger Happv mu hum ms ltpgtltfont colorquotgreenquotgt Happy Saint Patrick s ltf0ntgtltPgt Can also use hexadecimal RGB speci cation here ltpgtltfont sizequot2quotgt This is a bit bigger ltf0ntgtltpgt ltb0dygt quotgt lthtmlgt ltheadgt lttitlegtT he Simplest Possible Web Pageltltitlegt headgt ltbodygt lth1gtA Simple Headingltlh1gt ltpgtThis is a paragraph in the simplestltbr gt possible Web page ltpgt ltimg srcquotmediasources owerljpg lgt ltbodygt lthtmlgt An example image tag use 3 The Simplest Possible Web Page v Micro Parameters to image tags I You can specify width and height in A Simple Heading image tags lth1gtA Simple Headinglth1gt ltimg srcquotmediasources owerl jpgquot gt ltimg srcquotmediasources owerl jpgquot widthquot100quot gt ltbr gt ltimg srcquotmediasources owerl jpgquot heightquot100quot gt ltbr gt ltimg srcquotmediasources owerl jpgquot widthquot200quot heightquot200quot gt ltbr gt ltbodygt lthtmlgt 64 39 J Alt in images I Some browsers like audio or Braille can t show images I You can include alternative text to be displayed instead of the image in those cases ltimg srcquotmediasourceslflower1jpgquot altquotA Flower lgt 39 I Creating links I Links have two main parts to them A destination URL Something to be clicked on to go to the destination I The link tag is a for anchor lta hrefquothttp wwwcc gatechedufacColinPotts quotgt Colin Pottsltagt 39 i What it looks like ltb0dygt 0am v V E y I Search Favantas Mama lth1gtA Simple Headinglth1gt ltpgtThis is a paragraph in the simplest ltbr gt possible Web page ltpgt ltimg srcquotmediasources owerl jpgquot alt A Flower gt ltpgtHere is a link to lta href quothtt www cc gatech eduNmark guz dialquotgtMark Guzdialltagt ltpgt 39 H E monuments and SEttmgsW rk GuzdlalWy Dncumentsslmplehml A Simple Heading This is aparagiaphmth simples pnssibl Wab pug Her 3 a Link in Mark mum ltbodygt Images can be links lth1gtA Simple Headingltlh1gt ltpgt lta hrefquothttpwwwccgatecheduquotgt ltimg srcquothttpwww N gator h main lesgoldmain01gif gt ltagt ltpgt Max 1 CDucuments and SettingsWark Guzmaiwy A Simple Heading Georgia um wt iTechLmro mgjy Getting the path to an image I Depends on platform and browser 2mm many I For Windows and IE right click on image and choose properties d There s the URL Lists I Ordered lists numbered ltolgt ltligtFirst itemltlligt ltligtNext itemltlligt ltlolgt I Unordered lists bulleted ltulgt ltligtFirst itemltlligt ltligtSecond itemltlligt ltlulgt Tables A Simple Heading lttable b0rderquot5quotgt cman lCnlumu lttrgt m m lttdgtC0lumn 1lttdgt lttdgtC0lumn 2lttdgt lttrgt k lttrgt lttdgtElement in column Ilttdgt lttdgtElemenl in column 2lttdgt lttrgt lttablegt 651315 Introduction to Media Computation Sound Encoding and Manipulation How sound works Acoustics the physics of sound I Sounds are Waves of air pressure ound comes in Ies A W The Irequency of a wave is the her of cycles per second cps Hertz Complex sounds have more than one frequency in them 1 The amplitude is th axlmum height of the wave 39 I Volume and pitch 139 quot therquotu f sound I Our perception of volume is related logarithmically to changes in amplitude D If the amplitude doubles it s about a 3 decibel dB c ange Our perception of pitch is related logarithmically to changes in frequency 2 Higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches D We can hear between 5 Hz and 20000 Hz 20 kHz E A above middle c is 440 Hz 39 Logarithmically I It s strange but our hearing works on ratios not di erences eg for pitch 39 We hear the difference between 200 Hz and 400 Hz as the same as 500 Hz and 1000 Hz Similarly 200 Hz to 600 Hz and 1000 Hz to 3000 Hz l Intensity volume is measured as watts per meter squared A change from 01Wm2 to 001 Wmz sounds the same to us as 0001Wm2 to 00001Wm2 Decibel is a logarithmic measure I A decibel is a ratio between two intensities 10 logroarIz I As an absolute measure it s in comparison between a sound and the threshold of audibility 0 dB can t be heard by definition Normal speech is 60 dB A shout is about 80 dB Demonstrating Sound MediaTools Fourier mumsform FFT mas n 159 value 3016 l l VLVA V VA V I lllllllIllllllIllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Digitizing Sound How do we get that into numbers I Remember in calculus estimating the curve by creating rectangles We can do the same to estimate the sound curve Analogtodi ital instant as a number a mple r How many samples do we need Nyquist Theorem I We need twice as many samples as the maxi frequency in order to represent and recreate later the original sound I The number of samples recorded per second is the sampling rate If we capture 8000 samples per second the highest frequency we can capture is 4000 Hz everything sounds tinny and fuzzy That s how phones work If we ca ture more than 44000 samples per second we capture up to 22000 Hz even music reproduces perfectly CD quality is 44100 samples per second Digitizing sound in the computer I Each sample is stored as a number two bytes l What s the range of available combinations 16 hits 215 55536 But we want both positive and negative values I To indicate compressions and rarefactions What if we use one hit to indicate positive 0 or negative 1 11at leaves us with 15 hits 15 hits 215 32168 One of those combinations will stand for zero We ll use a positive one so that s one less pattern forpositives 39 I I 32K I Each sample can be between 62768 and 32767 Why such a bizarre number Because 32768 32767 1 216 lt 0 gt 0 0 ie 16 bits or 2 bytes Compare this to 0255 for light intensity ie 8 bits or 1 byte 39 1 Sounds as arrays l Samples are just stored one right after the other in the computer s memo l That s called an array It s an especially ef cient quickly accessed memory ture Like pixels in a picture 39 1 Working with sounds I We ll use pickAFile and makeSound 39 w nt wav fi es l We ll use getSamples to get all the sample objects out of a sound I We can also get the value at any index with getSampleValueAt l Sounds also know their length getLength and their sampling rate getSamplingRate I Can save sounds with WritesoundTosound filewav 031315 Introduction to Media Computation Strings and grammar Randomly choosing words from a list gtgtCgtf0riinrange15 print randomch0ice Here quotisquot quotaquot quotlistquot quotofquot quotwordsquot list a Iiere list Randomly generating phrases I Given a list of nouns verbs that agree in tense and number and object phrases that all match the verb I We can randomly take one from each to make sentences I We need a simpli ed grammar for diagramming sentences in English e g sentence 1101111 I l verb manner circumstancel Random sentence generator import random def sentence nouns quotMark quotAdamquot quotAngelaquot quotLarryquot quotJosequot quotMattquot quotJimquot verbs quotruns quotskipsquot quotsingsquot quotleapsquot quotjumpsquot quotclimbsquot quotarguesquot adverbial quotin a tree quotover a log quotvery loudly quotaround the pool quotwhile reading the Technique adverbial adverbial quotVery badly quotwhile skipping instead of grading quotwhile typing on the COWeb print randomch0icen0uns randomch0iceverbs randomch0iceadverbia1 How much smarter can we make this I Can we have different kinds of lists so that depending on the noun selected picks the right verb list to get a match in tense and number I How about reading input from the user picking out key words then generating an appropriate response if inputfind mother ltgt 1 print Tell me more about your mother Joseph Weizenbaum s Eliza I Created a program that acted like a Rogerian therapist Echoing back to the user whatever they said as a question It had rules that triggered on key words in the user s statements It had a little memory of what it had said before I People really believed it was a real therapist Convinced Weizenbaum of the dangers of computing Session with Eliza gtgtgtMy mother bothers me Tell me something about your family gtgtgtMy father was a caterpillar You seem to dwell on your family gtgtgtMy job isn39t good either Is it because of your plans that you say your job is not good either


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