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Chronic Illness and Physical Activity

by: Jeanne Arnson-Serotta

Chronic Illness and Physical Activity KIN155

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN155 > Chronic Illness and Physical Activity
Jeanne Arnson-Serotta
Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health
Anthony Musto

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About this Document

Class Notes from lectures on 1/16 and 1/21 which include notes on Chronic Illness and the different types of Physical Activity.
Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health
Anthony Musto
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeanne Arnson-Serotta on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN155 at University of Miami taught by Anthony Musto in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/23/15
Chronic Disease 0 Exercise slows the progression of diseases 0 Costs Chronic disease accounts for 3 of every 4 spent on health care 0 Chronic disease is a disease that develops over a long period of time 0 If disease process is chronically present and genome is expressed the pathophysiology how the disease occurs does not go away 0 Goal is to reverse the pathophysiology most drugs do not do this they only eliminate the symptom or outcome 0 Four behaviors that explain about 80 of chronic disease 0 Physical inactivity 0 Poor nutrition 0 Smoking 0 Excess alcohol 0 Physical Activity 0 Reduces blood pressure Reduces cholesterol Reduces risk of diabetes Reduces risk of cancer Reduces excess body fat Reduces risk of osteoporosis Reduces risk of heart attack Reduce anxiety Reduces depression Improves memory 0 Le there is a magic pill to prevent and treat dozen of diseases its physical activity 0 Only about 50 of Americans over 18 years old meet the current physical activity OOOOOOOOO guidelines and these guidelines are very conservative 0 60 of the global population fails to meet the minimal PA recommendation 0 As we are becoming inactive and medical technology gets better people are living longer with chronic disease We keep sick people alive longer and this drains health care systems Physical Activity Participation is affected by Age older we get the less active we are simple opportunities become less and you have to actually make an effort to be active Gender men tend to be more active than women tend to have more muscle mass men are more likely to do yard work be a construction worker etc because of the gender roles we have EducationSocioeconomic Status the more education someone has the more likely they are to fit the PA guidelines higher education is tied to salary and those with higher salaries have more access to gyms communities with parks etc Also the more knowledgeable you are about the positive effects of PA from school the more you are likely to work out Ethnicity minorities tend to be less active than white Europeans 12115 Physical Activity 0 Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle contraction that results in a substantial increase in caloric requirements above REE I REE Resting Energy Expenditure calories you need at rest Doing absolutely nothing we burn calories for brain function organ function etc Average range from 1100 a day for a small person and 2200 calories a day for a large eater 0 Increase in energy expenditure must be significant enough to elicit adaptations and health benefits 0 PA is divided into sub categories 0 Lifestyle Activity I Includes Occupational Activity and ADL s things you do during the day that are part of life I Physical activity performed for the sake of a task related outcome I This is where we have a huge gap in modern physical activity levels A lot of jobs aren t labor intensive anymore 0 Leisure Time Activity I Exercise going to the gym or working out intentionally I Recreation Sports Hobbies Exercise is a subset of leisure time activity I PA performed for the sake of the activity itself 0 Someone with more lifestyle activity may not have a formal workout but moves around all day and can be much more active than someone with a desk job who goes to the gym for an hour every day I Exercise planned structured leisure time PA performed to improve or maintain fitness performance andor health 0 Incorporates prescription variables frequency intensity duration mode repetitions 0 In exercise we are trying to achieve some outcome I Cardiovascular fitness V02 max I Muscular fitness Strength how much can you lift and Muscle Endurance repetitions we need both I Body Composition Body Fat I Flexibility ROM around a joint I Sedentary Behavior 0 OO Intensity Not only is how much you exercise important how much time you spend sitting and sedentary matters too Activities that do not increase energy expenditure substantially above rest If people just looked at their whole day and decreased the amount of time they spent sedentary they would see significant results Average adults sits 93 hours per day NOT INCLUDING SLEEP Obese people sit 25 hours more than normal weight people Those who watch TV for 3 or more hours per day are 64 more likely to die from heart disease Negative health effects of sedentary behavior occur independently of whether or not an individual is physically active Whether you39re active or not when you sit for a long period of time you begin to see similar negative effects What happens when you sit I As soon as you sit I Caloric expenditure drops to about 1 kcalminute 0 Fat oxidation enzyme activity decreases 90 I After two hours 0 HDL cholesterol enzyme activity drops 20 0 Insulin sensitivity decreases 0 Muscle needs oxygen to make energy Your heart pumps this blood around the system and your lungs take oxygen from the air and bring it to your blood The initial contraction of your heart rate is important I When we exercise we need more energy in our muscles and more blood ow So the heart begins to pump faster and we require more oxygen so our respiration rates increase to get more oxygen into our lungs and blood Therefore all of these processes of respiration blood oxygen levels and heart rate are all boiled down to muscle contraction Light less than 30 MET walking 20 mph or washing dishes Moderate 3060 MET waking 33 mph stationary bike 70w shooting around bball Vigorous more than 60 MET jogging 64 mph stationary bike 130w You can be physically active and not have physical fitness If you are active but you are not testing and adapting your body to new changes and new goals you do not have physical fitness To be considered to have physical fitness you must be able to perform physical work able to perform the required tasks at hand without fatigue or stress Improved fitness is often the outcome of higher volumes of PA Healthrelated fitness components of fitness affected by habitual physical activity that relate to health status Trying to be at a healthy weight and activity level Performancerelated fitness components of fitness that are necessary for OPTIMAL work or sports performance Trying to gain muscle lose fat etc


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