Human CS 6750
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alayna Veum on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CS 6750 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Gregory Abowd in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/234060/cs-6750-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in ComputerScienence at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Task Analysis John Stasko Spring 2007 This material has been developed by Georgia Tech HCI faculty and continues to evolve Contributors include Gregory Abowd AI Badre Jim Foley Elizabeth Mynatt Jeff Pierce Colin Potts Chris Shaw John Stasko and Bruce Walker Permission is granted to use with acknowledgement for nonpro t purposes Last revision January 2007 Agenda 0 Task Analysis Overview utility Types of task analysis Sources and use 1 6750Spr 07 Task Analysis 0 Analyzing and describing how people do their jobswork gt Go to their environment 0 Examine users tasks to better understand what they need from interface and how they will use it 6750Spr 07 Components i i I 39 0 Three key components to include in discussing how people work Activities Artifacts Relations Don t just focus on computer system artifacts and interactions Study related processes and objects in the environment that people may use and involve Example office envpapers Whiteboards etc W4 4 6750Spr 07 Task Analysis Focus r i i 0 Focus on observable behaviors What are the practices methods steps objects used 0 Observe users what they do less so how they do it 0 Not on internal cognitive state of user more on that in the future 6750Spr 07 Input amp Output 0 Gather data about what users need to do or accomplish then 0 Represent data for interpretation and use in design decisions 3 K4 6750Spr 07 Input amp Output Gather data Documentation Interviews Observation Surveysquestionnaires Automatic data recordingtracking Organize Data Represent Data Lists outlines matrices Narratives f Hierarchies amp Networks Flow charts 6750Spr 07 Data to be Gathered 0 Information about users Description of environment Where the tasks will be performed Major goals of the job What will result in a successful end state User preferences amp needs Before they even start coffee pen notebook log sheets 71 6750Spr 07 Data to be Gathered o Tasks amp Subtasks Physical Cognitive Communication 0 Conditions under which these tasks are done 0 Resultsoutcomes of tasks 0 Requirements to perform task39 Information Communication with others Equipment 6750Spr 07 Now What 0 You have piles of notes hours of video surveys up to here 0 How can you digest and represent the data to turn it into information 4 6750Spr 07 Representing Data Output 1 Essential use cases 2 User characteristics personas 3 Task Outlines 4 Narratives 5 Hierarchies amp Network Diagrams Hierarchical Task Analysis HTA EntityRelationship Diagrams 6 Flow Charts 6750Spr 07 4 11 1 Essential Use Case Scenario 0 Description of important or frequent user interactions 0 Used to evaluate walkthrough various design alternatives 0 Three elements Name User intention System responsibility 0 Do NOT make assumptions about the UI design r 6750Spr 07 12 Essential Use Case Example ArrangeMeeting USER INTENTION Arrange a meeting Identify meeting attendees and constraints Choose preferred date 6750Spr 07 SYSTEM RESPONSIBILITY Request meeting attendees and constraints Suggest potential dates Book meeting Essential Use Case Example Ger mugn mm User s purpoxe Symm mpomibiiiq lag my wll39 mam was mm my mace mm Sela nwency required Duplay gm rare Emeramounl tummy OJme mum Qltulue sang a I to n Con rm Amount My mum at paymem ovum wlhonmm for quotvan Cwe money me money mu gu 6750Spr 07 2 User Characteristics Persona 0 Description of user and what user wishes to do 0 Be specificdetailed even give names and picture 0 Three personas for ATM usage follow Adapted from User Interface Design and Evaluation The Open University 0 Developed by Cooper 1999 6750Spr 07 Characterizing Users m Woa a Emmi bxbirmmd CMNuniiY M mmm 6750Spr 07 Felix representing teenage ATM users Felix is 13 and gets pocket money each week He spends it with his friends so doesn t make regular deposits He does receive gifts for his birthday Christmas etc and saves that money for special purchases such as a computer games console or trendy clothes He has an ATM card allowing him to make withdrawals when needed for his purchases 6750Spr 07 Sandra representing young adults thru middle age Sandra is 30 is married to Jason has two children Todd6 and Carly 18 months They live in a subdivision that is about three miles from the town center where the bank and stores are located Jason uses the car for work and works long hours leaving at 645 am and returning at 800 pm Sandra does not drive so has to use public transportation She tries to run errands and shop while Todd is in school so she does only has to take Carly to town with her She typically needs to make two trips to town each week to get everything done She uses a stroller with Carly and the bank is one flight up via escalator so she prefers to use the ATM outside the first floor even though there is no canopy to protect customers from bad weather 39 6750Spr 07 i 18 Grandpa Marvin representing middle age to senior citizens Marvin is 68 years old and his social security is deposited into his bank account at the start of each month He goes to the bank every week withdrawing enough cash for the week for miscellaneous expenditure Regular bills are paid by check He stands in line for a live teller as he prefers the social interaction to using an ATM even though his new artificial hip makes standing in line uncomfortable He does not have an ATM card 6750Spr 07 19 3 Task Outlines Lists outlines matrices Use expandingcollapsing outline tool Add detail progressively Know in advance how much detail is enough Can add linked outlines for specific subtasks Good for sequential tasks Does not support parallel tasks well Does not support branching well Example next slide r 6750Spr 07 20 Using a lawnmower to cut grass TaSK OUtline Step 1 Examine lawn Make sure grass is dry Look for objects laying in the grass Step 2 Inspect lawnmower Check components for tightness Check that grass bag handle is securely fastened to the grass bag support Make sure grass bag connector is securely fastened to bag adaptor Make sure that deck cover is in place Check for any loose parts such as oil caps Check to make sure blade is attached securely Check engine oil level Remove oil ll cap and dipstick Wipe dipstick Replace dipstick completely in lawnmower Remove dipstick 7 Check that oil is past the level line on dipstick 6750Spr 07 4 Narratives Narratives Describe tasks in sentences Often expanded version of list or outline More effective for communicating general idea of task Not effective for Details branching tasks parallel tasks 0 GREAT as introduction to diagrams or outlines 6750Spr 07 5 Hierarchies amp Networks 0 Hierarchical Task Decomposition Goals what the user wants to achieve Tasks do these to achieve the goals 0 Sequential dependencies Create new document before entering text 0 Multiple occurrences of tasks 0 Subtasks lowerlevel tasks The lowestlevel subtasks get mapped onto one or several UI commands 0 ie move done by a copyfollowed by a paste 6750Spr 07 34 5 Hierarchies amp Networks Hierarchical Task Analysis HTA Graphical notation amp decomposition of tasks Tasks as sets of actions Tasks organized into plans 0 Clusters of subtasks with a preferred order and prerequisite conditions 6750Spr 07 K4 4 D Conduct accident investigation Plan 0 On insiructtun 1mm supervisor do 1 When all evidence is collected do 2 lhrough 5 4 Validate conclusions a Integmte lens 5 Make and draw conclusions recommendations Plan 1 Filsl 1101 and 2 t 3 and 4 then 5 Repeat 3 and 4 it necessary 4 Interview witnesses Plan 14 Du 12 3 Da 4 il insuf cient data from 3 Then do 5 Repeat 3 and 4 to meet conditions 0 5 3 Let witness describe what happened 2 State purpose 4 Ask openended 5 Ensure that what oiinlerview questions whe n who 1 Establish meeting room haw why is covered Example Task Clusters o Fixed sequence 0 Optional tasks 0 Waiting events 0 Cycles 0 Timesharing o Discretionary we 5750Spr 07 Task Model Borrow Book Sequences added as aw annotations mrmm lmmy a Can also We show aura mm lsquot l on inc mu mam do 2 a t hierarchy as indented text 2 m2 anzlqAza ll mm quota i enklimlmm WWW Wm M 22 m 2 5 mm m J mu v2 Mmpmmw tquot my vlvmk From Interactan Desyn 321 Preece Rogers and Sharp 6750Spr 07 a9 27 Task Model Write a Letter W m a Lethr Get Supp es This prooess can go arbitrarily deep Stop when not useful to go further but not before Is this model done 6750Spr 07 Can be More than One Sequence How X writes a letter How erites a letter Get an envelope Get an envelope paper pencil stamp paper pencil stamp Write letter Address the envelope Address the envelope Write the letter Apply stamp Put letter in envelope Put letter in envelope Apply stamp Seal envelope Seal envelope How does Z do it 6750Spr 07 9 29 Task Model Schedule Meeting plan a an v2 3 u pmmmi dam art dennhed do as u no repeal 2 a Commie a list a mealing wnsivalnls 2 Compile a list may meevng lnla calendars 4 ldnniily dapanmeulal dale cm Idanmy lndwlduals Gales a 2 Figure 7 l3 Izmpluml aluminum Ur mt mum n A From lnlzaradbn Desyn Preeoe Rogers and Sharp 30 6750Spr 07 Networks 0 Network EntityRelationship Diagrams Objectspeople with links to related objects 0 Stress relationship between objects and actions Links described functionally and in terms of strength 0 Task Develop design for nal project objects pens paper drawing tools etc actors Mary Bob Sally composite objects the team 6750Spr 07 4 Object Model Simple Drawing System 0 Objects page line point 0 Relations page contains zero or more lines and points Lines defined by two points 0 Actions on objects Page clear Points create delete move Lines create delete move 0 Etc 1 6750Spr 07 Object Model Text Editor 0 Objects Files lines characters 0 Relations File is sequence of lines Line is sequence of characters o Actions on objects Files create delete rename Lines create delete move copy Characters insert delete move copy 6750Spr 07 2 Object Model Other Typical Elements 0 Relations X is a set of Y X is a sequence of Y X is made up of A B C X is geometrically aligned with Y 0 Actions on relations Remove X from set or sequence Insert Y into set or sequence 0 Actions on attributes Set modify inquire 6750Spr 07 Methodology 0 Often list attributes actions of objects Object pen simple Attribute color red writing onoff Object Mary actor Actions M1 make a sketch M2 organize meeting 34 6750Spr 07 6 Flow Charts 0 Flow Chart of Task Steps Combines Entityrelationship network with sequential ow branching parallel tasks Includes actions decisions logic by all elements of the system Abstracted Mature wellknown good tools R u 6750Spr 07 Flow Chant Display 6750Spr 07 37 Workflow 0 Documents going from one personorganization to another 0 Multiple palticipants in an activity J 4 6750Spr 07 39 38 Workflow Example Document Flow Create Travel Enilre Funds AD mval Notfication of Request Available gem Approval Traveler Account39ng Dean N0 Funds 6750Spr 07 From Interacton Desyn I 43 Preece Rogers and sharp 40 6750Spr 07 Summary of Task Analysis 0 Determine the data you need 0 Gather it using various appropriate methods and techniques 0 Represent the tasks and subtasks plus other related information 0 Use this data to improve design 0 Note Be efficient 6750Spr 07 41 34 Using What You ve Learned o How do attributes of users amp their tasks influence the design of user interfaces 0 Are there some design guidelines that we can derive from different attributes 1 6750Spr 07 42 User Profiles 0 Attributes attitude motivation reading level typing skill education system experience task experience computer literacy frequency of use training colorblindness handedness gender 0 Novice intermediate expert Low motivation Ease of learning discretionary use Low motivation Control ower mandatory p High motivation clue to fear Ease of learning robustness control High motivation clue to interest Power ease of use K4 4 6750Spr 07 6750Spr 07 43 Motivation 0 User 0 Design goal Knowledge amp Experience Experience task system 39 mulls low low Many syntactic and semantic prompts high high Efficient commands concise syntax low high Semantic help facilities high low Lots of syntactic prompting 6750Spr 07 45 Job amp Task Implications 0 Frequency of use High Ease of use Low Ease of learning amp remembering o Task implications High Ease of use Low Ease of learning 0 System use Mandatory Ease of using Discretionary Ease of learning x 1 6750Spr 07
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