Human CS 6750
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Designing Everyday Things 5 Norman in 90 Gregory D Abowd Lmm err1 80 aci La y bur rmr ls less a 39rerarVe Agenda Your reac rions To Norman Frameworks for unders randing in rerac rion Norman39s heuris rics as design advice Unders randing Errors Don Norman httpwwwjndorg Professor of CS and Psych Northwestern University Nielsen Norman Group Formerly H Writes A LOT L5 mu Spring m7 Your thoughts What did you pick up from the book My Thoughfs Good examples 39car VCRs wa rches Doors Le r39s modernize The examples Bu r rela rively few compu ring examples L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Examples of good and bad Travel is inspirational The microwave in our apar rmen r i Aus rralia Alarm clocks There is hope My begar39d rr39immegr39 Appy 75 f0 U53 Inferacfion models Unders rand whole in rerac rion cycle Explain in rerac rion charac reris rics why do problems arise Two models Norman DFAB L5 mu Spring 2nn7 ExecuTionEvalua iion cycle Norman DOET p 46 Simple idea 7 s rages Graphically L5 mu Sprmg 2nn7 Inferacfion framework Abowd amp Beale DFAB p 128 4 languages and Transla rions Graphically L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Norman39s formafive rules Crea re effec rive men ral models Make appropria re func rionali ry visible Use na rural mappings Use affordances Use cons rrain rs Provide feedback Memory in The world vs in The head Recogni rion over recall Design wi rh errors in mind Designer39s ar39e noT user39s I39m a human af rer allquot Real cus romer no r always enduser The challenges of design fea rur es aes rhe rics cos r L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Na39rur39al mappings Predic rable link be rween ac rion in The world and The consequences Example ToasTer39 Ovens I Hamlkon Beach39 L5 mu Sprmg 2nn7 Affordances Perceived pro per ries Rela rionship be rwe en per39SOn and objec r and interaction Combination of good visibili ry na rur al mapping constrain rs feedback Consiraim s Convey possible appropria re ac rions physical floppy disk keys seman ric menu graying cul rur al redgreen logical spa rial Example USB in rer39face L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Designing for39 Error The my rh of The per fec r sys rem To err is human Making mis rakes is par r of learning What can we do Preven r errors Iden rify and unders rand Recover from errors UserCompufer39 Dialog Three phases Readscan phase Percep rual errors Think phase Cogni rive errors Respond phase Mo ror errors Percep39rual Errors Resul r from insufficien r or poor percep rual cues Display of objec rs Tha r are visually similar Invisible or poorly expressed s ra res Failure To cap rure user39s a r ren rion Lack of perceivable feedback L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Cogni39rive Errors Caused by Taxing The memory and problem solving capabili ries Tagtlt recall memory Lack of or poor mnemonic aids Inconsis rency Lack of con rex r or s ra rus info eg where came from in a menu Men ral calcula rions and Transla rions MoTor Errors Taxing The eyehand coordina rion and mo ror skills Awkward mo ror movemen rs Highly similar mo ror sequences eg double click click Pressure for speed Require a high degree of handeye coordina rion Requiring special Types of mo ror skills we L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Slips and Mistakes Wha r39s The difference Slips and Mistakes Slips skilled behavior Mis rake incorrec r men ral model learning L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Moral slips happen Types of Slips 314quot 1 Cap rure error Con rinue frequen rly done ac rivi ry ins read of in rended one similar s rar rs Confirm dele rion of file ins read of cancel 2 Descrip rion error In rended oc rion has much in common wi rh o rhers possible usually when dis rrac red close proximi ry c rrl key amp caps lock key Sun amp Mac L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Types of Slips 3 Da ro driven error Triggered by arrival of sensory info which in rrudes in ro normal oc rion Call To give someone a number dial Tha r number ins read 4 Associa rive ac riva rion In rernal Though rs and associa rions Trigger oc rion Phone rings yell come inquot Types of Slips 5 Loss of acTivaTion ForgeTTing goal in middle of sequence of acTions STarT going inTo room Then forgeT why you39re going There 6 Mode errors Do acTion in one mode Thinking you39re in anoTher DeIeTe file buT you39re in wrong direcTory L5 mu Spring 2nn7 Minimizing Error Design To human capabiIiTies AppropriaTe represenTaTion BeTTer feedback mode and capTure slips Minimize modes Minimizing Error cont or Dis ringuish objec rs descrip rion slips Cons rrain rs Avoid false unders randing assis r learning L5 mu Spring 2nn7 RECOVCIquot from errors De rec rion Feedback Comprehension Recovery s rra regy ComputerSupported Cooperative Work CSCW John Stasko Spring 2007 This material has been developed by Georgia Tech HCI faculty and continues to evolve Contributors include Gregory Abowd Al Badre Jim Foley Elizabeth Mynatt Jeff Pierce Colin Potts Chris Shaw John Stasko and Bruce Walker Permission is granted to use with acknowledgement for nonpro t purposes Last revision January 2007 Agenda 0 Issues amp Concepts 0 Groupware 0 Social issues 0 Evaluation 6750Spr 07 CSCW 0 Computer Supported Cooperative Work Study of how people work together as a group and how technology affects this Support the social processes of work often among geographically separated people Mark Guzdial provided input on this presentation 6750Spr 07 Paradigm Shift 0 Before System was a tool that was applied to work 0 After Multitasking paradigm shift The system became the medium the moderator rather than just a tool 6750Spr 07 Examples 0 Scientists collaborating on a technical issue 0 Authors editing a document together 0 Programmers debugging a system concurrently 0 Workers collaborating over a shared video conferencing application 0 Buyers and sellers meeting on eBay 6750Spr 07 1quot Research Focus 0 Often divided into two main areas Systems Groupware 0 Designing software to facilitate collaboration Social component Study of human and group dynamics in such situations 6750Spr 07 Groupware 0 Software speci cally designed To support group working With cooperative requirements in mind 0 NOT just tools for communication 0 Groupware can be classi ed by Then and where the participants are working The function it performs for cooperative work 0 Speci c and dif cult problems with groupware implementation 6750Spr 07 Classifying Groupware o TimeSpace matrix When and where the participants are working 0 PeopleArtifact Framework The function it performs for cooperative work 6750Spr 07 The TimeSpace Matrix Classify groupware by when the participants are working at the same time or not where the participants are working at the same place or not Common names for axes time synchronousasynchronous lace colocated remote 6750Spr 07 Applied to Traditional Technology different time facetoface postit note conversation different place phone call 6750Spr 07 Applied to Computer Technolog Time Synchronous Asynchron us Face to face Post it note Co located E meeting room Argument tool Phone call Letter Place Video windowwall Email A Morefleshed Ou Taxo omy Sillnl 39I39imc Di l rcm imc w micw Ham Qanxc Place lime in m l39cicncc tables with owingmm minimum gl oupllispl nun mk groupware lcdxoom m Julgleam cmcnt orlng and bin Emmimil bummu Hum DIVl mum rm mm muval mm L39nmlnlllm mm um mui39zIImi39mi chm39ncms uns ucnucdmcmr 1g omnglc almnrzmmc 39upwm39c ltlcocnnfm cncing ncln39onom conferencing ll ch wm mow s lcms mama gtpacegt gtchcdu an collaboiutiicliypcn cl Table1 A 39 39 39 naeLnelGrlein n r m p a Styles of Systems 0 1 Computermediated communication aids o 2 Meeting and decision suppont systems 0 3 Shared applications and tools 6750Spr 07 Classification by Function 0 Cooperative work involves Participants who are working Artefacts upon which they work understanding gt direct artici ants p p communication control and feed back artefacts of work 6750Spr 07 5 What interactions does a tool support meeting and decision support systems common understanding 39 understanding participants 0 computer mediated communication direct communication quotquot 39aquotd between participants feedback artefacts of work shared applications and artefacts control and feedback with shared work objects 6750Spr 07 g Communication via an artifact understanding direct 4 communication DEiXiS it deixis reference to work objects Control and feedback 0 Feedthrough communicati through the artefact 6750Spr 07 Many aspects of communication 0 Good groupware open to all aspects of cooperation eg annotations in coauthoring systems embedding direct communication 0 Bar codes RF ID Form of deixis Aids diffuse large scale cooperation 6750Spr 07 Awareness 0 What is happening who is there 0 Who is there eg IM buddy list 0 What has happened what has and why happened howdid it happen 6750Spr 07 2 Meeting and Decision Support Systems Examples Corporate decisionsupport conference room 0 Provides ways of rationalizing decisions voting presenting cases etc Concurrency control is important Shared computer classroomcluster Group discussiondesign aid tools 6750Spr 07 0 Examples Shared editors design tools etc 0 Want to avoid locking and allow multiple people to concurrently wor on o Requires some form of contention resolution 0 How do you show what others are oing 6750751 07 Example 0 Teamrooms Univ of Calgary Saul Greenberg deo CHI 97 6750751 07 u WWW Greanhar A 09 Lowe 39 7 73 Mmhle thush a E K Update Nuw Pause Resume Delete 675075 07 6 n1 n a e um SFSYC 6750 r nuumnrumpum Imernnliau 6750751 07 N am r p mu m M mm Changls 1 cs 5750 Cuml n AM mm Dg mvmmhmmumnnm arm haw mm squot m u m um 3 1 g M hm Handling contention in CoWeb No locking On the Web how do you know if someone walks away But if person A edits then person B starts and saves edit before A saves how do you deal with it Old way A wins but B s is available in history for retrieval Current way 0 Each edit time is recorded 0 If incoming edit time is earlier than last save then note collision Provide user with both versions for resolution Security pj l mm mm m mm cc gm edu a m m a cszzmcawab Jcslssumm 7 memm Jmmmm Save everything 0 But it s mostly SociaI pressure HismryofCSL Projects that keeps it WWMWMMWWW mmmunmuml wmu working Um summit c glitch m is gunk c gabzhed magma gm mm 5 gal m m m 0 Problems finally reared ugly head after a while Passwords CSLPmiezls Social Issues 0 People bring in different perspectives and views to a collaboration environment 0 Goal of CSCW systems is often to establish some common ground and to facilitate understanding and interaction 6750Spr 07 Turn Taking 0 There are many subtle social conventions about turn taking in an interaction Personal space closeness Eye contact Gestures Body language Conversation cues 6750Spr 07 Geography Position In group dynamics the physical layout of individuals matters a lot Power positionsquot E Proxemics Proximi ty and body alignment as social cues Video Stitching What about in CSCW 04 onllne collaborations 6750751 07 Case Study WikiPedia 6750751 07 Case Study WikiPedia 0 Consider the tools available 0 Who are the users 0 Community How does all this affect the content What to do about it Broader issues of trust anonymity validity responsibility authority 6750Spr 07 Evaluation 0 Evaluating the usability and utility of CSCW tools is quite challenging Need more participants Logistically difficult Apples oranges o Often use eld studies and ethnographic evaluations to assist Video ESPACE CSCW 04 Video Dynamo CSCW 04 6750Spr 07 if Evaluation Efforts at Calgary Uses modified heuristic evaluation techniques www st ucalLal ai lou lab 1 elsiZOUl OereulisitksMethanits EHCIitaIkE I 2 I Heuristics reformulated Support intentional amp appropriate communication 0 Verbal communication content c Gestural communication deixis Video Support communication of individual s VideoAfms embodiment attitude CSCW 04 Support sharing of artifacts Video Jazz Provide protection of shared resources cscw39o4 Switch between loosely and tightly coupled coordination Support establishment of contact VidEOi LiVeCOHtaCtS cscwo4 6750Spr 07 Interested in More 0 CS 7460 CSCW Readings discussion researchoriented 08 09 0 CS 6470 Online Communities Students study an existing community in depth and then develop a new community design 08 09 CS 7467 ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning CSCWlike concepts and ideas but in learning and education context 07 08 6750Spr 07 Evaluation 1 John Stasko Spring 200 This material has been developed by Georgia Tech HCI faculty and continues to evolve Contributors include Gregory Abowd Al Badre Jim Foley Elizabeth Mynatt Jeff Pierce Colin Potts Chris Shaw John Stasko and Bruce Walker Permission is granted to use with acknowledgement for nonpro t purposes Last revision January 2007 enda for next 3 lectures Evaluation overview Designing an experiment Hypotheses Variables Designs amp paradigms Participants IRB amp ethics Gathering data Objective Subjective data Analyzing amp interpreting results Using the results in your design 6750Spr 07 Evaluation Part 1 0 Evaluation overview 0 Designing an experiment Hypotheses Variables Designs amp paradigms o Panticipants IRB amp ethics 6750Spr 07 Project Part 4 o All about evaluation Use what you learn in next 3 classes 6750Spr 07 Why Evaluate Recall Users and their tasks were identified Needs and requirements were specified Interface was designed prototype built But is it any good Does the system support the users in their tasks Is it better than What was there before I39fahythihg 6750751 07 One Model Evaluation can help your design THE PROTECY sums 1 SENSE ME FOUND 1 THINK saw H AND IS YELLOW LIGHTquot HOPE 50Min mm we DUMMXES BOOK ABUUT IT 7 6750751 07 Types of Evaluation 0 Interpretive and Predictive a reminder Heuristic evaluation cognitive walkthroughs ethnography GOMS o Summative vs Formative What were they again 6750Spr 07 Now With Users Involved o Interpretive naturalistic vs Empirical o Naturalistic In realistic setting usually includes some detached observation careful study of users 0 Empirical People use system manipulate independent variables and observe dependent ones 6750Spr 07 3 Why Gather Data 0 Desin the exeriment to collect the data to test the hotheses to evaluate the interface to refine the desin 0 Information gathered can be objective or subjective 0 Information also can be Which are qualitative or quantitative tougher to measure 6750Spr 07 Conducting an Experiment Determine the TASK Determine the performance measures Develop the experiment IRB approval Recruit participants Collect the data Inspect amp analyze the data Draw conclusions to resolve design problems Redesign and implement the revised interface 6750Spr 07 if The Task 0 Benchmark tasks gather quantitative data Representative tasks add breadth can help understand process Tell them what to do not how to do it Issues Lab testing vs field testing Validity typical users typical tasks typical setting Run pilot versions to shake out the bugs 6750Spr 07 Benchmark Tasks Specific clearly stated task for users to carry out 0 Example Email handler Find the message from Mary and reply with a response of Tuesday morning at 11 0 Users perform these under a variety of conditions and you measure erformance 6750Spr 07 t Defining Performance 0 Based on the task 0 Specific objective measuresmetrics Examples Speed reaction time time to complete Accuracy errors hitsmisses Production number of files processed Score number of points earned others 6750Spr 07 Types of Variables 0 Independent What you re studying what you intentionally vary eg interface feature interaction device selection technique 0 Dependent Performance measures you record or examine eg time number of errors 6750Spr 07 Controlling Variables Prevent a variable from affecting the results in any systematic way Methods of controlling for a variable Don t allow it to vary eg all males Allow it to vary randomly eg randomly assign participants to different groups Counterbalance systematically vary it eg equal number of males females in each group The appropriate option depends on circumstances 6750Spr 07 Hypotheses o What you predict will happen 0 More specifically the way you predict the dependent variable ie accuracy will depend on the independent variabes o Null hypothesis Ho Stating that there will be no effect eg There will be no difference in performance between the two groups Data used to try to disrove this null hypothesis 6750Spr 07 Example 0 Do people complete operations faster with a blackandwhite display or a color one Independent display type color or bw Dependent time to complete task minutes Controlled variables same number of males and females in each group Hypothesis Time to complete the task will be shorter for users with color display Ho Timecolor TimebW Note Withinbetween design issues next 6750Spr 07 Experimental Designs 0 Within Subjects Design Every participant provides a score for all levels or conditions m EM 12 secs 17 secs 19 secs 15 secs 13 secs 21 secs 6750Spr 07 Experimental Designs 0 Between Subjects Each participant provides results for only one condition Color BW 12 secs 17 secs 19 secs 15 secs 13 secs 21 secs 6750Spr 07 Within vs Between 0 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques 6750Spr 07 Within Subjects Designs 6750Spr 07 o More ef cient Each subject gives you more data they complete more blocks or sessions More statistical power Each person is their own control Therefore can require fewer participants May mean more complicated design to avoid order effects eg seeing color then bw may be different from seeing bw then color Between Subjects Designs 6750Spr 07 Fewer order effects Participant may learn from first condition Fatigue may make second performance worse Simpler design amp analysis Easier to recruit palticipants only one session Less efficient Now What 0 You ve got your task performance measures experimental design etc 0 You have hypotheses about what will happen in the experiment 0 Now you need to gather the data 0 So you need PARTICIPANTS 6750Spr 07 IRB Participants amp Ethics Institutional Review Board IRB httrwww0s7atecheducomrliancehtm Reviews all research involving human or animal participants Safeguarding the participants and thereby the researcher and university Not a science review ie not to asess your research ideas only safety amp ethics Complete Webbased forms submit research summary sample consent forms etc All experimenters must complete NIH online historyethics course prior to submitting 6750Spr 07 Recruiting Participants Various subject pools Volunteers Paid participants Students eg psych undergrads for course credit Friends acquaintances family lab members Public space participants eg observing people walking through a museum Must fit user population validity Motivation is a big factor not only but also explaining the importance of the researc Note Ethics IRB Consent apply to all participants including friends amp pilot subjects 6750Spr 07 Ethics 0 Testing can be arduous 0 Each participant should consent to be in experiment informal or formal Know what experiment involves what to expect what the potential risks are 0 Must be able to stop without danger or penalty 0 All participants to be treated with respect 6750Spr 07 Consent 0 Why important People can be sensitive about this process and issues Errors will likely be made participant may feel inadequate May be mentally or physically strenuous o What are the potential risks there are alwas risks Examples 0 Vulnerable populations need special care amp consideration amp IRB review Children disabled pregnant students why 6750Spr 07 Before Study Be well prepared so participant s time is not wasted Make sure they know you are testing software not them Usability testing not User testing Maintain privacy Explain procedures without compromising results 0 Can quit anytime o Administer signed consent form 6750Spr 07 During Study 0 Make sure participant is comfortable 0 Session should not be too long 0 Maintain relaxed atmosphere 0 Never indicate displeasure or anger 6750Spr 07 After Study State how session will help you improve system debrie ng Show participant how to perform failed tasks Don t compromise privacy never identify people only show videos with explicit permission Data to be stored anonymously securely andor destroyed 6750Spr 07 Attribution Theory 0 Studies why people believe that they succeeded or failedthemselves or outside factors gender age differences 0 Explain how errors or failures are not palticipant s problemplaces where interface needs to be improved 6750Spr 07 Project 0 IRB approval 0 P3 due Thursday after break Prototype description Evaluation plan amp usability specs 6750Spr 07 ComputerSupported Cooperative Work CSCW John Stasko Spring 2007 This material has been developed by Georgia Tech HCI faculty and continues to evolve Contributors include Gregory Abowd Al Badre Jim Foley Elizabeth Mynatt Jeff Pierce Colin Potts Chris Shaw John Stasko and Bruce Walker Permission is granted to use with acknowledgement for nonpro t purposes Last revision January 2007 Agenda 0 Issues amp Concepts 0 Groupware 0 Social issues 0 Evaluation 1 6750Spr 07 CSCW 0 Computer Supported Cooperative Work Study of how people work together as a group and how technology affects this Support the social processes of work often among geographically separated people Mark Guzdial provided input on this presentation 6750Spr 07 Paradigm Shift 0 Before System was a tool that was applied to work 0 After Multitasking paradigm shift The system became the medium the moderator rather than just a tool 1 6750Spr 07 Examples 0 Scientists collaborating on a technical issue 0 Authors editing a document together 0 Programmers debugging a system concurrently 0 Workers collaborating over a shared video conferencing application 0 Buyers and sellers meeting on eBay 6750Spr 07 34 Research Focus 0 Often divided into two main areas Systems Groupware 0 Designing software to facilitate collaboration Social component 0 Study of human and group dynamics in such situations r 6750Spr 07 Groupware 0 Software speci cally designed To support group working With cooperative requirements in mind 0 NOT just tools for communication 0 Groupware can be classi ed by 77151 and where the participants are working The function it performs for cooperative work 0 Speci c and dif cult problems with groupware implementation 6750Spr 07 34 Classifying Groupware o TimeSpace matrix When and where the participants are working 0 PeopleArtifact Framework The function it performs for cooperative work 1 6750Spr 07 The TimeSpace Matrix Classify groupware by when the participants are working at the same time or not where the participants are working at the same place or not Common names for axes time synchronousasynchronous lace colocated remote 6750Spr 07 9 Applied to Traditional Technology same different time time same place different place 6750Spr 07 Applied to Computer Technology Time Synchronous Asynchronous Co located Place Remote 6750Spr 07 A Morefleshed Out Taxonomy same39riiuc Dinerem iuie Slime Place rule In flL llIlC39l1lllll Ongoing mm ureieueelalalesuilli lcamrooms embedded Compulch group display public display l li umk groupware dedicarcdro l r projcclmlm cmcnt o s or e oling uml blx inslol39ming bumum Plum Dimillicit rm liliw illfulm limlx Cnmmlllliulli39ol um munlamina clilltsyslcms uusuueuueuelvgemi i uampuiem sharing ofslllglc 3 ructured electronic mail llscra plicarions clccuollil bullclillboards collllbmallonrnwarc nchl39ollolls eoureieneiug groupware li Vcrs Edroconfcmncing wolldlow moula pnces scllcdlll collaborativellypcncxl Table1 A 39 39 39 nueLnIGrLIdin m um 6750Spr 07 3 12 Styles of Systems 0 1 Computermediated communication aids o 2 Meeting and decision suppont systems 0 3 Shared applications and tools 6750Spr 07 13 Classification by Function 0 Cooperative work involves Participants who are working Artefacts upon which they work understanding direct r communication control and feed back artefacts of work 39 6750Spr 07 14 What interactions does a tool support meeting and decision support systems common understanding understanding direct communication I control and feedback participants computer med iated 39 direct communication between participants artefacts of work shared applications and artefacts control and feedback with shared work objects 6750Spr 07 as communication Communication via an artifact understanding direct control and feedback communication 0 Deixis Ideixis reference to work objects 0 Feedthrough communicati through the artefact 6750Spr 07 9 Many aspects of communication 0 Good groupware open to all aspects of cooperation eg annotations in coauthoring systems embedding direct communication Bar codes RF ID Form of deixis Aids diffuse large scale cooperation 6750Spr 07 Awareness 0 What is happening 0 Who is there eg IM buddy list 0 What has happened and why who is there what has happened Vahnnl Messenger i E E Q 6750Spr 07 8 how did it happen 1 Computermediated Communication Aids Examples Email Chats MUDs virtual worlds desktop videoconferencing Example CUSeeMe iChat Skype 6750Spr 07 2 Meeting and Decision Support Systems Examples Corporate decisionsupport conference room 0 Provides ways of rationalizing decisions voting presenting Shared computer classroomcluster IndianaInd Group discussiondesign F aid tools 5 4 cases etc quot39I39W m o Concurrency control IS important M 3 I 6750Spr 07 3 Shared Applications and Tools 0 Examples Shared editors design tools etc 0 Want to avoid locking and allow multiple people to concurrently wor on o Requires some form of I39 contention resolution 0 How do you show what others are oing 6750Spr 07 21 Example 0 Teamrooms Univ of Calgary Saul Greenberg deo CHI 97 11th www Cpsc ucalgary cagrouplabprojectsmdex hum 4 r1 6750Spr 07 22 va Yamxmmsuw WNW amwmreuw mrwnmwvszwawisst u mammal rmtmrmrmrwnno vHWIHaVLm ra mwmwwwm n 6750Spr 07 Wmmwt mum cm m wrmu am rnewrm mumsquot r rnrmrmwr Example 0 Peepholes same lab at Calgaw a Contact tacmtatron Svstem tnat ets vou know Wno re around on tne Internet ov rHoetratrng their presence tnroogn rconrc rndrcatore meenhergjga39a md Vilnius Vt Pm hle Arnhush 2 i Updahz Nuw Pause Resume Deleie 6750Spr 07 Using the CoWeb M csmsucumb L srst 750 r numnrmupum Imumiau 04 wm 39 a un 6750Spr 07 25 Features to support collaboration Recent Changes and Attachments 3 3m RumChmgnmcs anuurh 5 WWW Lt mwm Wl gvmmL JSIh A wmmnm 39 m39n39 quotquotme WW Mme urg s n m m m mummwwiy m m cm a m um 6750 Spr 07 Handling contention in CoWeb No locking before A saves how do you deal with it retrieval Current way 0 Each edit time is recorded 6750Spr 07 On the Web how do you know if someone walks away But if person A edits then person B starts and saves edit Old way A wins but B s is available in history for o If incoming edit time is earlier than last save then note collision Provide user with both versions for resolution Security Save everything d i l mm mm m But it s mostly social pressure isn Hiswry of csr Projects 0 Problems finally reared ugly head after a while Passwords LL CSLPmiezls 6750Spr 07 that keeps It W Us m wor mg 5 cs 5 mm mm Social Issues 0 People bring in different perspectives and views to a collaboration environment 0 Goal of CSCW systems is often to establish some common ground and to facilitate understanding and interaction 6750Spr 07 Turn Taking 0 There are many subtle social conventions about turn taking in an interaction Personal space closeness Eye contact Gestures Body language Conversation cues 6750Spr 07 K4 4 Geography Position In group dynamics the physical layout of individuals matters a lot Power positionsquot Proxemics Proximity and body alignment as Q social cues What about in online collaborations Video Stitching CSCW 04 g 6750Spr 07 Case Study WikiPedia nni i c 6750Spr 07 Case Study WikiPedia 0 Consider the tools available 0 Who are the users 0 Community o How does all this affect the content 0 What to do about it o Broader issues of trust anonymity validity responsibility authority 6750Spr 07 33 Evaluation 0 Evaluating the usability and utility of CSCW tools is quite challenging Need more participants Logistically difficult Apples oranges o Often use eld studies and ethnographic evaluations to assist Video ESPACE CSCW 04 Video Dynamo CSCW 04 K4 4 6750Spr 07 Evaluation Efforts at Calgary Uses modified heuristic evaluation techniques 7 39 quot 39 thml Heuristics reformulated Support intentional amp appropriate communication 0 Verbal communication content c Gestural communication deixis wgzggrms thbttirsgitiztitaigquot d39v39d a39s ltcscwo4 Support sharing of artifacts Video Jazz Provide protection of shared resources cscw39o4 Switch between loosely and tightly coupled coordination Support establishment of contact Vide 3 LiVecontaCts cscwo4 6750Spr 07 Interested in More CS 7460 CSCW Readings discussion researchoriented 08 09 CS 6470 Online Communities Students study an existing community in depth and then develop a new community design 08 09 CS 7467 ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning CSCWlike concepts and ideas but in learning and education context 07 08 1 6750Spr 07 35 vi Agenda for next 2 lectures E gt Evaluation overview gtDesigning an experiment oz Hypotheses oz Variables oz Designs amp paradigms gtGathering data oz Techniques methods tricks gtAnalyzing amp interpreting results gtUsing the results in your design PSVCH cs man a Fa l 2mm Empirical Evaluation g l Assessing usability with users Q7 Why Evaluate El Recall gtUsers and their tasks were identified gtNeeds and requirements were specified gtInterface was designed prototype built gt But is it any good Does the system support the users in their tasks Is it better than what was there before if anything Fall 2mm PSYCH is mm E 67 One Model kl Evaluation can help your design THE moan STATUS 1N USERTESI39S m FOUND S 1 THINK 5m U AND 5 VELLOw LIGHTquot g E HOPE sontaom wHAT wt Dunmw BOOK Amour IT 7 Fal 2mm psvcH cs 5751 B Q7 Types of Evaluation ti gtInterpretive and Predictive a reminder oz Heuristic evaluation cognitive walkthroughs ethnography gtSummative vs Formative oz What were they again Fall 23m PSYCH 5 5m El vi Now With Users Involved E gtInterpretive naturalistic vs Empirical gt Naturalistic oz In realistic setting usually includes some detached observation careful study of users gt Empirical oz People use system manipulate independent variables and observe dependent ones Fal 2mm p5th us win a g9 Why Gather Data ti gtDesign the experiment to collect the data to test the hypotheses to evaluate the interface to refine the design gtInformation gathered can be objective or subjective Which are Q7 Conducting an Experiment ti gt Determine the TASK gt Determine the performance measures gt Develop the experiment gt IRB approval gt Recruit participanB gt Collect the data gtInformation also can be 225370 gt Inspect amp analyze the data qualitative or quantitative 39 gt Draw conclusions to resolve design problems gt Redesign and implement the revised interface hi W is a i a i w ism a 2 Q5 The Task Q7 Benchmark Tasks t 21 gtBenchmark tasks gather quantitative data gtRepresentative tasks add breadth can help understand process gtTell them M to do not hol to do it gtIssues Lab testing vs field testing Validity typical users typical tasks typical settin Run pilot versions to shake out the bugs F mm PSVCH is 575quot E a gtSpecific clearly stated task for users to gtExample Email handler Find the message from Mary and reply with a rsponse of Tuesday morning at 11 quot gtUsers perform these under a variety of conditions and you measure performance a i m PSVCH issisn a m Q7 Defining Performance 5 gtBased on the task gtSpecific objective measuresmetrics gt Examples Speed reaction time time to complete Accuracy errors hitsmisses Production number of files processed Score number of poinB earned others Fail 2m VsVCH is 575quot a ll 7 Types of Variables ti gtIndependent What you39re studying what you intentionally vary eg interface feature interaction device selection technique gt Dependent Performance measures you record or examine eg time number of errors a i m DEV1H Gs75n a n Q7 Controlling Variables t gt Prevent a variable from affecting the resulB in any systematic way 0 Eg gender effecls gt Methods of controlling for a variable 0 Don39t allow it to vary e g all males 0 Allow it to vary randomly e g randomly asslgn DartlcipanE to dlfferent groups 0 Counterbalance systematically vary it e g equal number of males females in eacn goup Fail m seVCH 6 575 a o The appropriate option depends on circumstances l3 Q7 Hypotheses ti gtWhat you predict will happen gtMore specifically the way you predict the dependent variable ie performance will depend on the independent variabes gt Null hypothesis H0 Stating that there will be no effect eg There will be no difference in performance between the two groups Data used to try to disprove this null hypothesis r i m DSVCH cs7sn a N Q5 Example t gt Do people complete operations faster with a blackandwhite display or a color one 0 Independent display type color or bw o Dependent time to complete task minutes 0 Controlled variables same number of males and females in each group Q5 Experimental Designs ti gtWithin Subjects Design Every participant provides a score for all levels or conditions Color BZW o Hypothesis Time to complete the task will be P1 12 secs 17 secs shorter for users with color display pz 19 secs 15 595 z Ho Timeco or TimeDW P3 13 secs 21 secs 0 Note Withinbetween design issues next Fii mm PSVCH 6 575 E 15 r i znm PSVCH Gs7sn E 15 Q7 Experimental Designs Q7 Within vs Between t ti gtBetvveen Subjects Each participant provides results for only one condition Coilquot P1 12 secs P2 17 secs P3 19 secs P5 15 585 P4 13 secs P6 21 secs Fail m VSVCH 6 575 2 l7 gtWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques r i m DSVCH cs7sn E ii g9 Within Subjects Desi t l gtMore efficient Each subject gives you more data they complete more blocks or sessions gtMore statistical power Each person is their own control so individual differences have less effect on result Therefore can rguire fewer participanB gtBut may mean more complicated design to avoid order effects eg seeing color then bw may be different from seeing bw then color Fall 2m wcu n 57w 2 Q7 Between Subjects Designs w 7 gt Fewer order effects 0 Participant may learn from first condition 0 Fatigue may make second performance worse gt Simpler design amp analysis gt Easierharder to recruit participanB 0 They only attend one session instead of n 0 But you need n times as many subjects gt Less efficient a l mm mm mm a zn g9 Now What t gtYou ve got your task performance measures experimental design etc gtYou have hypotheses about what will happen in the experiment gtNow you need to gather data gtSo you need PARTICIPANTS Fll mm PSVCH n s75n E 2 Q5 Recruiting Participants w gt Various subject poolsquot o Volunteers 0 Paid participants 0 Students eg psych undergrads for course credit 0 Friends acquaintances family lab membe 0 Public spacequot participants eg observing people walking through a museum gt Must fit user population validity gt Motivation is a big factor not only but also explaining the importance of the research leznm vchHGwsnm Q7 Before Study tgt Be well prepared so participant s time is not wasted gt Make sure they know you are testing software not them 0 Usability testing not user testing 0 Explain procedures without compromising results Be aware of importance of attribution m o Administer signed consent form Fall 2m wcu n 57w 2 7 During Study w gtMake sure participant is comfortable gtSession should not be too long gtMaintain relaxed atmosphere gtNever indicate displeasure or anger and no electric shocks leznm rstGWSME Q7 A er Study ti gt Give feedback to participant o Reiterate that errors are not participant39s problem but are places where interface needs to be improved 0 State how session will help you improve system 0 Show participant how to perform failed tasks gt Data to be stored anonymously securely andor destroyed gtWhen reporting results respect privacy 0 never identify people 0 only show videos with explicit permission ini m svcu is 575quot a 25 Observing users amp subjective data Q71 ti W wioi we Viv THAT lel um w a i as x TALKSHOWCMCY Fii mm vchH is Sign E 27 mm A K WM zzzz rrr 399 Bzzzlm a l mu PSVCH issisn a 2x so me REMV mm s u Luv vnswirz C mumsmms 4 a y a m 1 l 39r m6 5552515 ANT mam A EziMPLE WEBer EAlL T HEY 5391WLVNTBE YOUNG yrs E IRWIN7 I V 5 v5 minim w an mmemm resamquot we FOR vow Maine at 25am m E Jw m mummy mam cm i ini m svcu is 575quot a 29 Q E inznm 1 Guess m UNDECIDED Vc rers D o REFULLY wElGMeD we issys AND MADE A mam ceNcLMSloN D ARE MDBDNS mav Fall 2m VsVCH 6 575quot a z quot39PEEELEcTioN CARTooN Q7 Directing Sessions w gt Issues Are you in same room or not ingle person session or pairs of people Objective data stay detached a l mm mm cs7sn a 2 Q5 Collecting Data t gtData gathering Notetaking Audio and video tape Instrumented user interface Postexperiment questions and interviews Fll mm PSVCH 6 575quot E 2 Q g Collecting Data gt Identifying errors can be difficult gt Qualitative techniques and Think can be very helpful 0 Posthoc verbal protocol 39 l e vldeo VleW 0 Critical incident logging DOSltlve amp negatlve o Structured interviews good questions What dld you llke bestleasw How would you change a l m PSVCH Gs7sn a z Q7 Behavior Observation t gtOne of the best ways to gather feed back about your interface gtm not as easy as you think Watch listen and learn as a person interacts with your system How Direct or indirect Fall 2m VsVCH 6 575quot a z 7 Behavior Observation 21 gt Direct gt Indirect o In same room 0 Video recording 0 Can be intrusive o Reduc 0 Users aware of your presence 0 Only see it one time 0 May use 1way mirror to reduce intrusiveness es intrusiveness but doesn39t eliminate it 0 Cameras focused on screen face amp keyboard 0 Gives archival record but can spend a lot of time reviewing it a l mm mm cs7sn a 5 Q7 Behavior Observation t l gtObservations may be In lab Maybe a specially built usability lab I Easier to control I Can have user complete set of tasks In field I Watch their everyday actions I More realistic I Harder to control other factors Fall 2m wcu ls 57w 2 7 Q7 Behavior vs Thought w gtIn simple observation you observe actions but don t know what s going on in their head gtOften utilize some form of verbal protocol where users describe their thoughts 5 l mm mm mm a 2x Q5 Thought Verbal Protocol t gtOne technique Thinkaloud User describes verbally what she is thinking doin I What they believe is happening I Why they take an action I What they are trying to do Fll mm PSVCH ls s75n E n Q5 Thought Verbal Protocol w gtVery widely used useful technique gtAllows you to understand user s thought processes better gtPotential problems Can be awkward for participant Thinking aloud can modify way user performs task leznm vchHGwsnm w Q7 Thought Teams t gtAnother technique Codiscovery learning Constructive interation Join pairs of participants to work together Use think aloud Perhaps have one person be semiexpert coach and one be novice More natural like conversation so removes some awkwardness of individual think aloud Fall 2m wcu ls 57w 2 4i 7 Thought Reconstruction w gtWhat if thinking aloud during session will be too disruptive gtCan use postevent protocol User performs session then watches video afterwards and describes what she was thinking Sometimes difficult to recall Opens up door of interpretation leznm DSVCHGWSME a 91 rvation Logging gtIn observing users how do you capture events in the session for later analysis 5 Observation Logging gt1 Paper amp pencil Can be slow May miss things Is definitely cheap and easy Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 ne 10 00 S 1003 6 S 10 08 e 10 22 WWW e marWm WP Observation Logging Observation Logging gt2 Recording audio andorvideo Good for talkaloud Hard to tie to interface Multiple cameras probany needed I Can be intrusive Good rich record of sssion But you ill need to log evens I Can be painful to transcribe and analyze F mm PSVCH A s75n E 45 Software logging Modify software to log user actions Can give timestamped key press or mouse event Two problems I Too lowlevel want higher level events I Massive amount of data need analysis tools inznm PchHGwsn 4e Q7 intervention t gtWhat if user gets stuck on a task gtYou can ask What are you trying to do What made you thinkquot How would you like to perform What would make this easier to accomplish Maybe offer hinB gtCan provide design ideas nu 2m wcu A 57w 2 47 7 Opinions vs Data w gtSatisfaction is an important factor in performance over time gtLearning what people prefer is valuable data to gather inznm DSVCHGWSME a Q7 Opinions Methods t l gtTwo major ways to gather subjective data Questionnaires Interviews gtSupplemental sources of data Booths eg trade show Callin product hotline Field support workers Q7 Opinions Questionnaires ti gtPreparation is expensive but administration is cheap gtOral vs written Oral advs Can ask followup questions Oral disadvs Costly timeconsuming gtForms can provide better quantitative ata Wme t matwt 5n Qt Opinions Questionnaires 5 Opinions Demographic gtIssues gtCan gather demographic data and data Only as good as questions you ask Establish purpose of questionnaire Don39t ask things that you will not use Who is your audience How do you deliver and collect questionnaire Fll mm PSVCH A s75n E Si about the interface being studied gtDemographic data Frequency of use Educationliteracy a l m PSVCH mm a 52 Q7 Opinions about Interface 5 gtCan gather data about screen graphic design terminology capabilities learning overall imprssion nu 2m wcu A 57w 2 53 7 Opinions Question Format w gtClosed format Answer restricted to a set of choices Typically very quantifiable Variety of styls a l mm mm mm a 51 Q7 Opinion Closed Format Q7 Opinion Other Styles t w gt Likert Scale Typical scale uses 5 7 or 9 choices Which word messin Rank from Above that is hard to discern systems do ye use g i anrz it ilgz Doing an odd number gives the neutral D LaTeX 3 Not helpful choice in the middle D 0 Unused Word 7 Tutorial D Hemplaw if OnIine help Charade 0 me D WordPerfect 7 Documentation had to read asy to read 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 Palm eve6mm 55 mm emuems 55 Qty Opinion Closed Format 5 Opinion Open Format gt Disadvantages 0 Must cover whole gt Advantages o Clarify alternatives 0 Easily quantifiable range 0 Eliminate useless Aquot should be equally er likely 0 Don39t get interesting different reactions F mm PSVCH A s75n E 57 gtAsks for unprompted opinions gtGood for general subjective information but difficult to analyze rigorously gtMay help with design ideas Can you suggest improvemenB to this interfacequot a l m PSVCH mm a 5x Q7 Opinion Questionnaires t gtQuestion specificity Do you have a computerquot gt Language Beware of terminology jargon gtClarity gtLeading questions Can be phrased either positive or negative nu 2m VsVCH A 57w 2 59 7 Opinion Questionnaires w gtPrestige bias British sex survey People answer a certain way because they want you to think that way about them gtEmbarrassing questions gt Hypothetical questions gt Halo effect When estimate of one feature affecB estimate of another eg intelligencelooks a l mm mm mm a 5n Q7 Questionnaire Deployment tl gtSteps Discuss questions among team Administer verballywritten to a few people pilot Verbally query about thoughts on quest39ons Administer final test Q7 Opinion Interviews w gtGet user s viewpoint directly but certainly a subjective view gtAdvantages Can vary level of detail as issue arises Good for more exploratory type questions which may lead to helpful constructive suggestions a mm mm M5 575 a a a l znm mm mm a 52 Q5 Opinion Interviews Q7 Interview Process 9 w gt Disadvantages Subjective view gtHOW to I t b the interview Plan a set of qustlons prowdes for some n ervnewer can Ias consis ency User may not appropriately characterize usage Timeconsuming Fll mm PSVCH A s75n E 53 Don39t ask leading questions I Did you think the use of an icon there was really goodquot gtCan be done in groups Get consensus get lively discussion going a l m PSVCH mm a so Q7 Data Analysis 2 gtSimple analysis Determine the means time of errors etc and compare with goal values coming up gt Determine Why did the problems occur What were their causes Fall 2m wcu A 57w 2 55 7 Experimental Results w gtHow does one know if an experiment s results mean anything or confirm any beliefs gtExample 20 people participated 11 preferred interface A 9 preferred interface B gtWhat do you conclude a l mm mm mm a 55 Usability Principles John Stasko Spring 2007 This material has been developed by Georgia Tech HCI faculty and continues to evolve Contributors include Gregory Abowd Al Badre Jim Foley Elizabeth Mynatt Jeff Pierce Colin Potts Chris Shaw John Stasko and Bruce Walker Permission is granted to use with acknowledgement for nonpro t purposes Last revision January 2007 Agenda 0 Usability Principles Why System of principles Learnability Support for learning for users of all levels Flexibility Support for multiple ways of doing tasks Robustness Support for recovery Style guides Project preparation 6750Spr 07 Good Design our goal Every designer wants to build a high quality interactive system that is admired by colleagues celebrated by users circulated widely and imitated frequentlyquot Fl mml 1quot and anything goes 6750Spr 07 Why Principles amp Guidelines 0 Because well not everything goes Intended to prevent many bad designs before they begin or evaluate existing designs on a scientific basis Guidelines based on previous designs experimental ndings Rules can all be broken but usually in order to satisfy another principle 6750Spr 07 3 Concepts Principles Guidelines No cookbooks No simple universal checklists There are many concepts principles and guidelines Understand the higher level rinciles that apply across situations display types etc Implement the standards and uidelines a few details 6750Spr 07 Many Sets of Design Principles 0 Shneiderman Designing the User Jnten ace o Dix Finlay Abowd Beale Human Computer Interaction o Foley et al Computer Graphics Principles and Practice 0 And many more including in styleguides discussed later 6750Spr 07 3 Levels of Consideration 1 Metadisplay level Apply to the whole system across media amp across displays Focus on this in Basic Layout Stage 2 Display Layout Apply to groups of elements in a display Focus on this in Prototyping and Redesign 3 Element level Details about specific parts of a display Colors sound attributes symbols 6750Spr 07 UI Design Principles Dix et al 0 Categories Learnability Support for learning for users of all levels Flexibility Support for multiple ways of doing tasks Robustness 0 Support for recovery 0 Always think about these in terms of metadisplay display and element levels 6750Spr 07 1 Learnability Principles 0 Ease with which new users can begin effective interaction and achieve maximal performance Predictability Synthesizability Familiarity Generalizability Consistency 6750Spr 07 11 Predictability o I think that this action will do Submit data CD a StEp 2 0 Operation visibility Can see avail actions eg menus vs command shell grayed menu items 6750Spr 07 12 Synthesizability 0 Support for user in assessing the effect of past operations on current system state Moving a file in UNIX shell vs MacWindows Is same feedback needed for all users all apps 6750Spr 07 13 Familiarity 0 Does UI task leverage existing realworld or domain knowledge Really relevant to first impressions Use of metaphors 0 Potential pitfalls Are there limitations on familiarity 6750Spr 07 Metaphors at the UI What 0 Metaphor Application of name or descriptive term to another object which is not literally applicable Use Natural transfer apply existing knowledge to new abstract tasks Problem May introduce incorrect mental model 6750Spr 07 14 Generalizability Can knowledge of one systemUI be extended to other similar ones Example cut amp paste in different applications Does knowledge of one aspect of a UI apply to rest of the UI Aid UI Developers guidelines 6750Spr 07 15 Consistency o Likeness in behavior between similar tasksoperationssituations In different things interacting 0 output screen layout 0 Is this always desirable for all systems all users 6750Spr 07 InConsistency Example Macintosh Drag a file icon to Result Folder on same File is moved to folder physncal CIISK Folder on another File is copied there physical disk Different diSk gt File is copied there Trash can File is discarded 6750Spr 07 2 Flexibility Principles 0 Multiplicity of ways that users and system exchange information Dialog Initiative Multithreading Task migratability Substitutivity Customizability 6750Spr 07 21 Dialog Initiative 0 Not hampering the user by placing constraints on how dialog is done User preemptive 0 User initiates actions 0 More exible generally more desirable System preemptive 0 System does all prompts user responds o Sometimes necessary t 6750Spr 07 22 Multithreading o Allowing user to perform more than one task at a time 0 Two types Concurrent Input to multiple tasks simultaneously Interleaved Many tasks but input to one at a time 6750Spr 07 23 Task Migratability 0 Ability to move performance of task to entity user or system who can do it better Autopilot in planes Spellchecking Safety controls in plant For what kinds of tasks should the user be in control 6750Spr 07 24 Substitutivity o Flexibility in details of operations Allow user to choose suitable interaction methods Allow different ways to o perform actions specify data configure Allow different ways of presenting output 0 to suit task amp user 6750751 07 25 Customizability 0 Ability of user to modify interface By user adaptability quot o Is this a good thing By system adaptivity o Is this a good thing 6750751 07 3 Robustness Principles 0 Supporting user in determining successful achievement and assessment of goals Observability Recoverability Responsiveness Task Conformance 6750751 07 31 Observability 0 Can user determine internal state of system from what she perceives Browsability 0 Explore current state without changing it Reachability 0 Navigate through observable states Persistence o How long does observable state persist 6750751 07 Observability Role of Feedback 0 Feedback helps create Observability Feedback taxonomy generally don t need all of these I understand what you have asked me to do I am doing what you have asked me to do 0 And it will take me this much longer 0 Song and dance routine to distract user busy interval as opposed to idle interval 0 And here are some intermediate results to keep you happy until I am done All done what s next 5750Spr 07 Observability Acrobat Reader l Euukmmk Acrobat Reader with ToC to give context Forest is the bookmarks A tree is the single page wlmixsimuiml VImAIIXClmLunAmzm 5750Spr 07 32 Recoverability Ability to take corrective action upon recognizing error Difficulty of recovery procedure should relate to difficulty of original task Forward recovery 0 Ability to fix when we can t undo Backward recovery 0 Undo previous errors Do Not Set the User Up Make it hard for the user to make errors Instead of allowing them to make error and then saying tsk tsk Gray out disabled menu items Ask for confirmation of major actions mm mm mnm mu n M mrrvesiguvmi 125mm Do Not Set the User Up 0 Don t let the user do something that will lead to an error message 67 5075p 07 33 Responsiveness 0 Users perception of rate of communication with system Response time 0 Time for system to respond in some way to user actions Users perceptions not always right Response OK if matches user expectations Once user enjoys fast response is hard to go back to slower one o Dialup versus DSLCable modem 67 5075p 07 Responsiveness Response to motor actions Keyboarding mouse movement less than 100 msecs Rich human factors literature on this Consistency is important experimental results Users preferred longer but more consistent response time Times that differed 1020 were seen as same Sometimes argued that too fast is not good Makes user feel like they need to do something quickly to keep up with computer 6750Spr 07 34 Task Conformance 0 Does system suppont all tasks user wishes to perform in expected ways Task completeness 0 Can system do all tasks of interest Task adequacy 0 Can user understand how to do tasks Does it allow user to de ne new tasks 6750Spr 07 Application 0 In doing design and implementation of your project revisit this list 0 Assess your design against these usability principles 6750Spr 07 Styleguides o Codify many of these principles for a palticular look and feel Mac OS Windows Motif Palm Blackberry o Developed in concert with toolkit but go beyond toolkit 6750Spr 07 HlHua 5 Fanamwpagmvlvmarmzmu Summm Mxmuuawn have em Mqu cm m u m new Pan I runuzmemms pm In the Aquzlmemee Usey mpm n um mummy mm m mm Human menace Desmn prmvnexg mum Cuvsuvs mummmmm mum nexlgnngwuam Emu 6750Spr 07 Layuut Examp es m yenanmveme magnum x sme ms nu mm empmveams Um mum MmHers m canhas Keybuam Shuncuts Omsk Reference Tab Ver Dw ferences Between Ma os x Versmns Deeumem Rewsmn watery memes WDexavnuay mm 7 m Hem my mm u up hang my msng cumg alumnag n Elam we r Emma 6750Spr 07 Drag and Drop Overview ideally users shciuld peaple tci drag anyccintenttrcirn amerldm tci any citherWindciw that accepts the untent s type ltthe sciurce and destinaticin are ndt Visible atthe sarnetirneithe user can create a cllpplng by dragging data tci a FlndErWlndDW the clipping canthen be dragged intci anpther applicaticin Winduw at ancithertirne Drag and drcip shciuld pe ccinsidered an EaSBDTrH etechniniie rag and drcip is sci intnnsic tci an applicaticin that nci suitaple alternative rnethcid t rnr pi rnethcid tcir accurnplishing a diagrandrdruptask The pasic steps utthe dragarldrdrup interacticin rncidel parallel a upyandrpaste sequence in which yciu select an item chcicise Cupyfrum the Editrnenui specitya destinaIlEIrl and then chcicise Paste Huwever drag and drup is a distincttechnidue in itselt and dcies ncit use the clippciard Users can take advantage cit puth the clippciard and drag and drcip Withciutside etrects trurn each either A dragran dmp ciperaticin shciuld prwlde immediate teedpach atthe signiticant pciirts whenthe data is selected duringthe drag when an apprcipnate destinaticin is reached and whenthe data is drcipped The data thatis pasted shciuld pe targ specitic Fur example it a userdrags an Address Bunk entrytci the Tu textfleld in Mail unlyme email address is pasted ndt all utthe persun s address intunnaticin Vuu shciuld irnplernert Undufurany dragrandrdrup ciperaticin yuu enaple in yuurapplicaticin ltyciu irnplernenta diagrarl dmp ciperaticinthat is ndt undciaplei display a ccintinnatcin dialcig peture irnplernentingthe drup A ccintinnatcin dialcig appears fur example when the useratternpts tci drcip an iccin mm a ertEanly drcip hm an a shared vulurnei pecausethe user dcies nuthave pnvllEgEstD cipenthe drup pux and undci the acticin cplur added rur emphasis 6750Spr 07 General User interface Design Style Guides Apple HU rnan lrtteirace Guidelines Mac OS X l ii Cillll iElHlES MicrusuttUser lntenace Guidelines CHER inthe lerttree un User interface Design Windqu XP Guide hes Webs l Guidelines versicin 2 Java LEIEIK and Feel Guidelines Advanced Tuglcs mm 30 design Guidelines Siliccin Graphics lndigci Magic User nterrace Guidelines Source Usability Guidelines Mdtit 5 le Gu de KDE User lhtenace Guidelines Gnurne Hurnan lriteirace Guidelines 1 u rate User interface Standards and Guidelines samples 6750Spr 07 And More Styleguides Government funded Usability Guidelines MlTRE Guidelinesrer Desi riin User interface SumVere US Airreree Cancerirlsiltute Usabilil GuidEiinES NASA User interface GuidEiinES Guide Verslun i El Gaming Devices JZME games Games Usabiiig Guldeilnes rrern Nukla Vi reless and Mobile Usability Guidelines Paim 05 Design Guldeilnes Openvvave 35M Guldeilnes Openvvave Tug in Usablilt Guldeilnes furWAF39 Appilcatluns Eiackberry and RiM Wireiess nandneid Ui Deveiugers Guide PDF NTT DuCuMu W user inlenaees Accessibility Guidelines TechniquesfurWeb cuntentAccesslblilg Guldeilnes i El 6750Spr 07 Project 0 An one witho ta team yet You need to nd one o I teresting topics 6750Spr 07 m Interaction Styles 1 7 Command languages and WIMP it u Agenda gtCmd langs Advs disadvs Des guidelns gtWIMP amp Direct manipulation Advantages disadvantages Design guidelines Fa 2004 PSYCH CS 6750 B 2 it Dialog DeSIQn 4 m gtHow does a user interact with the interface LuE COULD DESIGN THE OR we COULD REGUIRETHE BEAR 1N MAKE U PRODUCT MITH A SIMPLE USER TO CHOOSE AMONG M1NDampE LL so THEY FOINT AND CUCK THOUSANDS OF POORLY NEVER MEET HAVE To INTERFACE DOCUMENTED COMMANDS 1 A CU5TOMER RE 001 B EACH 0F wHICll MUST BE OURSELVES AFTER EVERY TYPED EXACYLY RIGHT 3 TYPO ON THE FIRST Fall 2004 PSYCH CS 6750 B 3 14wCommand Languages gtEarliest UI interaction paradigms after punch cards gave way to interaction gt Examples MSDOS shell UNIX shell dBase GPSS Fall 2004 E m Dialog Styles gt1 Command languages gt2 WIMP Window Icon Menu Pointer gt3 Direct manipulation gt4 SpeechNatural language gt5 Gesture pen VR Fa 2004 PSYCH CS 6750 B 4 it Command Line Attributes gtWork primarily by recall not recognition gtHeavy memory load gtLittle or nothing is visible so gtPoor choice for novices but Fa 2004 PSYCH CS 6750 B 6 Q7 Command Line Advantages t l gt Advantages for experB Speed conciseness ls hard to beat Can exprss actions beyond a limited set Flags piping one command to another Repetition extensibility Scripting macros Easier implementation lss overhead Abstraction wild cards Q7 Command Line Dangers ti gtWith added power comes added responsibility and danger UNIX I rm r I Deletes every file that you have and you can39t back li Power WW 7 mime 3 Q5 Command Line Reflection Q7 Command Line Design Goals t t gtCommand languages are often maligned for good reason gtBut increased functionality can trump a bad UI eg UND Try to get both Avoid excess functionality comes at cost Fii mm sVCH is S7Sn a a gtConsistency Syntax Order Etc gtGood naming and abbreviations gtDoing your homework in design can help alleviate some of the disadvantages a i m PSVCH issisn a m Q7 Consistency Syntax ti gtPick a consistent syntax strategy UNIX fails here because commands were developed by lots of different people at different organizations I No guidelines provided Simple command list I eg vi minimize keystrokes Commands plus arguments I realistic can provide keyword parameters I cp fromfoo tobar Fail m svcu is S7Sn a u Q7 Syntax amp Order Choices ti gt English SVO subject verb object 0 quotBill deletes the le gt Subject is assumed to be you Ie imperatives o Ignoring S is V0 or 0V better voi delete rile more like English ov rile delete more obJectrorierited gtWhat if there is more than one object in a comman 7 0 V dO iO vs V iO dO Which is better dDiD print riie Calvin lDdD Wu lprspcalvinfile a i m PSVCH ism a n Q7 Ordering t gtKeep ordering consistent VO seems to be the most natural Typically need to pick where options go gt Example In sfile1file2 How to remember which one is which I a Consistency Think of cp file1 file2 as a parallel command I b English paraphrase make a link of the ic type pointing to filel and called fileZquot ld get this wrong make a symbolic link called Q7 Consistency Terminology ti gtSame concept expressed with same options Useful to provide symmetric congruent pairings I forwardbackward I nextprev I controlmeta 7 But you cou 9 lpo m w ii lizm 3 miem i gt Example 5 AbbreVIatIons gtVI text editor DESERT Mam Mm w forward word b backward word gtBut wouldn t f be better for forward Unfortunately f already used gtIn that case how about fvv and bw Unfortunately requires lttra keystrokes Fll mm KSVCH is S7Sn a 5 I wow oun EMAIL wr cow 7 MAKE AN 39 ccmom to You a i m PSVCH issisn a is Q7 Abbreviations t gtAbbrevs allow for faster actions Expert mistakefree performance is dominated by motor times which is roughly proportional to amount of typing gtNot good idea for novices Novices make mistakes eg fquot for forward 39n vi gtGuideline Allow abbreviations but don t require them Fall 2m svcu is S7Sn a 7 Q7 Picking Good Abbreviations ti gtStrategies Simple truncation I ideal but prone to conflicis Vowel drop truncation flicts a i m PSVCH ism a 8 Q7 Abbreviation Guidelines 5 gtUse single primary rule with single fallback for conflicts Use fallback rule as little as possible Mark use of fallback in documentation gtLet user know primary and secondary rules gtTruncation is good but generates conflicts gtDon t use abbrevs in system output Q7 Agenda w gtCmd langs Advs disadvs Des guidelns gtWIMP amp Direct manipulation Advantages disadvantages Design guidelines a m m a a a l m am a an 31 WllVIP g Menus gtFocus Menus Buttons Forms gtMany different types not all DM W W gtPredominant interface paradigm now with some direct manipulation added gtAdvantages F mm KSVCH A m a z pulldown radio buttons Q7 Menus t gtKey advantages 1 keystroke or mouse operation vs many No memorization of commands Limited input set gtOrganization strategies Create groups of logically similar items Cover all possibilities Ensure that items are nonoverlapping Keep wording concise understandable nu mm mm c m a z 7 Menu item Sequencing EgtLists of related items shown in order gtUse natural order if available Tim e I eg Breakfast Lunch Dinner Numeric ordering I eg Point sizes for font Size eg USA gt Georgia gt Fulton Co gt Atlanta gtOther Choices Alphabetical Group related items Frequently used first Most important first leznm PSVCHGwsna Q7 Example YaST l t 6 S e Tanmnai sh Luvplr a nu mm mm c m a 25 inznm Q5 Direct Manipulation Essence t gtRepresentation of reality that can be manipulated gtThe user is able to apply intellect directly to the task gtThe tool itself seems to disappear Q5 Direct Manipulation Details w gt1 Continuous visibility of the objects and actions of interest gt2 Rapid reversible incremental actions whose effect is immediately noticeable gt3 Replacement of command language syntax by direct manipulation of object of interest physical actions buttons etc a W M5 a U a i m mg 5 Ex Q7 Direct Manipulation Examples Q7 DIVI Advantages t w gtWYSIWYG editors and word processors gtEasier to learn amp remember particularly gtVISICALC 15t electronic spreadsheet for quotOViceS gtCAD gtDirect WYSIWYG gtDesktop metaphor gtVideo games gtdrag and drop nu mm mm c m a 29 gtFlexible easily reversible actions helps reduce anxiety in users a i m PSVCH mm a 2n Q7 DM Advantages t gtProvides context amp instant visual feedback so user can tell if objectives are being achieved gtExploits human use of visual spatial cues gtLimits types of errors that can be made Fall mm mm c m a 3 Q7 DM Problems tr gtScreen space intensive info not very dense does this always apply gtNeed to learn meaning of components of visual representation gtVisual representation may be misleading gtMouse ops may be slower than typing gtNot selfexplanatory no prompts but wait a minute a i m PSVCH Gs75n a 2 Q5 DM Problems t gtNot good at Repetition scripting Historykeeping harder Certain tasks Change all italics to bold Abstract elements variables Macros harder F mm sVCH A m a z Q5 What is directness tr gtDirect manipulation is not always done well WIMP doesn t guarantee immediacy of direct manipulation gtWhat is psychologically not intuitively good about directness Shortness of distance between user39s goals amp system image I User has to map intention to system image I User has to map system image to interpretation Engagement Hutchins Hollan Norman 86 a i m PSVCH mm a a Q7 DM amp Norman s Gulfs I 5 Gulf of eltecutlon o prstance between users goals and means of achieving them in system Does the system allow the user to do what the user Wal iB to do7 Execution 7 Evaluation gt Gulf of evaluation 0 Amount of effort person must expend to interpret system state and page if rntentron was acnreyeo Can user pereeye ifprogressng favordJlW Fall mm mm c m a 35 Q7 Directness and Distance tr gtSeveral levels of directness cf human la ng uage Semantic Relation between what user wanB to express and what is available in interface I Can I say what I want concisely Articulatory Relation between meanings of expressions and their physical forms I Is the way to perform an action expected and clear appropriate 5 i m PSVCH Gs75n a 35
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