GPOSC Lecture notes Ch. 9 Interest Groups
GPOSC Lecture notes Ch. 9 Interest Groups GPOSC 225
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andie Gargiulo on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GPOSC 225 at James Madison University taught by TIm LaPira in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see U.S. Government in Political Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
GPOSC Lecture Chapter 9 Interest Group Politics Interest Group Mobilization Part 1 How groups become groups Part 2 How those groups in uence government Political Parties vs Interest Groups Political Parties Orientation Electoral Process to get reelected Goals Select Personnel want to get people from their party elected so their views are changed accordingly member of a party unless you are running for office staff or activists wealthy people Audience Voters don t belong to a party but the parties work to gain your vote targeted by advertising Membership Political Elites ONLY we are not a Special interests are not corrupt 9 simply journalists don t really understand lobbying How does a group become an interest group Latent vs Manifest Groups Women National Organization for Women Workers AFLCIO Consumers Consumers Union Taxpayers National Taxpayers Union Small Business NFIB Pharmaceutical PhRMA BIO GPhA PhRMA and B10 compete against GPhA Homeless people Have a hard time moving from a latent group to a manifest group for obvious reasons The Freerider Problem Example Watching PBS but not paying for it because there s no way that PBS is just going to get shut off for one person they will produce shows anyway At the individual level there s no incentive to contribute but at the collective level they would all benefit from the organization Solutions to the Freeride Problem 1 Coercion 9 simply make people do it Example taxes you are forced to do it and if you don t you are fined or possibly arrested 2 Selective incentives 9 if you aren t a member you don t get any of the goods it offers they are only available to the people who are members Example Sierra Club and the NRA Example Chamber of Congress9 the biggest lobbying All Business organization This is because it s easy K for them to overcome Types of Interest Groups the freerider problem with their selective LARGEST GROUP incentives Labor unions 9 NFL players negotiate contracts pay and even jobs plumbers Citizen issue advocacy groups 9 NRA and Sierra clubs this is what people m interest groups are Nonprofit service social welfare Ethnic religious groups State local governments Foreign governments Institutions9 IMU not for profit but doesn t have any members or investors GPOSC Lecture Part 2 Ch 9 Interest Groups Mobilization part 1 from Monday Top ten interest groups are mostly big corporations general electric AARP US chamber of commerce and PhRMA US chamber of commerce spends about 1 million dollars simply lobbing the government Solutions to the freerider problem continued 1 Coercion 2 Selective incentives 3 Solidary benefits by contributing to an organization you are improving your social life because you are involved camaraderie with likeminded people FEELS GOOD 4 Purposive expressive benefits people to it because they have a reason to or they motivated by the fact that they care about the issue Similar to solidary because of the fact they aren t offering tangible benefits they are more feeling based Example occupy wall street movement Policy In uence part 2 What do lobbyists do Directly communicating with the government and advocating their view on something People assume lobbyist secretly go to the government and bribe them with money happening Build relationships 20 of the time Provide seek info 15 Research analyze legislative info 15 Congressional hearing activities 10 Public comments on legislative issues greater than 5 Mobilize clients for legislative action greater than 5 Work with MCs staff on legislation greater than 5 Build legislative coalitions 5 Mobilize public opinion action less than 5 Try to alter legislator s positions less than 5 of the time Other less than 5 Organize policy discussions less than 5 Serve on commissions less than 5 Order of how lobbyists spend most of their time on top to how lobbyists spend least of their time on bottom highest 20 Legislators are really busy Does money buy public policy Campaign contributions no Association membership size no Association financial resources no Lobbying expenditures the side that spends more on lobbying has a better chance of winning not statistically significant slight edge Corporate financial resources the sides that spends more has a better chance of winning not statistically significant slight edge Midlevel Government Allies the side that spends more has a better chance of winning Allies 9 people how actually have in uence but not a decisive authority People on the inside that are recruited High level government allies Duh the side that spends more has a better chance of winning Allies 9 people who have decisive authority in government policy president Who are the lobbyists Types In house 9 work on whatever issues their employer wants one client Most common type of lobbyists Contract 9 multiple clients mostly lawyers Smaller category Conventional 9 not revolving door lobbyists in house and contract are farther apart in percentages Revolving 9 work inside and outside in house and contract are closer together in percentages Since the 1990s there has a been a decline in Congressional staff experts in house and Senate Lobbying clients and government jobs 9 lobbyists with more government jobs will receive most lobbying clients