Planets and the Birth of Science and Astronomy
Planets and the Birth of Science and Astronomy AY 101
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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Friday January 23, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to AY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dean Martin Townsley in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Astronomy in Physics 2 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
AY 101 Fridayjanuary 16 2015 Planets and the Birth of Science and Astronomy 0 Science vs the Scienti c Method 0 Science The body if scienti c information facts and inferences and their con dence levels and relationships The community supporting and ree ng these ideas 0 Scienti c Method Hypothesize test evaluate re ne repeat The process by which ideas are increased or decreased in con dencelevel The Models hypothesis 0 Suncentered Projection effect 0 Earthcentered Circles on circles epicycles The People 0 Prelude Ptolemy Takes the blame for earthcentered Ptolemaic Model 0 based on ideas developed in ancient Greece Greeks developed both earth and sun centered models 0 Earthcentered was favored because it was thought that the earth must be static Stars don39t shift as Earth moved 0 In fact they do it is just very small parallax Movement on Earth is inconsistent with motion of objects on Earth 0 In fact Aristotle39s laws of motion were wrong 0 Provided reasonably accurate prediction 0 The Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus The Scholar proposed suncentered model 0 Collected existing models and data and posed the alternatives clearly Copernican Model 0 Formalized existing proposal in 150039s to allow better comparison He was convinced suncentered provided a simpler explanation for retrograde motion perihelion The areas swept out in 30day periods are all equal AY 101 Ptolemaic View of Venus daysl a planet sweeps out an aquot ea that is short but wide To provide accurate predictions with circular motions just as complicated as Ptolemaic model circles on circles were needed Still concerned about a moving earth Tycho Brahe The Observer o Realized the need for more accurate measurements and preformed them In the face of competing theories which are both unsatisfactory gather better data This might point the way to a theory better than both In this case both Ptolemaic and Copernican models were wrong in detailed comparisons to data Shows importance of technical capability to advancing scienti c understanding Johannes Kepler The Analyst 0 By abandoning circles he was able to develop a highly accurate suncentered model 0 Accuracy turned the tide toward the suncentered model States in 3 laws 0 Orbits are ellipses 0 Equal area in equal time sets orbital speed 0 Quantitative relation between period and orbit size Near perihelion in any particular amount of time such as 30 aphelion Near aphelion in the same amount of time a planet quot sweeps out an area that is long but narrow o Postlude Galileo Galilei Even better measurements by way of telescope New observations only possible with telescope 0 Test con icted earth and suncentered modes Observed the sequences of phases of Venus which are different in the two models o Earthcentered disproven 0 Importance of new technology capability hence the telescope Showed using experiments that physics in a moving frame is not modi ed by the motion Galilean invariance of physics 0 Thus a moving earth is okay we wouldn39t notice Isaac Newton Even better model due to physics 0 Laws of motion and gravity are required to add universality by deriving these same planetary motions from universal physical principles All models still lack universality just a model of planetary motion Copernican View 01 Venus full gibbous gibbous quatler or J escent
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