Computing & Society
Computing & Society CS 4001
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CS4001DFall 2003 Debate Guidance Introduction You are experts who have been assembled to address a particular issue in debates that have been organized by MNP amp Georgia Tech Research Service 1 Your audience is composed of upper level undergraduate students from technical elds at Georgia Tech who will soon be advising their bosses on policy and technology decisions The debates will be judged primarily on the cogency and relevance of the arguments rather than on technical debating skill 2 In this debate the affirmative side has the burden of proving its case The negative must refute the resolution but need not propose any action on its own 3 Respective teams will be drawn from members of the section The winners will be posted on the class home page Learning Objectives 1 Learn how to prepare arguments for both sides of an issue 2 Present and structure coherent oral and written arguments 3 Learn how to debate a point using logic and factual citation Debate Mechanics l A debate team will consist of 34 people 2 All members of the debate team must participate speak It is strongly suggested that a single member of the team take a segment 3 The instructor or TA will ip a coin prior to each debate to determine which team has the affirmative and which has the negative for the assigned debated topic 4 A panel consisting of the instructor or TA and 4 selected class members will evaluate the debate and declare the winner 5 The debate format will be as follows 5 minute opening from affirmative 5 minute opening from negative 4minute rebuttal from affirmative 4minute rebuttal from negative 4minute rebuttal from affirmative 4minute rebuttal from negative 4 minute closing from af rmative 4 minute closing from negative 10 minute Q amp A period from the audience and panel 5 minute break for panel scoring feedback and Winner announcement Grading Your grade will be primarily on your written submission the day of the debate It will be evaluated on the strength of your research arguments and support Each group will submit not more that a 8page singlespaced document 5 copies to the panel before the start of the debate 0 23 page outline of your argument for the affirmative side o 23 page outline of your argument for the negative side 0 12 page list of references use in your research Your grade can only be helped by whether your side wins the debate or how well you presented your argument the day of the debate If you show good preparation and presentation you may improve a borderline grade The debate is mandatory The alternative is to write and submit a lSpage topic paper detailing both sides of the debate topic This alternative is only accepted if you miss the debate due to emergency Suggestions for Debating 1 You have to be prepared to argue both sides This means that your team must have researched both sides extensively from good reputable sources 2 Listen very carefully to your opponents Rebuttals are only as strong as your ability to undermine their arguments with evidence or carefully constructed counterarguments of your own 3 Arguments should be made from logical constructions almost like a mathematical proof You should avoid emotional argumentation that is quotI m right because everyone knows that it s rightquot Outline le Lessig Free Culture Study Sheet Draft 1 0 Introduction 0 Analogy to airspace rights 0 Court case 0 Findings of the court 9 The invention of FM radio 0 Why FM radio technology was superior 0 How it threatened the existing AM radio market 0 Eventual solution for FM radio 0 Example questions 0 Why was the previous common law concerning the ownership of airspace problematic 0 What were RCA39s actions 0 Chapter 1 Creators Steamboat Willie 0 Previous creative works that supported Disney39s Steamboat Willie 0 Copyright status for that previous work 0 Doujinshi comics 0 Technically doujinshi are illegal due to copyright considerations but the copyrights are rarely enforced 0 There are several possible reasons for this the doujinshi don39t seem to block and may enhance the market for manga there may not be enough lawyers in Japan to pursue these violations and convention may simply protect it 0 This opens up a much wider question of when creators should be allowed to build upon previous work For example in science it is considered very appropriate to build on the work of others and not just to cite them properly If we consider ownership of ideas to be absolute that protects the original creativity but may block creativity in the future 0 Example questions 0 Why was the public domain younger when Steamboat Willie was created 0 Recently the author of The Da Vinci Code was sued by the author of another book that Brown used as part of his research How might Lessig respond to this claim G Chapter 2 Mere copyists 0 Kodak camera 0 The Kodak camera greatly expanded the set of people who could do photography 0 Also changed the set of situations where photography was possible 0 Raised privacy and copyright issues 0 Do you need permission to photograph a person on the street 0 The quotJust Thinkquot project 0 New media created by students working with existing media 0 Importance of quotmedia literacyquot for the next generation 0 Blogs 0 The Trent Lott incident 0 Effect of blogs on politics 0 Example questions 0 What are some of Lessig39s arguments about the difficulty of creating new media forms 0 How have blogs changed the political landscape 0 How is quotJust Think39squot technology like the rst Kodak camera 0 Chapter 3 Catalogs 0 Jesse Jordan case Built search engine 0 RPI student sued by RIAA 0 Settled due to cost of contesting the case 0 Example questions 0 How much can a copyright owner sue for when there is a single instance of a copyright l3qu 1 Outline le Lessig Free Culture Study Sheet Draft 1 violation 0 Chapter 4 Pirates 0 Early history of film 0 Moved to California in part to duck patent royalties 9 Early history of recorded music 0 Compulsory licensing 0 Early history of radio 0 Fee for composer none for performer 0 Early history of cable television 0 Compulsory licensing 0 For each of these you need to know why there was a con ict and how the con ict was eventually solved by the courts and Congress 0 Example questions 0 How does a statutory or compulsory license work for recording music by a composer 0 Chapter 5 Piracy 0 How can we determine if piracy harms music copyright holders 0 Fourpoint framework 0 A Downloading music instead of buying it harm 0 B Downloading music to sample it and then buying music benefit 0 C Downloading music no longer for sale neutral 0 D Downloading music that is being given away benefit 0 How much of each category should we allow 0 Chapter 6 Founders 0 Foundations of copyright in common law 0 Statue of Anne 0 Millar v Taylor 0 Donaldson v Beckett 0 Example questions a In Donaldson v Beckett what was the argument given by the publishing houses that allowed them to assert copyright 0 Shakespeare and the Statute of Anne 0 Covers the early days of copyright law 0 Statute of Anne attempted to limit copyright 0 It did this because copyrights were seen as small monopolies similar to other exclusive rights granted by the crown Patent monopolies were also limited by Parliament 3 Booksellers were unpopular 0 Copyright was very limited it was the right to copy books for sale 0 Timeline 0 1597 Romeo and Juliet first published 0 1710 Parliament adopts the Statute of Anne limiting copyright to 14 years renewable once 9 1731 When Romeo and Juliet should have gone out of copyright 0 1774 Donaldson v Beckett Argument of the booksellers 3 Statute of Anne did not supersede common law so perpetual copyrights still existed Necessary to protect the authors similar argument 0 Donaldson v Beckett Donaldson sold books that were out ofcopyr39ight according to the Statute of Anne 0 Undercut the Conger booksellers by 30 to 50 0 Attempted to sell poem by Thompson acquired by Beckett Beckett sued 0 Appealed to House of Lords 0 House of Lords ruled that the Statute of Anne applied and that the copyright did not exist l3qu 0 Outline le Lessig Free Culture Study Sheet Draft 1 0 Ruling celebrated in the streets according to Lessig 0 Chapter 7 Recorders 0 Jon Else39s document and the saga of the Simpsons clip 0 Created a documentary on the backstage antics during an opera 1 Filmed stagehands watching quotThe Simpsonsquot 0 Attempted to get copyright for the short film clip 0 Booted up to Fox legal who demanded 10K 0 Could have claimed Fair Use but legal actions would still have blocked usage 0 Example question 0 Would compulsory licensing be an appropriate regulatory solution to the problem that Jon Else faced Why 0 Chapter 8 Transformers 0 The Clint Eastwood retrospective CDROM 0 Techniques used to secure copyright for the CDROM 0 Example questions 0 How long did it take to secure the copyrights 0 If the CDROM was possible why does Lessig feel that securing these copyrights is still problematic 0 Chapter 9 Collectors The Internet Wayback Machine 0 Capturing quotephemeral filmsquot for other uses 0 Interaction between the short time in which published media is pro table and the much longer time when it can contribute to society 0 Chapter 10 Property 0 Difference between intellectual property and private physical property in the Constitution 0 Takings clause vs Patents clause 0 Some of the same issues here that we saw in the Statute of Anne 0 Four modes of regulation a Law 0 Norms 0 Market 0 Architecture 0 quotEnvironmentalismquot for culture 0 DDT metaphor blocking copying can have unintended consequences for culture 0 Changes in copyright law in United States 0 Before 1790 No public domain Supported by common law 0 1790 First law 14 years plus 14year renewal 0 Only minority of works copyrighted or renewed 0 1831 Initial term changed to 28 years 0 1909 Renewal term changed to 28 years 56 years total 0 1976 Added 19 years 9 1998 Added 20 years Copyright now 95 years no renewal 0 Changes in scope 0 Now includes derived works 0 Changes in reach 0 Previously there were unregulated uses regulated uses and fair use 0 Movement to the internet changes the reach of copyright law since all internet use involves making a copy 0 Now all use must either be regulated or fair use on internet which places a much greater burden on fair use 0 DMCA 0 Technology that bypasses copyprotection technologies is now illegal l3qu Q l Outline le Lessig Free Culture Study Sheet Draft 1 0 Media aggregation 0 Norman Lear example 0 Drug policy example 9 Chapter 11 Chimera Similarities and differences 0 Use of multiple analogies 0 Example Music lockboxes 0 Chapter 12 Harms Comments 0 Copyright constrains creators by disallowing creative derivative works 0 Fair use difficult to use due to costs of lawsuits Draconian nature of copyright enforcement 0 Copyright constraints innovators due to the possibility of lawsuits under DMCA 0 History of MP3com 0 Lawsuits against company brought by Vivendi 3 Second lawsuit against lawyers once company was bought out 0 Internet radio 0 High royalties 0 Collection of information about each song excessive 0 May lead to consolidation 9 Corruption citizens 0 Example questions 0 Are these genuine harms when there are services such as YouTube and J okebox 0 Can we innovate around the problem 0 new music lockbox types 0 Is userprovided content the new way to get around this problem 0 How does Lessig argue that technical violations corrupt citizens 0 NOTE Chapters 1315 will not be on final exam 0 Chapter 13 Eldred G Situation 0 Eldred a retired programmer made publicdomain texts available via his web site 0 After Frost poem was kept from public domain by Sonny Bono Copyright Act decided to press case 0 Arguments of Lessig 0 Patents clause clearly indicates a limited time 0 If copyrights can be extended every time valuable properties are likely to fall into the public domain the copyright time becomes essentially unlimited 0 Also violates free speech by limiting how derived works can be produced 0 Friend of the court br39iefs 0 Economists Additional economic incentive for creating new works as provided by the extension is essentially nil most value derived by end of current copyright 0 Michael Agee Hal Roach Studios Costs of obtaining rights limits restoration to only the most commerically viable old films As a result the vast majority of old films which are not commercially viable will not be restored 0 Results 0 Supreme Court decided against generally finding that Congress39 power was not limited in this way 0 Did not address Lopez case Stevens dissent 0 Parallel reasoning about patents should apply here and so copyright terms should not be extended without justification 0 Breyer dissent 3 Economic argument If economic incentive of a limited term is essentially equivalent to l3qu A l cy Vicw 7 con 3 mutton v un lur H Home I 39I cnanges MK searcn 395 11611 Topics from Writing Arguments Outline of Writing Arguments needed for CS 4001 What are the pedagogical goals of these chapters of Writing Arguments Chapter 1 o Argument as synthesis not zerosum requiring justi cation o Implicit arguments 0 Given an image what is the implicit argument for that image Example Cartoon on pl of WA What is the implicit arguments What are the justi cations that are given in the cartoon 0 Argument requires truthfulness but also persuasiveness 0 Example Kathleen s arguments for ASL 0 Example If you had to argue for a code review process for your Xray controller system how might you argue it to an engineer How might you argue it to a CEO Chapter 2 0 Reading to believe and summary writing 0 Summary technique I Read for general meaning I Read with brief doessays notes I Create major points and subpoints or diagram I Prose summary draft I Summary nal draft 0 Example Given the following reading generate a summary of their View Show your intermediate work 0 Reading as doubter I Knowing the genre I Contrasting with alternative views 0 Disagreements about facts or the relevance 0 Disagreements about underlying beliefs values or assumptions 0 Example When Turner argues that foods are best in their natural state is this a disagreement of fact or of values with manufacturers of geneticallymodi ed foods Justify your answer Chapter 3 0 Techniques for creating a rst dra 1 of2 21720 o mindmapping o believing and doubting game 0 brainstorming a network of related issues 0 Classical argument structure 0 Introduction I Attention grabber Exordium I Explanation of issue and background Narratio I Writer s thesis Propositio I Forecasting passage Partitio 0 Presentation of writer s position Con rmatio 0 Summary of opposing views and a response to those views COnfutatio 0 Conclusion Peroratio Chapter 4 0 Logos pathos and ethos 0 Issue questions vs information questions I Pseudoarguments 0 Writing as a claim supported by reasons 0 Using because clauses Chapter 5 o The Toulmin system of argument with Enthymemes 0 Claim 0 Stated reason 0 Grounds 0 Warrant O Backing 0 Conditions of rebuttal I Questioning stated reasons and grounds I Questioning the warrant and backing O Quali er o Audiencebased reactions 2 of2 217200 V ncw chun uuucu rumor El110ml wcnanges ugsearcn Ynelp Topics from Ethics readings Draft More Details Soon 0 Basic issues of ethics 0 Actbased vs consequencebased models of ethics 0 Deontological models of ethics and Kant O Categorical imperative rst formulation 0 Categorical imperative second formulation 0 Utilitan39anism 0 Act based utilitarianism o Rulebased utilitarianism 0 Utility yardsticks pleasure and pain vs happiness 0 Calculating maximum utility hedons and dolars o The problem of supererogation one is obliged to seek maximum utility o The problem of localization why should my happiness be more important than someone across the globe 0 Distributive justice fairness 0 Con ict between fairness and maximizing utility o Rawls O Rawls39 issues with utilitarianism o The Original Position and the Veil of Ignorance 0 Principles of Justice 1 of l 2 l 72006 Outline file Writing Arguments Study Sheet Draft 2 0 Chapter 6 Using Evidence Effectively 0 STAR Criteria 0 Angle of vision and the selection and framing of evidence 0 Chapter 7 Moving Your Audience 0 Use of ethos and pathos in arguments 0 Example Variants ofthe vegetarian argument pp 110111 0 Vegetarian argument uses different levels of ethos and pathos same logos o Ethos e be knowledgeable 0 be fair 0 build a bridge to your audience 0 Pathos o use concrete language 0 use specific examples and illustrations 0 use narratives 0 choose words metaphors and analogies and appropriate connotations e use visual arguments 0 Chapter 8 Accomodating Your Audience 0 A oneside argument for a supporting audience 0 Classical argument for a neutral audience 0 Delayedthesis or Rogerian argument for a resistant audience 0 Example question What is a Rogerian argument and when might it be used 0 Chapter 9 Visual arguments 0 You may be asked to analyze a visual argument and say why it is or is not persuasive for a general audience 0 Use of graphs in visual arguments 0 Chapter 10 Types of Claims in Arguments 0 Simple categorical arguments 0 Definitional arguments 0 CauseConsequence arguments 0 Resemblence arguments 0 Evaluation arguments 0 Proposal arguments 0 You should be able to describe each claim type 0 Chapter 11 Categorical and Definitional Arguments 0 Categorical arguments 0 Ways to support 0 Ways to refute 0 Definitional arguments 0 Difference from categorical 0 Criteriamatch structure 0 Chapter 12 Causal Arguments 0 Three methods 0 Explain the causal mechanism directly 0 Use various inductive methods 0 Argue by analogy 0 Explain causal mechanism directly 0 Explicit description of a causal chain 0 A gt B gt C etc 0 Example Music pirating causes music profits to be reduced 0 Listener downloads music instead of buying music 0 Music is not bought in large enough quantities 0 Results in lower profits 0 Use induction 0 Informal induction Give a few examples 0 Lessig example Napster and file sharing 0 Even when there was a very large amount of file sharing CD sales did not drop proportionately 0 Problems with induction Page 12