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Civil Engr Systems

by: Coty Von
Coty Von

GPA 3.94


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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Coty Von on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEE 3000 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/234182/cee-3000-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Civil and Environmental Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.

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Date Created: 11/02/15
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FACTORS Passenge Demand and Lemma Fan Payment Mllhod Dwell loadln Area Tlm Vehicle llapacily Dwannrd clmuln un leldls cln Mill 9 N1th nl Loadlng Slaliun Vehicl mas capanlly 1am SI l gm nl Wm TYPE Vehicle Performance Granting Minlmum chamwlszius ssues Hudway TIE camel Syslms Veh m Iy Time Inlerval EXAMPLE CIF BASIC FREEWAY SEGMENT Mal In sum Easy szway Segmem 5 asic Frelway Sngmenl EXHIBIT 222 MESPACE DOMAIN OF A FREEWAY FACIUTV k F H 7 wwwmd Sec 01 9302 Sec 03 SEE M ecus Stc Us Sec 07 Sec 08 l trchnus CI Unjnn St 2 No 5 Lquot quotH a n 5 quot2 n g 3 gt 39 39 Momun SI 1m 939 Vin a 15 f 3 g s a a V 5quot 5x w gm lt 1 I m quott 2 inquot n 1 u I u W Du 20 Top Nnxzh Cllcle 1a summ qur 44 N work model N 5 12 19 22 u 21 1 b Ndwnxk diagram TWDTHE PLANNINGDESIGN PROCESS EVALUA39IIEM La Madm Wm menuun Mlh mm mm mm nkhmlliun mm quotmm mu A n c n Nu m min a r c H x I x L M N n 9 Q R s 1 u v w x y mm wads D Snvplicls A sin y I p I a Schamnnc mum Figure 43 Transpnnatiun problem Definition of Simulation 0 Simulation is a set of numerical and programming techniques for representing stochastic models and conducting sampling experiments on those models 0 The process of imitating a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas Generic Uses Model existing systems 0 Estimate impact of future scenarios with the system calibrated to current conditions 0 Simulate processes that are difficult or dangerous to test effect of an accident on plant operations Uses of Simulation Queuing at a 0 Weather bank S Bio systems W39ndow Traffic Atomic reactions 0 Manufacturing Inventory control processes Environmental amp Chemical resource analysis reactions Macroscopic vs Microscopic Macroscopic simulation models aggregate systems blood ow through the circulatory system 0 Microscopic simulation models individual elements movement of individual blood cells Surface Water Hydrodynamic Simulation Software an E 535 a s 9 ii Ex TYPICAL INPUT AND OUTPUT PARAMETERS FOR VEHICLE SIMULATION MODELS Parameters i he Mann39an Input Physical Component Include body wheels suspension Descriptions systems elements propulsion system braking system and drivers stimulus Response behavior Component Properties Include tractive effort curves braking curves and coef cients of friction Interrelationships Among Components Relationships among drive train components Forcing Functions Include gas and brake pedal inputs Resources Gasoline Output Record Component Movements Interactions Trends Record of vehicle trajectory over time Movements of the various individual components Descriptions of the forces and torques exchanged and other types of interactions that ocnurred Resource use trends Monte Carlo Simulation A technique for randomly selecting numbers from a probability distribution Named after Monaco s casino Is used in most simulation models Monte Carlo Simulation Sets up probability distributions for important variables Builds cumulative distributions for each variable Establishes an interval of random numbers for each variable Generates random numbers 0 Simulates a series of trials W I Other analytical approaches may not be appropriate I Can experiment off line without using online trial anderror approach 0 Can experiment with new situations that do not exist today 0 Can yield insight into what variables are important how they interrelate 0 Time and space sequence information provided as well as means and variances 0 System can be studied in real time compressed time or expanded time 0 Potentially unsafe experiments can be conducted without risk to system users 0 Can replicate base conditions for equitable comparison 0 One can study the effects of changes on the operation of a system 0 Can handle interacting queuing processes I Can transfer unserved queued traf c from one time period to the next I Demand can be varied over time and space Unusual arrival and service patterns which do not follow more traditional mathematical distributions can be mndeled SIMULATION MODEL SHORTCOMINGS There may be easier ways to solve the problem Simulation models require considerable input characteristic and data which may be dif cult or impossible to obtain Simulations models may require veri cation calibration and validation which if overlooked makes such models useless or not dependable Development of simulation models requires knowledge in variety of disciplines including traf c ow theory computer programming and operation probability decision making and statistical analysis The simulation model may be dif cult for nondevelopers to use because of lack of documentation or need for unique computer facilities Some users may apply simulation models and not understand what they represent Systems Angroach oProblem De nition oData Collection 0 Criteria 0 Formulate Alternatives 0 Evaluate Alternatives OChoose Best Alternative Implement sromwmzn AND comm szwtn svsrms me use mmmm Phlmhlmn am Mn Dom 5 uM Mmum m L mm W um mmquot av lmlrunmMIW u mm m 3quot m nuan m qunhxy mm 0 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Dlmvntlznlun u nndnm lnlluwx at um um a r Harlan vwlumu s in em Dunn i um E E Rmrvnlv 0M x m k Rae39va ravamly 15me npuzl m Rum our r H mm Wm AHPDU w vanmm mum puma vn at am my a 5 wm mm mum g 33 a q i 5 g i a EKET amumknww ammunw wwwkfl pwnunm 5 Wm v a n 5 m mmu m u 5 p y g E g m m 3 F a s a upazlly E a 5 Gross ma pm puny mun su womuuncmmm nomhvpx DIMENSIONS AND YKRFORMANCE STANDARDS rm Wm quotku umw r nyawmgunm 4 0 mag mmm mm meg mm L o 1 2 3 4 s a 7 Days FIGUREGJ Aluvun Imam rmlwmmh mmluu39l uumnlul u mm mmquot x w Wm mm 5 Kg I so a cm 10 mm g mm mm S g M n mum Anemply Rurnml run Tvmzxum m noun 5 mmnu gvmnnllyslslvrlnlmllinyyl uinu mive suma pm 5 lor gmquot mum mm mm 1mm mm 1m Pn ulznlx on W 1 Segment II 5mm I sum 1 Mum z 3 5k Do 4 no 1 Do Do Lalual mquot now polluhl s no u Sexmulullnn nfuluary a Moddul 1 mun Dr mmmemy vmxrd quotnuns 1am muo 5m H05 03 UPslrum Gar Larun mm mm Lllcrilvm uw new 5m Slug PM 0 a Modem 5 gum Drum How rucmn wnh dlfrvmun Figure 48 Schema mud k L ul 01m cxui I r I r Mgr fwd I k L f mmi km zhk Eu m cxp l 7 1 4kEu 1I o 4 g g rm aw mm mll uuan 5 so I v g L 2 a H Owntd Q valun 3 rcamwkly a 2 quotma 39 1 39 3 Plugnaw f y w mumsquot an ax V n I S 5 I D 4 5 z n 2 Manama n a Dumlvm amen u we k x a 2mm ammo my anxnuxuan mun ummz um m m umma oxygzn ukurv L 1 Univ Figure 49 Campaan ofmodgls 1 1 E13 I Msrkqwqu wn m m 3 run In my no 9 moux quotup In I 5139 Mom Hummu IONmsuw h mum now up Roulmndcllymndun su uuus nn L Wfli lonu Comparison of Maple Break Basin with modekd basinV R m w RE x M 7va lyre may m prlmk hut body Figure 41 ms analysts tins Handouts Systems Rnprcsenlnlinn nnd Analysis RAIL VEHICLi CAPACIW Hunks Passe mm m mm mu Vim mm 1 m 53 mkvaggeTEL Uannlm Cwmlmm Whining 77747 sulmvma j Nu wany T Ilmt lnleml EXAMPLE or BASIC FREEWAV SEGMENT Man In ml aasic Funny Slgmem Sec 0 Sec 02 Sec 03 Sec M Sac 05 Sec 06 Sec 07 5505 Funhouxc I 11mm 390 9 mm s E 5 a a E quotv t i n Mohian SK Tali anch cm 24 x sum may m Nwmm Figure u Nelwork model 1 qulml uhlmnxlnp newquot mung m ma Sthrmmnt mullnl m Figure 41 Transpanauon pmhlcm TWO7H5 pmumNGussueu PRochs EVALUAVIO39 Mum Mum adnocnl mum A a c 9 ya mm In mm 2 Mnmw r mum c mm u emug4 v Dwain J Cnnd x Bumm L Jdiclsnn M s Llwnnu N wmn u um p sawwle 0 y x uh x 13915 r m u v w x Y H Environmental Law Regulation and Policy in Civil Engineering Randall Guensler Associate Professor School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Garett Hardin The Tragedy of the Commons Science v 16213 1968 Proposition The market is not uniformly successful in enabling individuals to sustain long term productive use of natural resource systems 7 Envision a pasture open to all in an agrarian society 7 Each herder is motivated to add more animals to the herd 7 Examine the situation from the perspective ofa rational herder Bene ts direct economic value of animal added to herd accruing to the individual Cost indirect shared costs of resource consumption and deferred environmental costs overgrazing will reduce the total sustainable yield of resource in the commons The Tragedy 7 Each individual is compelled to add to their own herd without limit in a world that is limited Environmental Law Introduction Constitution 39 Federalism Branches of Government 7 Legislative Executive Judicial Types of Law 7 Common Law Statutory Law Administrative Law Federalism The federal government is a body with limited powers that are delegated by the Constitution All other powers fall to the states There is no constitutional amendment assuring a clean environment Environmental policy under the Constitution 7 Tax and spend Enter into treaties 7 Regulate the use of public land 7 Regulation of interstate commerce primary factor Judicial Opinion on Federal Environmental Policy The Interstate Commerce clause is the primary remedy for the commons dilemma Courts defer to Congress on whether an activity affects interstate commerce lfa regulation is necessary to protect interstate commerce from adverse effects it doesn t matter if the activity being regulated is a local one No quantitative test appears to be required Example Rail industry and farmers Test stated impact on interstate commerce is in the public interest addresses stated purpose Basis of Environmental Law Constitution State Constitutions Federal Statutes State Statutes Local Ordinances Regulations promulgated by federal state and local regulatory agencies Court decisions interpreting regulations Common Law Branches of Government Legislative Judiciary Write lans Interpret constitulion Lu y 11ch lnlcrprel 39rillcu lau Appropriate tax dollars 4 Ensure cxcculirc congressional action is taken Executive v Ensure congressionnl cxccuth e do not m crslep A C fl 39 lm m 0 ms constitutional nutllorll Wriic regulnlions lllnl implement Ihe lnu s Apply regulations to spccilic cases If ndju icatc Run agencies Expcnddistributc tax dollars Issue pcmiits Common Law A legal system brought from Europe Basic rules derived from the application ofnalural reason v Authority derived solely from history of case law 4 Court decisions historically applied to new situations 7 It is neither fixed or absolute Common Law concepts most applicable to the enVironmental con icts are Nuisance Trespass Negligence Strict Liability Known Hazardous Substances If you use hazardous substances and these substances injure others you will be held liable Common law cases arise from use of TNT You use the substance you know it is dangerous no manner or prudent care can guarantee that no harm will come to others You will beheld liable A The action causing the injury did not have to be unlawful when it was to quoten Environmental Regulations and Private Property Rights The Fifth Amendment prohibits the taking of private property for public use withoutjust compensation Clearly the regulation of a private property can become so onerous that it constitutes a taking Judgments must be made on a caseby case basis Ifthe damage is suffered by many and action to remedy is a restriction on use that ought to be borne by an individual for the good of the public it is a reasonable exercise not requiring compensation But ifthe restriction is so great that the individual ought not to bear it under contemporary standards then it is a taking NEPA History Parenteau 1990 1960 s ongoing Congressional debate on economic development versus the value of the environment e Beginning with Resource and Conservation Act of 1959 Debate led by Senator Henry M Scoop Jackson ofWashington State External events may have signi cantly contributed to the passage of the proposed law the National Environmental Policy Act l962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson Santa Barbara oil platform blowout of 969 Cuyahoga River in Ohio catches on re N EPA Goals 39 Establishes National Environmental Goals in Writing Probably one ofthe most interesting aspects of NEPA is the fact that the law clearly states the environmental goals of the Us The language of NEPA is that of stewardship that we have a responsibility to ourselves and future generations to serve as tmstees of the environment NEPA created a whole new role for the executive branch ofthe federal government V V the protection ofthe environment 7 NEPA was integral in Nixon s creation of the EPA by Executive Order in 1970 Informational Role The role of NEPA is informational support Occurs during project development process Impacts are to be identi ed before the nal design is completed A comprehensive approach Identify project alternatives Evaluate environmental impacts Incorporate mitigation Select an alternative This process is not always ef cient but it is dif cult to challenge the logic behind the approach NEPA Interpretation A procedural statute r Requires consideration of environmental impacts but does not require mitigation v A balance sheet with no bottom linequot 7 Agencies tnust follow process but can ignore results Merit lies in public disclosure and debate aspects Provides for accountability of government of cials Core Requirements 42 USC 4332 NEPA 102 Action Forcing Section c Include in every recommendation or report on proposals for legislation and other major federal actions that signi cantly affect the environment a detailed statement later to become known as an Environmental Impact Statement that includes assessment of im cts quot quot39 i of d not avoided description of alternatives to the action and the relationship between short term use and long term productivity l NEPA Supreme Court Case 1971 Skelly v Wright NEPA mandates an organized careful and informed decision making process and created judicially enforceable duties Executive Order 11991 39 Haphazard NEPA implementation through 1977 President Carter issues Executive Order 11991 in 1977 giving the Council on Environmental Quality the authority to issue binding NEPA guidelines Focus is on the EIS process CEQ NEPA Regulations 40 CFR 1500 NEPA contains action forcing provisions to prepare EISs NEPA procedures must ensure that high qualityquot environmental infonnation is made available to the public and public officials Focus is not on generating paperwork even excellent paperworkquot but to foster action Help agency of cials make decisions that are based on understanding of environmental consequences Make NEPA process useful to decision makers reduce paperwork improve ef ciency of information transfer clarity etc Integrate NEPA wother planning and environmental review procedures and documents early planning Identify and assess alternatives and mitigation measures Encourage and facilitate public involvement Agencies must develop implementation regulations NEPA Documents Categorical Exclusions CEs Routine agency actions that are prode ned as having no signi cant impact 40 CFR 15084 7 NEPA does not apply without a signi cant environmental impact 7 Action must be identi ed in the categorical exclusion list 7 Public process to establish list 7 Action must actually have no signi cant impact Federal Highway Atlministratiou 23 CFR 771117 7 No signi cant direct indirect growth inducing or cumulative impacts may exist No signi cant air water or noise impacts 7 No signi cant impact on travel patterns FHWAFTA Categorical Exclusions 23 CFR 771117 7 Non7constmction activities Technical studies amp research programs Approval of Programs Engineering studies and other analyses 7 Utility installationseg lights 7 Construction ot bicycle pedestrian lanes paths amp factlilies 7 Safety activities under approved plans 7 Federal land transfers Noise barrier construction Landscaping 7 Improvements to rest areas 7 Etc Environmental Assessment A concise public documentquot summarizing technical analysis that determine if a signi cant environmental impact will result 40 CFR 15013 7 No Impact Finding of No Signi cant Impact FONSl 7 Impact I Environmental impact Statement ElS Can skip the EA to prepare an EIS directly A reasonable range of alternatives must be discussed Number and scope of alternatives is ajudgment call Rule of reason The uo action alternative must be consideretl Agencies shall prepare EAs when necessary under agency procedures F ONSIs FONS 7 A detailed explanation as to why there is no signi cant impact 7 EA is attached Relevant documents are referenced Mitigated FONS 7 The projectaction could have signi cant effects but all will be mitigate The mitigation takes the effects to a less than signi cant levelquot EA must be adequate Commitments are made to mitigate and are enforceable lfthere is any potential controversy unusual case near significant impacts a 307day public review is required List of Required EIS Contents 40 CFR 150210 Cover sheet Environmental consequences Summary and mitigation measures Table of contents List of ElS preparers List of agencies and Statement of purpose and 39 organizations consulted need for the I OJCCK Alternatives including the Li 0f 539 den Permi s pro as and no actiou with Failure mitigation measures Appendices Affected environment index Alternatives The heart of the E18quot Include action and no action Governed by the rule of reason Must go to the goal of the project Must present environmental impacts of proposal and alternatives in comparative form Sharply de ne issues and provide a clear basis for choice Reasonable range of alternatives and reasons for eliminating alternatives Must consider alternatives beyond agency jurisdiction Rigorous analysis evaluation and comparison required to identify preferred alternative and describe mitigation measures Agency Responsibilities 39 40 CFR 15014 7 Agencies shall prepare ElSs when necessary under new procedures that must be adopted by each agency under section 507r3 7 Agencies shall commence scoping when an EIS will be prepared 7 Agencies shall prepare a FONSI when an EIS is not necessary 7 Public availability requirements outlined Content covered later Lead Agencies 40 CFR 15015 The lead agency is the Federal agency that supervises the EIS preparation and shepherds the EIS through the process 7 The agency can prepare the 18 or contract consultants Hierarchy of Environmental Law Regulations and Policy 0 Judicial Role NEPA ls a Procedural Requirement 7 Enforced through the courts 7 Minimum compliance criteria mnstbe met during the process Court History 7 2 cases brought to Supreme Court to date 7 Every case ruled in favor ot the agency but The case has to get to the Supreme Court which means that the Justices thought the cases had enough merit to be reviewed In 990 85 NEPA cases were brought to lower courts Since 1974 there have been more than 800 cases NEPA Conclusions NEPA doesn t require mitigation or good decisions 7 Detemtination and disclosure of impacts Reasoned decision 7 Purely procedural Other values can outweigh environmental costs Agencies must follow procedures but are free to ignore the results of the process Bene ts Keeps bad projects from being proposed Results in future thinking 7 Public participation makes decisionmakers accountable Construction in Wetlands General Term used to describe a variety of ecosystems Transitional zones dry land and open water Wetlands US Army Corps of Engineers and US Environmental Protection Agency 7 Areas of land that are either pennanently or seuonally inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency suf cient to support and that under nonnal circumstances do su prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in soil saturated conditions 33 CFR 3283b and 40 CFR 23030 o Wetlands Characteristics Hyd rology 7 Wetland sites are poorly drained waterlogged for long periods 7 Rain overland ow rising groundwater or any combination Can be seasonal or perennial permanent Soils Saturation with water results in loss of pore space to hold oxygen 7 Anaerobic conditions result hydric soilsquot Reduced microbial activity slow decomposition of plant materia Plants 7 Speci cally adapted to low 01 conditions 7 US Fish and Wildlife Service uses a wetland classi cation system that employs indicator species myamwi


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