Week 1- Physiology and Adaptation
Week 1- Physiology and Adaptation Biology 152
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by BettyAnn Mead on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 152 at University of Massachusetts taught by Peteh in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
Animal Form and Function Adaptations Tradeoffs AnatomyPhysiology Homeostasis Anatomy and Physiology AnatomyThe study of an animals physical structure Physiology The study of how the physical structures in an organism function Antarctic Ice Fish 0 Why do Ice Fish lack red blood cells 0 Losseroded of the genes that make hemoglobin Evolved an adaptation to deal with very cold water 0 No natural selection to weed out deleterious mutation to he globin gene 0 Other ways to get oxygen to their tissues lce Fish Have Evolved To 0 Lose ability to 0 Make hemoglobin 0 Make red blood cells 0 Develop the ability to 0 Use higher levels of dissolved oxygen found in cold water 0 Absorption Larger gills and scale less skin with unusually large capillaries 0 Delivery Larger heart and greater blood volume Adaptation Adaptation A trait that allows an individual to survive in certain environments relative to individuals without that trait Adaptations evolve by genetic change that occurs over generations in response to natural selection in a population What is Evolution 0 A change in frequency of adaptations traits in a population over time 0 And therefore a change in the gene frequencies that code for those adaptations in a population over time Adaptation can be behavioral 0 Example Group hunting and herding in wildebeest Adaptations can be physiological Adaptation can be molecular Accimatization Accimatization A phenotypic change that occurs in an individual in response to a shortterm change in environmental conditions Accimate by increasing hemoglobin concentration 0 The ability to do this is an adaptation TradeOffs A constraint on an adaptation is a tradeoff which may involve expenditures if time and energy TradeOff An inescapable compromise between traits Hypothesis Testing 0 Generate AlternativeComplementary Hypothesis 0 State Nu Hypothesis 0 Generate predictions of all hypothesis and null hypothesis 0 Design experimentobservations to test predictions 0 Compare results to predictions 0 State conclusion
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