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Third Day of Notes 1/21/15

by: Sara Johnston

Third Day of Notes 1/21/15 Bios 3110

Marketplace > Bios 3110 > Third Day of Notes 1 21 15
Sara Johnston
GPA 3.38
Human Anatomy

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About this Document

Since we didn't have school on monday due to Martin Luther King Day, we only had one lecture this week. In this set of notes I included the powerpoint, extra notes that Dr. Regula said on the side,...
Human Anatomy
One Day of Notes
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This 9 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Sara Johnston on Friday January 23, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to Bios 3110 at a university taught by Williams in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 176 views.

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Date Created: 01/23/15
Lecture Three l2l15 Shoulder Shoulder l Pectoral 2 Scapular 3 Lateral SupraclaVicular Region Pectoral Girdle l Bony Ring 2 Posterior Scapulae amp ClaVicle 3 Anterior Manubrium of Sternum Palpation Greater and Lesser tubercle of Humerus 1 Small Portions of extra bone that serve as extra places of attachment for muscles Synovial Joints Lubricated more mobile articulations Outer ligamentous capsule encloses membrane Distinguished by l Synovial uid 2 Synovial Joint capsule Most common joint type in the body Additional Structures associated with Synovial joints Fibrocartilaginous pads l Cushion or aid that ts between articulating surfaces Labrum l Helps create a lip or rim around the Glenoid fossa 2 Aids in protection Menisci Articular Disks 1 Additional cushion Discs are bene cial because they don t split things in to cavities Bursa l Flattened synovial uidfilled sacs or tendon sheaths positioned at friction points places where tendons or ligaments commonly rub against bone 2 Bursa is composed of Synovial membranes that have uid lubrication and don t have bones attached to them Buffered surface without articulation point 4 Benefit Gives spaces lubrication when there is movement around them a Put under tendons so the tendon rubs against something soft instead of rigid bone b Also protects muscle by wrapping into a circular sheath U Blood Supply A good blood supply and alternate routes for blood supply are critical characteristics of all Synovial Joints Collateral arterial circulation in upper limb Collateral arteries supplying hip joint Anastomoses 1 Alternate routes for blood supply 2 Extra place to get around Scapular Rotation Critical role in movements of the arm Limited rotation but essential for full abduction Muscles rotating the scapula pull in different directions but these are force coupled 1 They act in line with the direction of the scapular rotation from each muscles point of attachment Descending and ascending fibers of the Trapezius muscles and the Serratus Anterior all work at the same time to move the scapula upward 1 Moves pivots from the inferior angle of the scapula Glenohumeral Joint Ball and Socket Joint Synovial Joint membrane Humeral head articulates with Glenoid cavity of the scapula Greater Tubercle of the Humerus l Gives more attachment places for muscles 2 Decreases chances of damage Articular Surfaces l Hyaline Cartilage Glenoid Labrum l Fibrocartilaginous Ring Rotator Cuff Muscles 1 Holds humeral head in cavity 2 Four Muscles of the Rotator Cuff a Infraspinatus Muscle b Supraspinatus Muscle c Teres Minor Muscle d Subscapularis Muscle Glenohumeral Joint Continue Ligaments l Coracohumeral a Strengthens superiorly b Ligament runs between the Coracoid process of the scapula to the Humerus 2 Transverse Humeral a Ties down the joint and keeps it in place 3 Coracoacromial a Very strong Superior Displacement of humeral head will fracture Humerus or clavicle before the ligament tears b Ligament runs between the Coracoid process of the Scapula to the Acromion process of the scapula Glenohumeral Joint Continue Freedom of Movement 1 More than any other joint 2 Shallowness of Glenoid Cavity aids in range of motion and movement 3 Four movements along three axes a FleXion and extension b Abduction and adduction c Rotation of the Humerus d Circumduction Lateral rotation increases range of abduction 1 When medially rotated greater tubercle contacts the Coracoacromial arch Acromioclavicular Joint AC Plane Synovial Articulation Articular Surface 1 Fibrocartilage Articular Disc Synovial membrane lines the internal surface of the capsule Very weak 1 Strengthened by Trapezius Muscle Synovial Joint Between the Acromion process of the scapula to the Clavicle Planes are not perpendicular Acromioclavicular Joint Continue AC Acromioclavicular Ligament l Prevents clavicle from being driven under the Acromion process of the scapula 2 Very weak Easily torn Coracoclavicular Ligament l Stronger than the AC ligament 2 From the Coracoid process of the scapula to the Clavicle 3 Passively suspends the scapula and Humerus from the clavicle Acts as a hanger Bursa Contains synovial uid Found in joints Where tendons rub against 1 2 3 Bones Other tendons Ligaments Facilitates movement Protects against friction Posterior Axioappendicular Muscles Super cial and intermediate back muscles 1 2 3 Trapezius a Three bers Descending ascending and transverse Latissimus Dorsi a Keeps Scapula in position Levator Scapulae a Elevates the Scapula Rhomboids a Maj or and Minor Deltoid Rotator Cuff Muscles a Teres Major b Supraspinatus c Infraspinatus d Subscapularis Trapezius Descending Fibers 1 Elevation and upward rotation of the scapula Transverse Fibers l Retraction of the Scapula Ascending Fibers 1 Depression and upward rotation of the scapula Tonic Contraction l 2 Fixes Scapula in place Weakness causes shoulder to droop Latissimus Dorsi amp Teres Maj or Latissimus Dorsi l Inserts on the Humerus 2 With most muscles the origin is normally xed but with the Latissimus Dorsi the origin is not xed so the origin can move toward the insertion or the insertion can move towards the origin 3 Strengthens by pullups Teres Major 1 A Scapulohumeral muscle 2 Function a Medial rotation of the Humerus b Stabilization of humeral head 3 Less range of motion Anterior Axioappendicular Muscles Anterior Axioappendicular Muscles that move the Pectoral Girdle l Pectoralis Maj or and Minor 2 Subclavius 3 Serratus Anterior Pectoralis Maj or Two heads 1 Clavicular head a Flexes the Humerus 2 Sternocostal head a Extends the Humerus Pectoralis Minor Forms bridge with Coracoid Process under which the Brachial plexus passes Function 1 Stabilization of the scapula Serratus Anterior Medial Wall of Axilla Anchors scapula medial border against thorax Fixes scapula so other muscles can move Humerus Serrated look to the muscles Hence Serratus Originates at the ribs and inserts at the medial border of the scapula Function 1 Protraction and stabilization of the scapula Long Thoracic Nerve Winged scapula 1 Loss of abduction above horizontal a The Serratus Anterior needs to superiorly rotate the scapula for full abduction of the Humerus If Serratus Anterior is weak doing pushups makes it stronger Concave back is protraction Rotator Cuff Musculotendinous rotator cuff around Glenohumeral joint Stability l Tonic Contraction holds humeral head Biomechanics of Shoulder Rotator cuff muscles pull humeral head downward and medially During Abduction the rotator cuff muscles allow the head of the Humerus to spin and glide in place without rolling off of the Glenoid fossa Abduction of Humerus Supraspinatus starts rotation l Attaches on the greater tubercle of the Humerus 2 Line of force and action are close to parallel during the first 20 degrees of abduction 3 Once you pass 30 degrees of abduction then the deltoid muscle takes over Deltoid 1 Most effective when the arm approaches and passes horizontal position a The line of force and action begin to converge Rotator Cuff Injury 1 Instability of Glenohumeral Joint 2 Most common rotator cuff muscle that is injured is the supraspinatus because of a Repetitive use during daily life and sports Swimming throwing tennis etc 3 Impingement of humeral head amp rotator cuff muscles on the Coracoacromial arch causes a In ammation that leads to 9 Degenerative tendinitis l Inflamed tissue rubs up on the bursa Which in extreme cases needs surgery to fix b This injury causes difficulty with the early stages of abduction but patients are pain free once the deltoid takes over Calcific Supraspinatus Tendinitis In ammation and calcification of subacromial bursa Deposition of calcium in supraspinatus tendon causes 1 Subacromial bursitis 2 Add Calcium to make harder structures Painful arc Syndrome 1 Pain occurs in 50130 degrees of abduction 2 No pain occurs with adduction 3 Pain occurs pretty much all the time Adhesive Capsulitis 1 Frozen shoulder Dislocation and Separation Dislocation of AC J oint 1 Fall forcing humeral head superiorly 2 Humeral head is shoved into Acromion process 3 Weak Joint Shoulder separation 1 When both AC and Coracoclavicular ligaments are torn 2 Humerus and scapula drop and clavicle elevates Fracture of Clavicle Often fractured by indirect force such as falling on an outstretched arm Sternocleidomastoid Muscle elevates medial fragment 1 Tends to move clavicle Lateral fragment 1 Shoulder drops and trapezius cannot hold it up Adductors pull humeral head medially shortening of the clavicle Dislocation of Glenohumeral Joint Humeral Head 1 Inferior displacement 2 Usually anterior dislocation a Head descends below the Infraglenoid tubercle and long head of the triceps b Often resulting from excessive extension and excessive lateral rotation


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