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BISC Week of 10/26 Notes

by: SophieSol

BISC Week of 10/26 Notes BISC 1005

GPA 3.92

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About this Document

Here are my notes from BISC for the week of 10/26
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in The Biology of Nutrition and Health

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 11/02/15
 Epigenetics and Nutrition o #1 thing you should pay attention to when you are consuming something (on nutrition label) is the serving size o Calories and what contributes to them  Fat  9 calories/gram  Look for hydrogenated oils (trans fat)  Carbs  4 calories/gram  Look for added sugar (empty calories) o I.e. sodas  Protein  4 calories/gram  Alcohol  7 calories/gram  Energy Production to generate ATP o Anaerobic energy metabolism  No oxygen needed  Phosphocreatine  Structure o Amino acid-based substance  Supply o Get enough from protein sources  Set point o Like everything else there is a limit o Excess needs to be broken down and excreted in urine  Where o Mainly in skeletal muscle but other organs like liver, heart, brain…things functioning all the time  When o Initial onset of activity in skeletal muscle o Background production  Simple production o Phosphocreatine adds phosphor onto ADP  ATP  Glycolysis coupled to fermentation  o Aerobic  Oxygen is used  Aerobic cellular respiration o Key players  Energy carriers  Receive  Store  Deliver o Delivers one of the phosphate groups  Electron transport chain  Water  Producers absorb from environment  Gases  We generate CO du2ing cellular respiration and need it for photosynthesis o Key players in harnessing energy from glucose  Receive  Store  Deliver  Chemical carrier: ATP  Electron carriers: NADH, FADH ,2NADPH o These are specialized energy carriers that store energy in loosely bound electrons o NADPH provides hydrogen to anabolic pathways  Glycolysis: universal ATP production  First step in breakdown of sugars and takes place in cytosol  6-carbon molecule o Pyruvate (two 3 carbon molecules) o ATP is produced o NADH is recycled  Does not require oxygen (anaerobic process)  Requires presence of NAD (empty electron taxi)  Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria so it must occur in cytosol  You can’t use the NADH if it is full so this is why it must be recycled  Fermentation o Fermentation by anaerobic yeasts converts pyruvate into an ethanol, releasing CO g2s o Lactic acid fermentation  Forms in severely taxed muscle cells as a result of ATP production in the absence of oxygen o Higher metabolic rates may shorted life spans, because…  Toxic by-products build up quickly and are more likely to damage DNA o Anabolic vs. catabolic  Catabolic must outpace anabolic in order to lose weight o Aerobic Energy Production  Cellular respiration takes place in 3 stages  Glycolysis takes place in cytosol (about 2 ATP)  Krebs cycle is in mitochondria (about 2 ATP) o Prep:  First lose a carbon atom from 3-carbon pyruvate and the remaining 2 carbon unit joins with coenzyme A o Produces  CO 2hich is released in atmosphere  ATP  NADH and FADH 2  Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in mitochondria and produces the largest amount of ATP (30)


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