BISC Week of 10/26 Notes
BISC Week of 10/26 Notes BISC 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Epigenetics and Nutrition o #1 thing you should pay attention to when you are consuming something (on nutrition label) is the serving size o Calories and what contributes to them Fat 9 calories/gram Look for hydrogenated oils (trans fat) Carbs 4 calories/gram Look for added sugar (empty calories) o I.e. sodas Protein 4 calories/gram Alcohol 7 calories/gram Energy Production to generate ATP o Anaerobic energy metabolism No oxygen needed Phosphocreatine Structure o Amino acid-based substance Supply o Get enough from protein sources Set point o Like everything else there is a limit o Excess needs to be broken down and excreted in urine Where o Mainly in skeletal muscle but other organs like liver, heart, brain…things functioning all the time When o Initial onset of activity in skeletal muscle o Background production Simple production o Phosphocreatine adds phosphor onto ADP ATP Glycolysis coupled to fermentation o Aerobic Oxygen is used Aerobic cellular respiration o Key players Energy carriers Receive Store Deliver o Delivers one of the phosphate groups Electron transport chain Water Producers absorb from environment Gases We generate CO du2ing cellular respiration and need it for photosynthesis o Key players in harnessing energy from glucose Receive Store Deliver Chemical carrier: ATP Electron carriers: NADH, FADH ,2NADPH o These are specialized energy carriers that store energy in loosely bound electrons o NADPH provides hydrogen to anabolic pathways Glycolysis: universal ATP production First step in breakdown of sugars and takes place in cytosol 6-carbon molecule o Pyruvate (two 3 carbon molecules) o ATP is produced o NADH is recycled Does not require oxygen (anaerobic process) Requires presence of NAD (empty electron taxi) Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria so it must occur in cytosol You can’t use the NADH if it is full so this is why it must be recycled Fermentation o Fermentation by anaerobic yeasts converts pyruvate into an ethanol, releasing CO g2s o Lactic acid fermentation Forms in severely taxed muscle cells as a result of ATP production in the absence of oxygen o Higher metabolic rates may shorted life spans, because… Toxic by-products build up quickly and are more likely to damage DNA o Anabolic vs. catabolic Catabolic must outpace anabolic in order to lose weight o Aerobic Energy Production Cellular respiration takes place in 3 stages Glycolysis takes place in cytosol (about 2 ATP) Krebs cycle is in mitochondria (about 2 ATP) o Prep: First lose a carbon atom from 3-carbon pyruvate and the remaining 2 carbon unit joins with coenzyme A o Produces CO 2hich is released in atmosphere ATP NADH and FADH 2 Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in mitochondria and produces the largest amount of ATP (30)