Intro to Mechatronics
Intro to Mechatronics ME 6405
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chloe Reilly on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 6405 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Ifeanyi Ume in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/234231/me-6405-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
An Overview of Lisa Ellis Joe Frankel Ryan Krauss ME 6405 Instructor Dr Ume Georgia Institute of Technology Outline Background Basics of Transistor operation TransistorTypes Practical considerations Example Applications 39 BJT vs MOSFET for logic level circuits Summary References Background Invented by Bell Laboratories in 1947 Revolutionized the computer industry by eliminating the need for vacuum tubes mechanical switches Utilized in39 many products that use every day such as Today s transistor Background Semiconductor Evlufquot 190039s Vacuum Tube invented in 32333 England used for AC gtDC rectifier 194039s Transistor invented at Bell Labs 1 Late 1950s First integrated circuit at Doped Silicon Texas Instruments 1 P39Njundion 196039s Small Scale Integration SSI up to 20 gates per chip Late 196039s Medium Scale Integration multiple pawmotions MSI 20200 gates per chip 197039s Large Scale Integration LSI 200 5000 gates per chip OPFOCGSSOFS 198039s Very Large Scale Integration ghQUSams Of P N 1 Ct39ons VLSI over 5000 gates per chip Transistors What is a transistorquot 3 terminal electronic semiconductor device Uses small input current to get large output current A switch or a amplifier Main component of microprocessor Transistor composition Base material of transistor is silicon Pure silicon is a insulator G which restricts current flow I l I icon has 4 valence 57 Pure Silicon Two types of dopants or impurities are added to change cond uxciiivi Transistor composition Ptype positive Add Group III elements like Boron with 3 valence electrons to create holes for charge carriers to fill Ntype negative Add Group V elements like Phosphorus with 5 valence electrons to create free charge carriers Depletion Regizg Hole diffusion Elise ii negati Ghrargre I l I r Chargc Density Dlstance l a I I I I F Electric Field I J Potential u I Distame quot5m Forward Biased Supplied Current flows with hole diffusion current negative Charges Holes diffuse gt lt Electrons diffuse Supplied Current Reverse Biased Exam Supplied Current fights against hole current Charges can not diffuse unless supplied current flows towards n39 Therefore no current flows o iquot V negative charge WW NW Holes diffuse gt 4 Electrons diffuse Supplied Current Bipolar Junction Three terminals in a BJT Collector C Base B Emitter E Two Types of BJT s NPN current flows from base to emitter PNP current flows from liter to base C ol legotor Emitter Emitter ibgt C iblt C B B E E 2 IOn junctions form Trang 1 Baseemitterjunction EBJ 2 Collectorbase junction CBJ Emitter Collector Base EBJ CBJ Behavior Reverse Reverse Open Switch Forward Forward Closed Switch Forward Reverse LinearAmplifier Exceeds limits Overload BJT Operation as a i c saturation lt gt Increasing values of base current 390 B lb Vce Where 3 gain of transistor Saturation ib gt i0 3 BJT Operation as a a i c R2 saturation Increasing values of base current AS base current increasesthe collector current IS amplified Vce is 3 ib gain of transistor ll x Cumlt m x A x m X Wquot llJ BJT Characteriti Active linear in 11A 39120 m llll A 3975 lift 50 11A 3925 HA intl Ell Ema 39 BJT is not an ideal switch Small amount of current still flows thru VC junction when b IS zero quot5 H a x r u BVCEU VClilvl TYPES of Transistrsa 1 Bipolar Junction Transistors BJTs 2 MetalOxideSemiconductor Field Effect Transistors MOSFETs Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors IGBTs quot Thyristors Gate Turnoff Thyristors GTOs Oxide Semiconductor Controlled Thyristors MCTs Bipolar Junction Transistors Darlington Configu Need more current Overall Gain 11 kJiB MOSFETS Metal Oxide Semiconduclbr Field Effect Tf iD D m E a fig 8 mm X COLLECTOR 3 39 FLANGE Insulated Gate Bipolar Tra n39sistars gate A anode K cathode Forward Onstat e Breakover Breakove f w gate current wo gale cur39freht Reverse blocking VAK Forward blocking Power Transistor Applioa tiom 31 Rectifier for DC motor r i l J W m 8 transmission lines 31 Controlled Rectifier DC Motor 31 Rectifier Waveforms Uncontrolled max RMS voltage Delay angle 3 AC Source Voltages 120 apa VDCmax N F 0 VDCoc Controlled RMS voltage A I II I I oc 90 I I I I I I I I I I I I at delay angle or I I I I I l I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l l I V V I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I A I I I I I I I I I y l I I I I 5 I I J o d I a dr hr h r a180 VDc0 0 VDC0L90 Range of controlled RMS voltage 0 with firing delay angle 0 180 VDCOL180 39VDCmax VDCmax GTs Gate Turnoff Thyris torsa39 39A l A anode cathode MCTE MOScontrolled thyristors 1A A 7 A A i H P Turnon 39 I G I PType NType K ltv AK Switching Characterr Control Signal Voltage Current I OFF Tumon lll 0N Turnoff I 1 Il I I I I 39 I vuff i 39 Va 0 F i Onstate voltage drop Esw I 39tswitchy2 I Eon Von Ionton gic ICmax Outside actual SOA ldeal39ied S Mtchmg need protection here Ty trajec o Ideal SOA fast switch fimes I V39 Actual SOA Realistic current amp voltage limits while conducting high freq Actual SOA low freq I DC VCEmax logVCE Voltage Voltage spike Iim E limVD LE 2 oo quot At gt 0 At R SZ D RCD Snubb39er circuit Vst j I Increasing frequency A Semiconductor LimitatifK39ns Type Frezljgncy Max Voltage Max Current MOSFETs 1 MHz 1 kV 200A IGBTs 80 kHz 2 W 500 A MCTs 20 kHz 2 W 750 A BJTs 10 kHz 1 W 1 kA GTOs 1 kHz 3 W 2 kA 500 Hz 5 W 3 kA Increasing power amp size Semiconductor Limi ti vmtage Thylislors 500 A 1000 A 1500 A 2000 A 3000 A Typical ApplicatiW Current amplification Audio driver applications Switching use microcontroller to turn something on or off When is a transistcr necessary Desire to control a device with moderate high current draw Microcontroller can put out 5V but typically less than 10 mA A real world example testing center at A much more expensive boards National Instruments 1000 5000 Similar current limitations System descriptin chamber High speed cameras High intensity lights Thermal couples Pressure transducers Why were transistors To make the system easy to use To minimize the heating up of the instrument panel by the high intensity lights Second generation airbags require deploying the two stages of the airbag approximately 10ms apart L ELM COO mmntlt 5V Connection from LabVieW R2 DACOUTO NPN Transistor ignal hex Shunt closing to ground X4 there are 4 of these transistors one triggers LabView and the others trigger the 3 cameras NPN Transistor r v I S 39e Stage 1 PNP Transistor Stage 1 NPN Transistor 2 X4 Stage 2 NPN 39 F a mom Trans1stor 39 iquot quotT Z 2 I Z g a I a o b on O gt I 0 t D o o o 0 D I i I O O O I O D I39 V D Stage 1 NPN Transistor 1 39 I n D e C quotg I V I 5 9 J Q I a 3957tu n O O i u a o D 0 D l U O C 39 t W I gt BJT switching circuif How much current do you need How much current can you supply BJT current multiplication Typically desire vCE to be small iBASE must be large enough to cause satura ti breakdown region lc saturation region v I 1 2 mA 39 quot line of constant I 5 v gt x B active region avalanche of C Bjunction 80 l I I I Am l quot 1O 20 30 4O 50 60 start avalanche volts Control signal input Experimental BJT Results R1 iBASE VCE VLOAD iLOAD Ohms mA V V mA 13 510 843 012 488 976 116 1020 422 016 484 968 230 2200 195 022 4785 957 490 4400 098 035 465 93 952 R 10000 043 111 389 778 quotquotquotquot 5 T EliLOAD VLOAD Results from using Motorola 2N2222 R1 transistor with and Experimental BJT Resulquot R1 iBASE VCE V LOAD iLOAD Ohms mA V V mA 539 510 843 012 488 976 116 1020 422 016 484 968 230 2200 195 022 4785 957 490 4400 098 035 465 93 952 10000 043 11 1 389 778 1809 avalanche of CB junction 1o 20 30 40 50160 start avalanche VCE vits MOSFET Circu defaults to off To V voltage source I RLOAD Control signal input VLOAD ILOAD R1z10R2 IGATE IS still very small signal input am i39EATE are very small MW VLOAD VDS iGATE Ohms V V mA 10000 492 004 00070 510 491 004 00004 Control 5 km 539 4 minus arm ms FEWF u 10f 68HC11 BJT Exam o O 3 3 D o 2 O 3 Collectorload connection signal input To V voltage l 8 g l I n l L 1 I l I 1 n l n t l L l n I l x o Damm onm33m 2351 vn nom Tn DQS Drainload connection Control RLOAD Signal Input Control input connection R1 R2 68HC11 Example Code to turn load off ORG 1040 LDAA 00001100 STAA 1009 LDAA 00000000 STAA 1008 SWI END Code to turn load on ORG 1060 LDAA 00001100 STAA 1009 LDAA 00001100 STAA 1008 SWI END MOSFET VS BJT Cheaper z006 Can be made to handle more voltage and current MOSFET More expensive z060 Faster Less power dissipated during use a current draw from MPU Si irmrL ler circuit design Summary A mechanical engineer can use to solve practical problems with limited knowledge of electronics MOSFET s should be first choice for logic level applications d applications regulates current or quot acts as a switch or gate electronic circuit PN Junction Russell Ohl 1939 First Transistor Bell Labs 1947 Shockley Brattain and Bardeen First Solid State Transistor 1951 4 t E Transistor ome nt followeqiMoore s Law 1965 30 Transistors 1971 000 2000 42 million 2x growth every 2 years 9m m 5l v a Physics has an excess of V with more valence electrons has a deficit of With less valence electrons 7 iode ma No Current e to Anode increases 39e gt Barrier Voltage to nt flow liar Physics P39type Ntype Ntype n Base Emitter Collector D Emitter Terminal 11 Collector l Emitter 7 Terminal ihe BJT Ib150uA Ampli er OFF b150pA 1o 20 V2V V Vb il R2R1 VeVb707V Ie VeRe 2 7 25mV Ie R39e Rc Gam 7 R e Zin R1IIR2 Zout Re Power circuit turation point can in B1 MOSFET mm ca avada Wmw e G s nrchanna prchannm Enhancement made Enhancementmude 22 Mechazmmcs stland when 1999 Mechazmmcs Hmanu KNmamva was rmmrr WW u I m thu M a m mm MM 1 m m M drmmv whmm mm m V mu Optocoupler b 9r1amp30n2amp4off 1amp30ff2amp4on Size R so that PNP is in saturation c2Amps Hrep1o bic02 Amps 502 R R25Q Repeat for NPN ve voltage 50 ne amp 4 together
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