Composite Mater& Process
Composite Mater& Process ME 4793
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chloe Reilly on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ME 4793 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/234253/me-4793-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Outline Large quantities of textile and carpet waste gt 2 Billion Manufacturing waste significant in Georgia kg per year gt 50 Million kg per year Most is landfilled Most is carpet High concentration of nylon PP and PET Need to recycle me 4793 mm Mamas andhacsss Glass Mat Reinforced Recycled MOtiVa on Thermoplastics RECYCHHQ issues Why reinforce GMRT properties ver1 Commercialization Applications Motivation Mixed Thermoplastics have Poor Properties Mostly inco mpatible True for nylon PP and PET Primary changes Tensile strength Impact strength I Therefore separate Elongation me 4793 mm Mamas andhacsss 6 Hard to Separate Mixed waste ber Additives Gray PP Pellets Injection Molding Filter Waste me 4793 mm Mamas andhacsss Nylon Depolymerize Compat Mixed ber Compatibilizer oo engt10wt ibilization Expensive Extrusion Compounding Pelletizer Molding Pellets o en low modulus me 4793 mm Mamas andhacsss Why Reinforce Fibers dominate properties 99 GPa Thermoplastic Glass Fiber Composite EU vul i mm m n l Tensile 005 35 Strencith Modulus 2 70 40 m 4793 mum mam mmss 7 Why Glass Mat Avoid fiber breakage Extrusion Compounding Fibers in 3 mm or greater Fibers out 1 mm or less typical Increase Impact Strength 5 lrnp act Streri gth Fiberlerigth rnrn i 3 in mm Why Glass Mat Mixed Fiber Glass Fiber Mat LaydoWi i Roving Filler Tolerantquot Process me 4793 mm Mamas mmese a Conventional GMT Process E xlrud er Dnuhle Bell Glass mal puss cnils Features Low viscosity resin 39 H39gh cap39tal 805 s Thick sheet 37 mm 39 Established commercially 39 Slow Goo is 51231 me 4793 mm Mamas mmese in Paper Laying Process Glass Fibers er and Pnlymer pnwder Su aclanl Dnuhle hell Features Any viscosity resin 39 Energy Intensive Thin sheets mng Established commercially Good quality me 4793 mm Mamas mmese ii Fast High capital costs Original Recycled Materials Materials Edge Trim Shear Lint Separated PP Source Carpet Carpet Old carpet Manufacturing Manufacturing PP Wt quotn 40 gt98 gt98 other SBR Nylon Sizing Nylon Filler Dirt Fiber length gt 25 lt1 lt1 mm Bulk Denasity 250 200 200 kglm i me 4793 mm Mamas mmese iz Original Recycled Materials Campet 0mm Edge39l rim mum T ShearLint mam me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacsss 13 Unreinforced Properties 32 27 m 5 i me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacsss m GMRT Properties GMT samples Properties GMT GMT GMT Molded Edge trim Shear Separated Azdel lint PP Density 152 112 118 117 cIcm ASTM D 732 m 4793 MM mm nmacsss 15 Tensile Properties Edge Shear Separated Azdel ASTM D ESE Georgia me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacsss we 2quotTech Flexural Properties ASTM D 79D me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacsss 17 Dynatup impact testing ASTM D 3763 impactvelucity 3 4 rns me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacsss 1E Dynatup Impact Tester 159 kg HDynmup Inwer l in cm x1 cm sample Sample hnluer me am eamama Mamas aaanaasss IE Commercialization Sequence Economic Analysis Patent Application DevelopmentGrant Process demonstration Property improvements Market assessment Business Plan me am eamama Mamas aaanaasss 2n Economic Analysis Compare with commercial GMT Assume equivalent processes Raw material costs per kilogram Vimin PP Recycled PP Glass Roving 070 035 180 Raw material cost savings per kilogram of GMRT 20 n Glass 40 n Glass 028 021 GMT sells for 330 per kilogram me am eamama Mamas aaanaasss II Georgia Development Grant Astechnologies Inc approached Manufactures laminating equipment Produces laminated products Located in Georgia Primary markets automotive and textiles Astechnologies acquires technology Demonstrated continuous processing Improved GMRT exulal strength Established market potential was eamama Mamas aaanaasss 22 Improved Flex Strength Due to poor interfacial adhesion incorporated maleated polypropylene as as as it EH1EH H ai which EH Found an optimum matched commercial GMT fracture mode changes to primarily tensile me am eamama Mamas aaanaasss 23 Market Current volume gt 100 million kgyr Automotive industry dominates Appea a Low cost Low density a Rigidi High impact strength a Chemical resistance Recycling Applications 7 Batterytrays Bumperbeams Seats Dash board a Guard rails Pump housings a Containers Form boards for concrete 7 Floating docks with foam core me am eamama Mamas aaanaasss 26 Natural Fiber Polyolefin Composites ver1 me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacese Outline Motivation Current trends Why the rapid growth Research Issues Compatibility Strength Modulus Creep Moisture Cost Durability Recycling Needs me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacese 2 Motivation Composites Forest Products Joint Session Natural Fiber s appeal Renewable Lightweight Cost Biodegradable Moderate strength and modulus High aspect ratio Drawbacks see issues me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacese Current Trends Rapid growth 13 compounded last 10 years Currently 400 million lbs annually Growth projections to 2005 Building products 60 peryear Automotive products 50 per year What s growing Ref Eckert Kline amp Co me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacese t Building Products Current 75 of market Decking Trim Fencing V ndowdoor pro les Soon Shutters siding shingles Most applications have modest structural requirements me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacese Decking Composition Appeal 50 wood our Warp resistance 50 polyole n Insect resistance LDPE Asthetics 39 HDPE Longevity Often recyclate Options Foam Hollow cores l me 4793 mm Mimi s nmacese 5 Synthetic Hardwoodquot SHWTechnologies lnc Guelph Ontario 0 rocess 70 PP30 Wood Flour 9 Ram Extrusion 9 Cold Drawing 9 Oriented PP and High Void Content 40 Properties Flex Str psi Flex Mod psi 000 PP 7000 270 Wood 14000 1300000 SHquot 20000 1100000 m was Eamvosne Maiauaa anmaaese 7 Automotive Applications Less developed about 8 of market Primary Trim panels Spare tire covers Seat backs Secondary Instrument panels Glove boxes Headliners Sun visors Exceed 100 million lbs of fibers in 2005 m was Eamvosne Maiauaa anmaaese a Research Issues Compatability is poor Add maleated polyole n 10 best 1 affordable gt 1llb for mPO Improves strength creep resistance Lowers moisture absorption Benefits are incremental 1 m was Eamvosne Maiauaa anmaaese a Strength and Modulus Low MPa GPa m was Eamvosne Maiauaa anmaaese 1U Comparative MechanicalPhysical Properties of Bast and Wood Materials VlIoodHandbook 1996 m was Eamvosne Maiauaa anmaaese 11 FullyCoupled Polypropylene I Natural Fiber Composites Georgia m was Eamvosne Maiauaa anmaaese 12 f39rTech Lower Costs Sought are 4793 mm Materlab mmese i3 High Moisture Adsorption gt 10 2 3 after compounde Must dry to compound Can use vacuum venting in extrusion Increases cost Interferes with fibermatrix coupling Causes swelling Lowers strength and modulus Increases creep are 4793 mm Materlab mmese N Short Fibers Dominate Advantages Disadvantages Lower cost Lower properties Easier processing par Iarl ExtruSlOl l 5 9 compounding Witn I act We We WW Hard to orient Extruded products Conventlorlal iniection molding Complex shapes are 4793 mm Materlab mmese i5 Long Fiber Systems Harder to make prepreg Mat composites not better than injection molded composites in tensile strength FlaxPP comparison by Peijs at Eindhoven Long fiber pellets slightly better that short fiber pellets Impact strength benefits most gt 200 Why don t long fibers perform better are 4793 mm Materlab mmese to Thermal Degradation Lignin starts degrading above 70 C Hemicelluloses next Cellulose quite stable Survives neutral pulping at 280 0C General guide process below 200 C How to stabilize Pulping Thermal treatment Other are 4793 mm Materlab mmese i7 Flax Fiber DuralinTM Process Steaming Stra 4 w 160 C 30 min Treated Fibers 30 A higher strength Acetic Anhydride are 4793 mm Materlab mmese la