Hist ID 2202
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Dayana Aufderhar on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ID 2202 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Joyce Medina in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/234261/id-2202-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Industrial Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Aftnilluf tlul N lIIlllllllllltllllllllH unnulnnili Frank Lloyd Wright 1867 1959 was an American architect interior designer writer and educator who designed more than 1000 projects which resulted in more than 500 completed Works Wright promoted organic architecturequot and was a leader of the Prairie School movement His Work includes original and innovatiVe examples of many different building types including of ces churches schools skyscrapers hotels and museums Wright also often designed many ofthe interior elements of his buildings such as the furniture and stained glass Wright authored 20 books and many articles and was a popular lecturer in the United States and in Europe His colorful personal life often made headlines most notably for the 1914 fire and murders at his Taliesin studio Already wellknown during his lifetime Wright was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as quotthe greatest American architect of all timequot Wright39s residential desig s were identi ed be him as quotPrairie Housesquot because the design was considered to complement the flat landscape around Chicago These houses he explained featured extended low buildings with shallow sloping roofs clean sky lines suppressed chimneys cantilevered overhangs and terraces and used indigenous materials The houSes are credited with being the first examples of the quotopen plan that allowed for nonspecific space and openness to the exterior Situated on a corner lot the design ofthe ho39USe fits the space by opening up and extending into it The flat herizontality of the design complements the site The projecting cantilevered roof eaves continuous bands 0f art glaSs Windows and the use of brick emphasize the horizontal which had rich aSsociations for wright The horizontal line reminded him of the American prairie and was a line of repose and shelter appropriate for a house To further emphasiZe the horizontal of the bricks the horizontal joints were filled with a creamcolored mortarand the small vertical joints were filled with brickcolored mortar From a distance this complex and expensive tuck pointing creates an impression of continuous lines of horizontal color and minimizes the appearance of individual bricks The bricks were molded and red at a V nearby pliant Thus 1 1 1 they are formed of local v clay and qualify as indigenous materialsquot materials taken from 1 the site and therefore in harmony with the J 397 colors of the landscape Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House Chicago 1909 In June 1926 the house and its contents were sold to the Chicago Theological Seminary who used the house as a dormitory and dining hall although it was primarily interested in the site for purposes of future expansion In 1941 a graduate student at the Illinois Institute of Technology accidentally discovered that the Seminary was moving ahead with a plan to demolish the Robie House and informed his instructors including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe The threat of demolition aroused a storm of protest Although the Seminary39s plans were subsequently postponed the crisis was averted more by the onset of World War II than by acquiescence of the property s owner The most serious threat to the existence of the Robie House arose 16 years later On March 1 1957 the Seminary announced plans to demolish the Robie House on September 15 in order to begin the construction of a dormitory for its students This time an international outcry arose and Wright himself then 90 years old returned to the Robie House on March 18 accompanied by the media students and neighborhood organizers to protest the intended demolition of the house Commenting on the threatened demolition Wright quipped quotIt all goes to show the danger of entrusting anything spiritual to the clergy Fortunately only weeks earlier the Chicago City Council declared the Robie House a Chicago landmark The front door and main entrance is partially hidden on the northwest side of the building beneath an overhanging balcony in order to create a sense of privacy and protection for the family The entrance hall itself is lowceilinged and dark but the stairs to the second floor create a sense of anticipation as thevisitor moves upward Once upstairs the light lled living and dining rooms create a sharp contrast to the dark entrance hall making the living and dining rooms seem even more special Frank Lloyd Wright Robie House Chicago 1909 Frank Lloyd Wright orginal interior of the Robie H0use Chicago 1909 Falling Water also known as the Edgar J Kaufmann Sr Residence is a house designed by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania 50 miles southeast of Pittsburgh The house was built partly over a waterfall in Bear Run of the Allegheny Mountains Not in the quotPrairie Style Falling Water embodies Organic Architecture as its intention Frank Lloyd Wrig ht Kaufman House Falling Water Bear Run PA 1936 I 1 r 4quot Hailed by Time magazine shortly after its completion as Wright39s quotmost beautiful jobquot it is also listed among Smithsonian magazines Life List of 28 places quotto visit before you diequot Falling Water was featured in Bob Vila39s AampE Network production Guide to Historic Homes ofAmerica It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966 In 1991 members of the American Institute ofArchitects named the house the quotbest alltime work of American architecturequot and in 2007 it was ranked twentyninth on the list ofAmerica39s Favorite Architecture according to the AIA 3 I A H I e Us r b quot x ja 3 5R mi 1 x f I V V 7 v V 34quot 7 7fquot v if xi Frank Lloyd Wright Kaufman House Falling Water Bear Run PA 1936 surroundings and locally quarried stone walls and cantilevered terraces resembling the nearby rockformations are meant to be in harmony in line With Wright39s interest in making buildings that were more quotorganicquot and which thus seemed to be more engaged With their surroundings Although the waterfall can be heard throughout the house it can39t be seen without going outside The design incorporates broad expanses ofwindows and the balconies are off main roomsgiving a senseofthe closeness of the surroundings The experiential climax of visiting the house is an interior staircase leading down from the living room allowing direct access to the rushing stream beneath the house Frank Lloyd wright Kaulman House Falling Watery Bear Run PA 1 93 s V a e Integration with the setting extends even to small details For example where glass quot quot 39 39ame rather 39 39 39 quot quot 39 to the stone Thereare stairWays directly down to the water And in the quotbridge39 that connects the main house to the guest and servant building a natural boulder drips water inside which is then directed back out Bedrooms are small some even with rm ilin r Fl r nrial are 1 x y decks and outdoors 7 I rf Lg 33 gt I quot7 Frank Lloyd Wriig hiti interior of Kaufman Fa ljlji Bear ij PA 1935 Frank Lloyd Wright hearth Kaufman House Falling Water Bear Run PA 1936 v This organically designed private residence was intended to be a nature retreat for its owners The house is wellknown for its connection to the site it is built on top of an active waterfall which flows beneath the house The fireplace hearth in the living room 39is composed of boulders found on the site and upon which the house was built one set of boulders which was left in place protrudes slightly through the living room fl00r Wright had initially intended that these boulders would be cut flush with the floor but this had been one of the Kaufmann family39s favorite sunning spots so Mr Kaufmann insisted that it be left as it was The stone floors are waxed while the hearth is left plain giving the impression of dry rocks protruding from a stream administration building of Johnson amp Son Inc in Racine Wisconsin was designed by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright for the company39s president Herbert F quotquotH39ibquot Johnson Construction wascompieted in 1944 it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976 One appreaches the building by walking underneath the 14retery taill Jeh near Research Tewe r 1944 1951 and threuglr a law parking let which is eupperted eteelereiinfareed quotdendriformquot treeshe ped Generate columns The parking lot eeil ing creates a cempreee i en of space 1an the dendriferm cemmvne are eehoed inside the building where they rise ever twe eteri ee rail eupper ng the structures rent 200 types of curved red bricks making up the exterior and interior of the building and Pyrex glass tubing from the ceiling and skylights to let in soft light The colors that Frank Lloyd Wright chose for the Johnson Wax building are cream for the columns and micrtar and quotCherokee Redquot for the oors bricks and furniture The furniture also designed by the architect and manufactured by Steelcase lnc echoes the curving lines f of the building The largest expanse of sparse the Job building the Great Workman as Wright called it Th open area has niofi n ternal wallsangd was jiniended for secretaries cf the Johnson camjpahy Whilea me holds the administrate I In the Great Workroom the dendriform columns are 9 inches 23 cm in diameter at the bottom and 18 feet 550 cm in diameter at the top on a wide round platform that Wright termed the quotlily padquot This difference in diameter between the bottom and top ofthe column did not accord with building codes at the time Building inspectors required that a test column be built and loaded with twelVe tons of material The test column once it was built was tough enough that it was able to be loaded vefold with sixty tons of materials before the quotcalyxquot or part ofthe column that meets the lily pad cracked crashing the 60 tons of materials to the ground and bursting a water main 30 feet underground After this demonstration Wright was given his building permit In the Words of Frank Lloyd Wright quotThere in the Johnson Building you catch no sense of enclosure Whatever at any angle top or sides Interior space comes free you are not aware of any boxing in at all Restricted g space simply is not there Right there where you 39ve always experienced this interior constriction you take a look at the skylquot Frank Lloyd Wright In the Realm of Ideas Wright39s chair design for Joh nsOn Wax originally had only three legs supposedly to encourage better posture because one would have to keep both feet on the ground at all times to sit in it However the chair design proved too unstable tipping very easily Herbert Johnson needing a new chair design purportedly asked Wright to sit in one of the threelegged chairs and after Wright fell from the chair the architect designed new chairs for Johnson Wax with four legs theSe chairs and the other office furniture designed by Wright are still in use Compression and release of space were concepts that Wright used in many of his designs right Robie House Chicago 19019 o ganiQAFChiteCtUFe OrganicArchl tetitUre Wright interior oftheJohnson H 7 39 Wax C30H i 139 rquot 39 Iisconsin 397 4 f 7 955 A organic g 12 Architecture n u w y i Wright Falling Water PA 193639 Wright desk chair for the do h nson Wax 00 1944 Organic Arch itectu re m dimn 39 quot The Industrial Revolution The Great Exhibition of 1851 at the Crystal Palace illllllllllllllll Val quotair liiilliiilllf iwtmw uaal ill lll IZLHIll39w b fuw ll wll 41quot VICTORIA an ALBERT MUSEUM THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851 The Crystal Palace was a castiron and glass building originally erected in Hyde Park London England to house the Great Exhibition of 1851 The building was 1851 feet 564 m long with an interior height of 108 feet 33 m Joseph Paxton An international competition for a building to house had produced 245 designs of which only two were remotely suitable and all would take too long to build and would be too permanent Joseph Paxton was visiting London and he happened to mention an idea he had forthe hall he was encouraged to produce some plans provided they could be ready in nine days V r l lf itgi n I 39 4 I 39 739 Y llt quot39w nii l3 5 7 239 9 A 7 W quot quotI V MIE fin p 3quotitl39 1 39 n Lan 39 quot mil Q li39jfj iiiiuiquot 39 I 39 N Ml A j i Iquot n 7 PM 39 39 quott 9439 V Lquot N n ifif i VE gtl ass Its novelty was its revolutionary modular prefabricated design and use of gl Glazing was carried out from special trolleys and was fast one man managed to fix 108 panes in a single day The Palace was 1 848 feet long 408 feet 124 m wide and 108 feet 33 m high It required 4 500 tons of iron 60 000 cubic feet of timber and needed over 293000 panes of glass Yet it took 2 000 men just eight months to build and cost just 79 800 estimated in 2010 at 3 mil 139 I wk i v The Crystal Palace39s creator Joseph Paxton was knighted in recognition of his work Paxton had been the head gardener at Chatsworth in Derbyshire There he had experimented with glass and iron in the creation of large greenhouses and had seen something of their strength and durability knowledge that he applied to the plans for the Great Exhibition building Planners had been looking for strength durability simplicity of construction and speed and this they got from Paxton39s ideas the iron girder superstructure 7 and glass skin ofthe Crystal Palace Joseph Paxton with one of his greenhouse designs ln1837 Paxton had secured a cutting of a new waterlily found in Guyana and designed a heated pool that enabled him to breed the lily successfully within three months its leaves were almost twelve feet wide However the waterlily was too big for any normal conservatory Inspired by the huge leaves of the waterlily 39a natural feat of engineering39 and tested by floating his daughter Annie on one leaf he found the structure for his conservatory The secret was in the rigidity provided by the radiating ribs connecting with flexible crossribs Constant experimentation over a number of years led him to devise his glasshouse design that inspired the Crystal Palace Paxton used hollow pillars to double up as drain pipes and designed a special rafter that also acted as an internal and external gutter All ofthese elements were pre fabricated and like modular buildings could be produced in vast numbers and assembled into buildings of varied design This building with its skeleton of castiron columns supporting a network of girders was based on a 24ft module of parts pre fabricated in Birmingham England It not only was innovative technologically but also used many other industrial skills and inventions of the time The removal of the glass tax only a few years previously had contributed to the development of plate glass by the Birmingham glass company Chance Bros The Crystal Palace used 300000 sheets in the largest size that had ever been made 4ft 1in x 10ins13m x 253m Steam engines on site drove the machinery to cut the wooden glazing bars as well as the 24 miles 40km of Paxton39s patent guttering used to hold the glass in position on his simple but effective ridge and furrow roof The invention of the telegraph allowed rapid communication between the site and the manufacturers in the Midlands The Crystal Palace had the first major installment of public toilets the Retiring Rooms in which sanitary engineer George Jennings installed his quotMonkey Closetquot flushing lavatory lnitiallyjust for men but later catering to women During the exhibition 827280 visitors paid one penny each to use them PLAN OF THE CRYSTAL PALACE urvnx moo GROUND monk nmmmm f A gm Over 13000 exhibits were displayed and viewed by over 6200000 visitors to the exhibition The millions of visitors thatjourneyed to the Great Exhibition of 1851 marveled at the industrial revolution and its products Among the 13000 exhibits from all around the world were the Jacquard loom an envelope machine tools kitchen appliances steel making displays and a reaping machine from the United States Cyrus McCormick39s reaping machine of 1831 patented 1851 was the first widely adopted reaping machine it was shown at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London where it was awarded a gold medal Drawn by horses the machine cut the corn and left it lying in swathes in the harvest field The park also contained unrivaled collections of statues many of which were copies of great works from around the world and a geological display which included a replica lead mine and the first attempts anywhere in the world to portray lifesize restorations of extinct animals including dinosaurs ml39i39hi quot 7 1 y A 39339 On 1 May 1851 s opened by Queen Vict ria As visitors travelled from all parts of the country to the Exhibition in London they would have been struck by the size magnificence and structural perfection of the building that met their eyes With the sun reflected in its massive glass surface they would have undoubtedly have agreed with the magazine Puncl that it was 39a Crystal Palace39 and Prince Albert Queen Victoria r z l 39 r i quotH l lquot l m39 l J W39s J 31 ur39i 5quot r quot I a r i win On 30 November 1936 c me the final catastrophe fire Within hours the Palace was destroyed the glow was visible across eight But even though 89 fire engines and over 400 firemen arrived they were unable to extinguish it We have here the Indian Court A 39ica Canada the West Indies the Cape ofGood Hope the Medieval Court and the English Sculpture Court Birmingham the great British Furniture Court Sheffield and its hardware the woolen and mixed fabrics shawls ax and linens and printing and dyeing general hardware brass and ironwork of all kinds locks grates agricultural machines and implements the mineral products of England the cotton fabric and carriage courts leather furs and hair minerals and machinery d woollen powerlooms in motion llax silk and lace ropemaking lathes tools and minerals marine engines hydraulic presses steam machinery Jersey Ceylon and Malta with the Fine Arts Court behind them Persia Greece Egypt and Turkey Spain Portugal Madeira and Italy France its tapestry chinery arms and instruments occupying two large courts Belgium her furniture carpets and machinery Austria with her gorgeous furniture courts and machinery furniture North of Germany and Hase owns39 Russia with its malachite doors V ses a d y n ornaments and the United States with its agricultural c implements raw materIals et Examples of 39xxcmnan Furmmre Deswgn from C ryslal Palace ethon 0H a The Victorian Design era of the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria39s reign from June 1837 until her death on the 22nd of January 1901 The reign was a long period of prosperity for the British people as Queen VICtona profits gained from the overseas British Empire and Prince Abert as well as from industrial improvements at home allowed an educated middle class to develop Interior design of the Victorian era are noted for orderliness and ornamentation A house from this period was idealistically neatly divided in rooms with public and private space carefully separated The Parlor was the most important room in a home and was the showcase for the homeowners where guests were entertained A bare room was considered to be in poor taste so every surface was filled with objects that re ected the owner39s interests and aspirations The dining room was the secondmost important room in the house Victorian furniture Usually carved wood Stained in dark colors Carved with curves within curvesquot Curved patterns are symmetrically placed and repeated Furniture is usually intended for display of decorative objects Victorian chairs are usually small in scale and intended to be more decorative than functional Decorative carvings of curved patterns and added gilt and paint emphasize the beautiful Catalogues for the Great Exhibition displayed furniture that could be purchased in the Victorian Style Craftspeople working in the Victorian Style would make use of pattern books which would show pictures that could be used as guides or patterns Wood carvers jewelers painters porcelain workers would often repeat the same patterns but in different materials ant IwIth LLI 39I I J llLl39IIl llZ NHLquot I39 39 39i 1 lla The Victorian era with its emphasis on Industrial manufacturing the Industrial Revolution was a time in which the improvement of communication links was fostered Stage coaches canals steam ships and most notably the railways all allowed goods raw materials and people to be moved about rapidly facilitating trade and industry Trains became another important factor ordering society with quotrailway timequot being the standard by which clocks were set Another important innovation in communications was the first postage stamp which standardized postage to a flat price regardless of distance sent Victorian telegraph displayed at the Communication Products of Great Britain booth at the Great Exhibition 1851 The electric telegraph invented in the United Kingdom by Cooke and Wheatstone and perfected in the United States by Samuel B Morse was the transformational communications technology of the Victorian age Note the large decorative box with Victorian curves that houses this machine The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture manufacturing mining and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the United Kingdom then subsequently spreading throughout Europe North America and eventually the world It started with the mechanization of the textile industries the development of ironmaking techniques and the increased use of refined coal Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals improved roads and railways The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal wider utilization of water led to the refinement of the steampowered engine The first Industrial Revolution which began in the 18th century merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850 with the Great Exhibition held in N 7 1 7 y the Crystal Palace when technological and 1quot I r 39 7 economic progress gained momentum with the I V R development of steampowered ships and railways Steampowered engine Great Exhibition 1851 Daquerre Camera displayed at the Great Exhibition 1851 The daguerreotype process was the first practicable method of obtaining permanent images with a camera The man who gave his name to the process and perfected the method of producing direct positive images on a silvercoated copper plate was Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre a French artist and scenic painter Daguerre had began experimenting with ways of fixing the images formed by the camera obscura around 1824 but in 1829 he entered into partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce 1765 1833 a French amateur scientist and inventor who in 1826 had succeeded in securing a picture of the view from his window by using a a camera obscura and a pewter plate coated with bitumen Niepce called his picturemaking process heliography quotsun drawingquot but although he had managed to produce a permanent image using a camera the exposure time was around 8 hours Niepce later abandoned pewter plates in favor of silverplated sheets of copper and discovered that the vapor from iodine reacted with the silver coating to produce silver iodide a light sensitive compound wmix x i xQVxxmxxx L stituted a m y the operator viewed the image on the ground 511533 The focus was obtained by sliding tho Inner box towards ox from the lens ans Camera obscura Silver plate Iodine and Bromide Boxes Improved Mercury Cabinet with sliding legs Plate holders with clamps Box for Plates Levelling stand Flat peculiar dish for washing Handnbu The roots ofthis celebrated Jrniture manufacturing company lay in Michael Thonet39s 17961881 cabinetmaking business established in 1819 in Boppard am Rhein From about 1830 he began experimenting with the possibilities of harnessing the steaming processes used in boat building for the fabrication of bentwo d fumiture moving to Vienna in 1842 where he was ranted a atent for his ideas In 1849 he established a factory that expanded rapidly over the following years with the mass pro uction of entwoo furniture and in 1853 he made his three sons partners in the nn1851 was an important year for Thonet Not only did he gain a signi cant orderfor the celebrated Daum Cafe f which he designed the No4 chair but he also exhibited at the Great Exhibition of1851 in London where he was awarded a bronze meda Thonet Brothers 97 manufacturing plant ca Thonet Brothers manufacturing plant assembly line for the bentwood chairs Note that workers are barefoot wear aprons and are gloveless unit 13quot composed of 6 parts Thonet Brothers chair 13 displayed at Great Exhibition and awarded bronze medal Steamforming machine for bending wood units of chair 13 Thomas Shearer desk 1851 Arts and Crafts Movement Joseph Paxton Crystal Palace 1851 Industrial Revolution Design Thonet brothers chair 1850s Industrial Revolution Design Shelf unit 1850s Victorian Design Daguerre camera 1851 Industrial Revolution Design