General Psychology PSYC 1101
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dayne Reichert on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Richard Catrambone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/234262/psyc-1101-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Psychlogy at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
psychology the scientific study of mind and behavior mindour private inner experience of perceptions thoughts and feeling behaviorobservable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals nativismthe philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn plato philosophical empiricismview that all knowledge is acquired through experience aristotle phrenologydefunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness are localized in specific regions of the brain physiologystudy of biological processes especially in the human body stimulussensory input from the environment reaction timeamount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus consciousnessperson39s subjective experience of the world and the mind structuralism analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind introspectionsubjective observation of one39s own experience functionalismstudy of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment natural selectionCharles Darwin39s theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are likely that other features to be on to subsequent generations illusionserrors of perception memory or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality Gestalt psychology psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts hysteriatemporary loss of cognitive or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences unconsciouspart of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts feelings and actions psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freud39s approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings thoughts and behaviors psychoanalysistherapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious tobetter 39 39 39 39g39 Idisorders r r humanistic psychology approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings behaviorismapproach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior responseaction or physiological change elicited by a stimulus reinforcementconsequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again cognitive psychologystudy of mental processes including perception though memory and reasoning appwuch to r 39 39 D that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes cognitive neurosciencefield that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity evolutionary psychology psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection social psychologysubfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior cultural psychologystudy of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members empiricismused to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events methodset of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid the illusions mistakes and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce operational definition description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured measuredevice that can detect the measurable events to which an operational definition refers electromyograph EMG device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a person39s skin validitycharacteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it reliability tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing power tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things case method method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual population complete of participants who might possibly be measured samplepartial collection of people who actually were measured in a study demand characteristicsaspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave naturalistic observationmethod of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments doubleblind observation observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as the participant correlation corelationship or pattern of covariation between two variables each of which has been measured several times variable property whose value can vary or change thirdvariable correlation fact that two variables may be correlated only because they are both caused by a third variable matched samples observational technique that involves matching the average of the participants in the experimental and control group in order to eliminate the possibility that a third variable caused changes in the dependent variable matched pairs observational technique that involves matching each participant in the experimental group with a specific participant in the control group in order to eliminate the possibly that a third variable caused changes in the dependent variable thirdvariable problem fact that casual relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the everpresent possibility of thirdvariable correlation experiment technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables independent variablevariable that is manipulated in an experiment experimental group one of the groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment control group 1 of 2 groups of participants that is not exposed to stimulus dependent variable variable that is measured in a study internal validity characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the casual relationship between an independent and dependent variable external validity characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and dependent variables are operationally defined in a normal typical or realistic way theory hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs hypothesis specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory random sampling technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample informed consent written agreement to participate in a study made by a person who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail debriefing verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study that psychologists provide to people after participation neurons cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information processing tasks cell body part of a neuron that coordinates informationprocessing tasks and keeps the cell alive dendrites part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body axon part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons muscles or glands myelin sheath insulating layer of fatty material glial cells support cells found in the nervous system synapse junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another sensory neurons neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord motor neurons neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement interneuron neurons that connect sensory neurons motor neurons or other interneuron resting potential difference in electric charge between the inside and outside ofa neuron39s cell membrane action potential electric signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse refractory period time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated terminal buttons knoblike structures that branch out from an axon neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron39s dendrites receptors parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate a new electric signal nervous system interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body central nervous system CNS part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord peripheral nervous system PNSpart of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body s organs and muscles somatic nervous system set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system autonomic nervous system ANS set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels body organs and glands sympathetic nervous system set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations parasympathetic nervous system set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state spinal reflexes simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions hindbrainarea of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord medulla extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate circulation and respiration reticular formation brain structure that regulates sleep wakefulness and levels of arousal cerebellum large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills pons brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain tectum part of the midbrain that orients an organism in the environment tegmentum part of the midbrain that is involved in movement and arousal cerebral cortexoutermost layer of the brain visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres subcortical structures areas of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain thalamussubcortical structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information from the senses and the information to the cerebral cortex hypothalamus subcortical structure that regulates body temperature hunger thirst and sexual behavior pituitary gland llmaster gland of the body s hormoneproducing system which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body hippocampusstructure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex amygdalapart of the subcortical system that play a central role in many emotional processes particularly in the formation of emotional memories corpus callosumthick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and support communication of information across the hemispheres occipital loberegion of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information parietal lobe cerebral cortex region whose function include processing information about touch temporal lobecerebral cortex region responsible for hearing and language frontal lobe cerebral cortex region that has specialized areas for movement abstract thinking planning memory and judgment association areas cerebral cortex areas that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex geneunit of hereditary transmission chromosomes strands of DNA wound around each other in a doublehelix configuration sensation awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ perceptionorganization identification and interpretation ofa sensation in order to form a mental representation transductiontakes place when sensors in the body covert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system psychophysics methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer s sensitivity to that stimulus absolute threshold minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus just noticeable difference JND minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected Weber s law just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity Signal detection theory observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person s response criterion Visual acuity ability to see fine detail Retinalight sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball Cones photoreceptors that detect color operate under normal daylight conditions and allow us to focus on fine detail Rodsphotoreceptors that become active only under lowlight conditions for night vision Fovea an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all Blind spot area of the retina that contains neither rods nor cones and has no mechanization to sense light Area Vl part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex Perceptual constancyperceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change perception remains consistent Monocular depth cues aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye Binocular disparity difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth Apparent motion perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations Pitch how high or low a sound is Loudnesssound s intensity Timbrelistener s experience of sound quality or resonance Cochlea fluidfilled tube that is the organ of auditory transduction Basilar membrane structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid Hair cells specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrane Area Al portion of the temporal lobe that contains the primary auditory cortex Place code cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane Temporal code cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve
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