Exper Analys of Behavior
Exper Analys of Behavior PSYC 3031
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Part Cha 1 What is Behaviorism Behaviorism the quotphilosophical stancequot of behaviorism Primary idea a science of behavior is possible Melhodological Behaviorism based on realism o Realism the view that all experience is caused by an objective real world outside of d a Radical Behaviorism rests on pragmatism art from a person39s subjective inner world 0 Pragmatism silent about the origin of experience but points instead to the usefulness oftrying to understand and make sense out of our experiences pter 1 I Most behaviorists have come to call the science of behavior behavior analysis I Behaviorism offers an alternative view that often runs counterto traditional thinking about action because traditional views have been unscientific 0 Historical Background 0 From Philosophy to Science All sciences had their origins in and eventually broke from philosophy I EX Astronomy emerged when philosophers stopped speculating about the arrangement ofthe natural universe by starting from assumptions about God and by simply observing natural phenomena Philosophy reasons from assumptions to conclusions I lt39s arguments take the form quotlfthis were so then that would be soquot I Philosophical truth is absolute as long as the assumptions are spelled out and the reasoning is correct the conclusions must follow Science proceeds in the opposite direction I lt39s arguments take the form quotThis is observed what could be true that would lead to such an observation and what other observations would it lead toquot Always relative and provisional it is relative to observation and susceptible to disconfirmation by new observations I Newton Hypothesis no ngo I do not make hypotheses The Greeks also speculated about chemistry I Aristotle speculated that matter varied in its properties I Materials that burned were said to possess phloglston I Materials that grew hot were said to possess the inner essence caloric I Lavoisier 174394 among others developed the concept of oxygen from the careful observation of weights Biology broke from philosophy and theology the same way I Philosophers reasoned that if living things differed from nonliving things that was because God willed it so I Vis viva life force Darwin39s theory of evolution offered an account of creation of life forms that left out God or any other nonnatural force Up until the 194039s few universities had a separate psychology department It was always a part ofthe philosophy departm t In the last half ofthe nineteenth century psychologists began to call psychology the quotscience of mindquot I The Greek work psyche means something more like quotspiritquot I Scientists started studying the quotmindquot using introspection I Two lines ofthought combined to undermine this view objective psychology and comparative psychology 0 Objective Psychology I FC Donders 181889 was inspired by an astronomy problem how to arrive at the exact time when a star is in a certain position in the sky I He reasoned that time estimates varied because no two astronomers took the same time to judge the exact moment oftransit and he believed they were actually making theirjudgements by different mental processes He began doing experiments where he measured people39s reaction times Reaction time the times required to detect a light or sound and then press a button This meant that psychologists could do laboratory experiments with the same objective methods as the other sciences I Gustav Fechter 180187 attempted to measure subjective intensity of sensation by developing a scale based on the justnoticable difference I Just noticable differsHm the physical difference between two lights or sounds that a person could just detect 0 Comparative Psychology I Influenced by the theory of evolutionhumans share anatomical traits as well as many behavioral traits with other species I Continuity of Species the idea that even if species clearly differ from one another to the extent that they share a common evolutionary history they also resemble one another I Comparative thinkers reasoned that just as we could see the origins of our own anatomical traits in other species so we could see the origins of our own mental traits Anthropomorphism quothumanizing the beastquot In the last part ofthe 19th and early part ofthe 20th century comparative psychologists began to replace the loose anecdotal evidence with rigorous observation by conducting experiments with animals I Much ofthis early research relied on mazes because any creature that moves about can be trained to solve a maze I The problem with claims about animal consciousness was that they depended too much on individual bias 0 Early Behaviorism I Watson 1913 quotPsychology as the behaviorist views itquot I Took his lead from objective psychology Argued that introspection and analogies between animals and humans were unreliable Argued that psychologists trapped themselves into fruitless efforts because oftheir definition of psychology as the science of consciousness Argued that psychology should be defined as the science of behavior which would free psychologists to study both human and animal behavior Watson39s science of behavior would use none ofthe traditional terms referring to mind and consciousness would avoid the subjectivity of introspection and animalhuman analogies and would study only objectively observable behavior I BFSkinner19041990 I Radical Behaviorism Focused on scientific explanations for I Methodological Behaerrsm focused on naturalscience methods against I Behaviorism challenges the idea of free will 0 Free Will vs Determinism 0 Definitions I Determinlsm the idea that behavior like any scientific subject matter is orderly can be explained with the right knowledge ban be predicted and with the right means can be controlled I The notion that behavior is determined solely by heredity and environment I Free will the ability to choose I lmplies a third element besides heredity and environment something within the individual I Asserts that despite inheritance and all environmental impacts a person who behaves one way could have chosen to behave another way I Soft Determinism holds that free will consists of behavior39s dependence on inheritance and past environmental history implies that free will is only an experience an illusion and not a causal relation between person and action I Compatibilist theory of Free Will defines free will as deliberation before action I Compatible with determinism because deliberation itself is behavior that might be determined by heredity and past environment I Libertarian Free Will the idea that choice really can be free of past events I Only one that conflicts with behaviorism o Arguments for and Against Free Vl ll I Proving free will would require that an act go counterto prediction even though every possible contributing factor is known I Impossible to know every possible contributing factorso conflict between free will and determinism can never be resolved by evidence I Therefore whether a person accepts one orthe other may depend on the consequences of believing one or the othermay be social or aesthetic I Social Arguments I Practically it appears that denial of free will might undermine the whole moral fabric of our society I Judicial System I Exists to deal with society39s failures I Jailing criminals has done little to prevent repeat offenses so a science of behavior could help both to prevent crime and to treat it more effectively I Democraticlnstitutions I This perceived threat derives from a false assumption it is true that democracy depends on choice but it is false that choice becomes meaningless or impossible without free will I We favor democracy not because we have free will but because we find that as a set of practices it works I Political freedom consists of something more practical than free will It means having choices available and being able to affect the behavior of those who govern I Morals I Jewish and Christian theology incorporated free will as the means to salvation I By far the majority of humanity lacks this commitment to the notion of free willBuddhists and Hindus I Aesthetic Arguments I Critics of free will often point to its illogic I free will has a paradoxical conflict with an omnipotent God I Saint Augustine quotIf God does everything and knows everything before it happens how is it possible for a person to do anything freelyquot I Only our ignorance of God39s plan allows for the illusion of free will here I It can be argued that free will is simply a name for ignorance ofthe determinants of behavior I However no matter how much we know we still cannot predict exactly what a person will do in a given situation I This unpredictability has sometimes been considered evidence of free will I Weather example I Free will does imply unpredictability but this in no way requires the converse that unpredictability implies free will I How can a nonnatural event like free will cause a natural event like eating ice cream I Only natural events can lead to other natural events I The phrase leads to implies that the cause can be placed in time and space I Nonnatural things cannot be placed in time or space I Scientific accounts of behavior excluding free will are possible I Behavior analysis omits free will but it places no ban on using the concept in everyday discourse or in the spheres of religions poetry and literature Chapter 2 Behaviorism as Philosophy of Science I quotWhat is sciencequot 0 quotScience is the study ofthe natural universequot 0 What makes something natural 0 What does study entail I quotWhat does it take to make the study of behavior scientificquot Realism vs Pragmatism o Realism is so pervasive is Western civilization that many people accept it without question I Realism is the idea that there is a real world out there that gies rise to our experiences of it o This real world seems to be external in contrast with our experience which seems to be internal 0 Our experiences are of this real world they are separate from the world itself I Naive Realism holds that an object39s existence is separate from our perceiving it o Naive realism is a part ofthe view of behavior that we inherit by growing up in Western culture which is called folk psychology and folk realism I The Objective Universe 0 Farrington 1980 comments that Thales39s version ofthe universe was useful because it gathers together into a coherent picture a number of observed facts without letting God in o Thales39s proposed that the universe is a comprehensible mechanism 0 The independent existence ofthe universe as seen by realists makes it objective that is regardless of how our conceptions about it may change the universe remains just as it is 0 Discovery and truth 0 Realism implies a certain view of scientific discovery and truth Summary notes 0 The idea that a science of behavior is possible gives rise to two thorny questions 0 What is science What view of science applies to behavior Radical behaviorists such as Skinner see science within the context of pragmatism Pragmatism is different from realism Realism is the idea that there is a real objective world outside and separate from our inner subjective selves ln realism science is about discovering the quottruthquot ofthe universe 0 The problem with this is that since we are distinct from the outside world we only have our subjective inner experiences of the world via the sensory system Pragmatism focuses instead on making sense of our experiences and does not make the assumption that there is an indirectly known real world Pragmatism rejects questions that do not help us to understand our experiences 0 EX Is there a real world separate from us Pragmatism hold that there is no quotultimate truthquot only concepts that allow us to understand and link together our experiences Pragmatists like Vl lliam James and Ernst Mach argue that pragmatic ideas of linking together experiences in orderto understand them gives rise to useful explanations Mach argues that effective communication is the same as explanation and if we can talk about an event in familiar effective terms than the event is explained Through the pragmatic lens science only discovers ideasconcepts that make our experiences more comprehensible Methodological behaviorism is based on realism Radical behaviorism is based on pragmatism o Rejects the dualism of inner and outer worlds as useless to a science of behavior 0 Instead proposes a science based on behavior in one world To the realist behavior occurs in the real world and this real behavior can only be studied indirectly via our sense data 0 The methodological behaviorist tries to describe behavioral events in terms as mechanically and close to physiology as possible Pragmatic descriptions of behavior include its ends and the context within which it occurs 0 Descriptive terms both explain behavior and define what it is Summary Baum brings up two questions that arise from the assertion that behavior analysis as a science is possible What is science What view of science applies to behavior In chaptertwo Baum contrasts realism with pragmatism and gives his arguments for pragmatism and against realism Realism is the idea that there is a separate objective world outside and apart from the subjective inner world Realists argue that the purpose of science is to discover the truth about the outside world They use sense data which is subjective to slowly explore this quotobjective universequot Pragmatists such as radical behaviorist BF Skinner focus on trying to make sense of our experience of the world This differs from the realists because pragmatists do not make an assumption that there actually is a real world outside and separate from ourselves James and Mach both radical behaviorists considered the theory oftruth in light of pragmatism to roughly equate with explanatory power James also argued that ideas could be more or less true instead of ideas simply being true or false based on their explanatory power Mach argued that science is about making sense of experiences and to communicate about these experiences economically Conceptual economy is the tool that society uses to convey concepts in a quick and easy way Baum gives an example of learning to drive a car in that you wouldn39t tell someone to just go experiment and figure it out you would try to give them instructions to help them along Pragmatists say that the purpose of science is to give descriptions Realists by contrast say that the purpose of science is to explain events based on the reality that exists beyond our experience Methodological behavior is based on realism and tries to explain behavior as methodologically and close to physiology as possible Radical behavior is based on pragmatism and tries to describe behavior to include the context in which it occurs Chapter 3 Public Private Natural and Fictional Mentalism Adopted by BF Skinner to referto a type of dualism I Dualism the separation of mental things and events from behavioral events 0 Mentalism leads to a type of quotexplanationquot that really explains nothing 0 Science as a behavior 0 Pragmatists James and MAch A valid explanation was a description in comprehensible terms Public and Private Events Public Event an event that be reported on by more than one person 0 Le a thunderstorm 0 Private Event an event that cannot be reported by more than one person 0 Le under ordinary circumstances thoughts feelings and sensations To the radical behaviorists the difference between private and public events are of little significance 0 Private events such as thoughts will only be private until we have the technology to know what they are at the moment of occurrence brainscanning techniques ofthe future the point being radical behaviorists do not consider private events to be separate from public since one could conceivably one day change that 0 Also both public and private events are natural events Natural Events All sciences deal with natural events The natural events that concern behavioral analysis are those that are assigned to the whole living organism o EX When my dog barks that event my dog39s bark belongs to the whole organism my dog 0 EX lfl say quotthe sky is bluequot that utterance the event is assigned to me it is so to speak my saying of quotthe sky is bluequot Private events can be included in behavior analysis because science requires only that events be natural 0 they must be observable in principle I they must be locatable in time and space 0 they need not be observable in practice Natural Mental and Fictional I Mental ln everyday talk all sorts ofthings are quotmentalquot thoughts feelings sensations emotions hallucinations etc Mental is the adjectival form of mind The english language seems to have a theory built into it I To have a mind means to have thoughts feelings etc and since we have those we all must have a mind I This is circular logic Sometimes the word mind is a place or space I EX quotl have something in mindquot Sometimes the word mind is an actor or agent in its own right I EX quotMy mind is made upquot The mind is not a part of nature The way we use the word suggest that it is a quality of certain types of behavior deliberate conscious behavior I The mind and all its parts and processes are ctional 0 So are will psyche personality and ego I When methodological behaviorists allowed public things and events but ruled out mental in everyday sense things and events they ruled out private events along with fictional things and events I Radical behaviorists allow both private and public and only rule out the fictional I Fictional events such as an urge impulse or personality are all inferred from behavior 0 00 0 0 00 Objections to Mentalism I The idea of a mental world separate from behavior leads to the practice of invoking mental fictions to try to explain behavior 0 Mind will ego etc are often called explanatory ctions not because they explain anything but because they are supposed to explain 0 They fail for two sorts of reasons autonomy and super uity Autonomy mental causes obstruct inquiry o Autonomy the ability to behave A thing is autonomous if we assign a behaviorto it 0 Problems arise when behavior is assigned to parts of organisms particularly hidden parts a Superfluity explanatory fictions are uneconomical 0 They are also unacceptable because by normal scientific standards they are not real explanations o Mentalistic explanations proceed by inferring a fictional entity from behavior and then asserting that the inferred entity is the cause ofthe behavior 0 EX when a person is said to eat veggies because of a desire for health such talk arises in the first place because ofthe activity of eating vegetables I Circular I Terms such as Horror vacuiand mental fictions are all equally useless because to use Mach39s term they are uneconomical o This is so because instead of simplifying our perception of events by describing them with a few understood concepts they make matters more complicated in two ways They merely restate the original version with some added superfluous concept I This added concept has no clear relationship to the observed events 0 The mindbody problem how can a nonnatural thing affect a natural thing 0 This question will never be solved because it is a pseudoquestion a question that es no sense a The radical behaviorists objection to mentalism is really an objection to dualism o Dualism the idea that two sorts of existence material and nonmaterial or two sorts of terms referring to the material and the nonmaterial are necessary to understand behavior fully Descartes 16961650 view of behavior impeded scientific approach 0 He thought that animals and men worked as complicated machines 0 He thought that the brain and nerves were filled with a thin fluidanimalspirits which flowed to the muscles to cause action 0 Humans in addition had a soul This soul influenced behavior by moving a gland in the middle ofthe brain the pineal gland which affected the flow ofthe animal spirits Category Mistakes 0 Gilbert Ryle 190076 0 Rejected mentalism 0 Did not reject terms like mind intelligence reason and belief from behavior analysis as Skinner did u Skinner would regard intelligence as a mental fiction inferred from the intelligent behavior Ryle argued that intelligence is intelligent behavior and to consider the one to be the cause ofthe other or even to consider the two to be conjoined in any way involves a logical error a category mistake o EX If we were naming examples of fruit a category and offer carrot that is a category mistake o EX If we were naming examples of fruit and offer fruit this not only is a category label rather than a possible instance but also it is the label ofthe very category of which wet are naming instances Ryle and the ParaMechanical Hypothesis 0 The idea that terms that logically are category labels refer to ghostly things in some ghostly space the mind and that these ghostly things somehow mechanically cause behavior 0 This is what Skinner called quotmentalismquot o EX Team spirit 0 We say a team quotshows team spiritquot This is just a category of behavior 0 Ryle attacked mentalism primarily on logical grounds but believed that mentalistic terms could be used if only we remember that love belief expectation attitude and the like are really only labels of categories of behavior 0 Objections to this theory 0 Ryle39s use ofquot categoryquot seemed to imply an unacceptable openendedness o Ryle39s insistence that the truth of a report of a quotraw feelquot such as pain depends entirely on quotnecessitatesquot the presence of public activities doesn39t require that quotl have painquot just means quotI am clutching myself and writhingquot I Ryle39s idea if categories may be replaced by the more concrete idea of an activity Rachlin39s Molar Behaviorism I A contemporary behaviorist took Ryle39s argument a step further I In the 19th and part of 20th centuries the only wellunderstood unit of behavior was the reflex 0 Talk about behaviortended to be couched in terms of stimulus and response I Events that occur in a moment 0 The most important relation between events was considered to be their momentary closeness in time or contiguity I Critics ofthe emphasis on momentary events are contiguity called such views molecular and proposed instead views they called molar I Molar thinkers argue that molecular views of behavior fall short 0 Present behavior depends not only on present events but on many past events 0 Behavior cannot occur in a momentit always takes some time I According to the molar view what matters about a category label like love is how often the loving activities occur 0 Therefore one shows a high rate of loving activities not some ghostly inner mental love I Activities are episodic o A shorthand for an episode of activity is the word action I What about pain 0 Pain is a category of behaviors too according to Rachlin I But it seems to be a sensation a real private event a quotraw feelquot I quotBut I can feel pain and not show itquot o Rachlin argues that it is impossible to feel pain and now show it because to feel pain is to show it o This only seems to counter experience as long as one insists that it is possible to be in pain and to show it to no one o Rachlin39s idea is basically that pain consists of public behavior ratherthan private experience 0 Many of us have had injuries that should have been more painful but we were distracted Pain seems cultural too Women giving birth in the fields of africa for example Beecher concluded that there is no simple direct relationship between the wound per se and the pain experienced I This means that the whole activity of pain including the report of feeling pain depends on the circumstances The paramechanical hypothesis would require the same trauma to cause the same 0 0 pain Rachlin lays much less emphasis on private events than Skinner His view deemphasizes momentary events and isolated actions in general whether public or private I In this molar perspective it can truly be said that the way I know myself is the same way that others know me I Both methodological behaviorists and Rachlin advocate the study of public events but for different reasons 0 Methodological behaviorists regard public events as objective and rule out of bounds mental things and events because they are subjective o Rachlin never raises the objectivesubjective distinction and never rules out mental things and events I He assorts that one can study mental things and events because the terms hat supposedly referto them are really labels for molar activities I Rachlin also aligns himself with radical behaviorism on two grounds antidualism and pragmatism 00 Private Events I Skinner argued that private events are natural and like public events in all important respects Private Behavior I Private events are assigned to the person ratherthan the environment so they are best understood as behavioral events I There are two kinds thinking events and sensing events I Thinking speaking privately I A thought may be stated publicly or privately with the same meaning to the individual doing the thinking I Sensing events are best understood in contrast with the usual view of SampP Skinner calls it Copy Theory 0 Has all ofthe defects of mentalism the appearance of an explanation you see the tree because you have a copy of it in your eye or brain distracts us from our attempt to understand what seeing is I To the radical behaviorist sensing and perceiving are behavioral events activities I That the goal or object of a sensing event is a quality ofthe event can be seen more clearly when we talk about other senses than vision 0 Hearing a violin and hearing an oboe are different activities not the same applied to different sounds I So the same applies for vision seeing a wolf and seeing a bear are two different activities The relationship between seeing and the thing seen becomes clearer still when we examine instances of what Skinner called quotseeing without a thing seenquot 0 lfl dream of a wolf is a wolf presentquot Copy theory attempts to explain dreaming and imagining by the idea that copies are stored in and retrieved from memory 0 This leads to ghostly questions about encoding storage and retrieval In contrast the behavioranalytic view points to facts of life Things are linked not in memory but in time and place Recollection is repetition 0 Seeing and reseeing are activities different activities Sensory activities are modified by experience they are subject to learning Discriminated Seeing SelfKnowledge and Consciousness o Conscious is a property 0 Whether we call someone conscious or unconscious depends on what the person does particularly in response to environmental events like questions and pinpricks o No consensus exists about what it means for a person or an action to be conscious As a pragmatic scientist one must begin to suspect that the fault lies with the question itse f o The behaviorist may be inclined in trying to understand when people are inclined to use the word conscious but the notion is of no use forthe scientific understanding of behavior Selfknowledge consists of reporting on one39s private activities which is the same as reporting on one39s public activities Rachlin shares with Skinnerthe the general view that selfknowledge can be understood as a type of behavior but because he regards actions as parts of more extended activities he assigns private actions a much lesser role in selfknowledge 0 To Rachlin seeing a robin is an activity just as walking to the store might be 0 The private event of pain remains outside the discussionit is not only irrelevant but might not even exist Part 2 A Scientific Model of Behavior Chapter 4 Evolutionary Theory and Reinforcement o Baum argues that it no longer seems possible to discuss behavior outside the context of modern evolutionary theory since biologists have increasingly claimed behavior as part of their subject matter 0 The evolutionary history or phylogeny of any speciesincluding humans can help us understand its behavior 0 Evolutionary theory represents a type of explanation that is unusual among the sciences o The type exemplified by evolutionary theory historical explanation is central to behavior analysis because the scientifically acceptable alternative to mentalism is historical explanation Evolutionary History 0 When we talk about the phylogeny of a species we are talking about no particular event but a series or history of events over a long period c EX to answerthe question quotwhy to giraffes have long necksquot we have to reference births lives and deaths of countless generations of giraffes I Darwin39s great contribution was to see that a relatively simple mechanism could help explain why phylogeny followed the particular course that it did Natural Selection Individuals within a population always vary because of environmental factors and genetic inheritance o Giraffe neck example Natural selection cumulates into the concept called fitness which is the tendency pf a genotype to increase from one generation to the next relative to other genotypes in the population Once the population stabilizes only selection that keeps the population stable continues 0 There can be upper limits to fitness Behavior was recognized to play a major role in evolution 0 Those that behave more effectively enjoy a higher reproductive success I MENTALISM Insofar as behavior is affected by genotype natural selection acts to change and stabilize it Reflexes and Fixed Action Patterns 0 Reflexes are the simplest behavioral traits that are as much a part of a species as physical I The earliest theory concerning this was stimulusresponse psychology 0 This dealt with sneezing blinking etc I Reflexes are a result of natural selection Fixed Action Patterns 0 More complex patterns of behavior can become fixed to environmental events and become a characteristic of a species 0 Examples of this include baby birds asking for food and migration patterns 0 These are called fixed action patterns I The environmental events that lead to FAPs are known as sign stimuli or releasers I FAPs are important to fitness and are therefore the products of natural selection c There is no clear division between FAPsreleasers and stimuliresponses in reflexes Respondent conditioning I Respondent or classical conditioning is a simple type of learning that occurs with reflexes and FAPs Pavlov is best known for his research in reflexes concerning responses to food The same conditioning that governs simple reflex reactions also governs FAPs When concerned with conditional reflexes responses are elicited by stimuli To talk about the cluster of foodrelated behavior one uses the word induce Learned helplessness when a situation includes pain that in the past has been inescapable the signs of danger induce extreme passivity Conclusion 0 The history of natural selection can have at least two sorts of results I It can ensure that events important to fitness reliably produce behavioral reactions both simple reflexes and FAPs I It can ensure the susceptibility of a species to respondent conditioning Reinforcers and Punishers Operant Learning Operant learning occurs as a result ofthe relationship between a stimulus and an activity Operant learning the tendency of consequences to shape behavior Reinforcer Anything that increases a behavior Punisher Anything that decreases a behavior Operant learning occurs as a result ofthe relationship between a stimulus and an activity Positive adding a stimulus to the environment Negative removing a stimulus from the environment Positive Reinforcement Adding a stimulus to increase a behavior Negative Reinforcement Removing a stimulus to increase a behavior Positive Punishment Adding a stimulus to decrease a behavior Negative Punishment Removing a stimulus to decrease a behavior The history of natural selection affects behavior is five ways Reflexes and FAPs are reliable patterns of behaviorprovided by natural selection lt favors those with the capacity for respondent conditioning lt favors those with the capacity for operant conditioning Physiological mechanisms such as deprivation and satiation serve as reinforcers and punishers who39s power ebbs and flows to determine behavior It selects biases that favor conditioning of certain signals in respondent conditioning and reinforcing of certain activities in operant learning 0000 0 History of Reinforcement ln behavior analysis the idea of history of reinforcement includes punishment as well Ontogeny of behavior an individual39s lifetime Selection by Consequences General rule ofthumb in phylogeny within a population of individuals who39s genotypes vary those types that are more successful tend to become or remain most frequent The rule that holds for ontogeny by reinforcement and punishment is known as the law of effect The Law of Effect Successful and unsuccessful behavior are defined as such by their effects 0 Successful is reinforced o Unsuccessful is punished This law underlies operant learning States that the more an activity is reinforced the more likely the activity is to happen Also states that the more an activity is punished the less likely the activity is to happen The results of the law of effect are called shaping Shaping and Natural Selection Behavior analysts think that shaping behavior works the same was as evolution does Similarly to natural selection reinforcement and punishment work on the population on the average Every action of a type needs to be reinforced or punished for it to be increased or decreasedit only needs to be reinforced or punished more on the average over time I There are three things needed for evolutionstabilization by natural selection 0 Variation There must be more than one possibility when selecting among possibilities the individuals of a population must vary 0 Recurrence Different variants of a trait must tend to reproduce themselves 0 Differential Success Among the variants some must be more successful I Shaping by reinforcement and punishment requires the same three ingredients I Training happens when one uses reinforcers and punishers purposefully to change the behavior of another 0 Such instances of shaping involve relationships I Training teaching and therapy resemble selective breeding Historical Explanations 0 Natural selection and shaping both exist to solve similar problems I of punishment a on I Both ideas to a population within which variation occurs I Both ideas require recurrence of types I Both ideas attribute change to selection by differential success I Both ideas replace an earlier unscientific account I Historical explanations such as these are different from scientific explanations that rely on immediate causes I Evolutionary biologists make a distinction between 0 Proximate explanations which point to the physiological mechanisms that determine the traits development from conception I Explanations in terms of immediate causes 0 Ultimate explanations points to the individuals membership in a population or species and strictly speaking applies to the population and not to the individual at all I historical explanations Summary Notes I Darwin39s theory of evolution is important to behavior analysis in two respects 0 First of all there is a lot of behaviorthat comes from genetic inheritance 0 Natural selection provides I reflexes and FAPs I Reflexes are the simplest behavioral traits that are as much a part of a species as physical traits I The earliest theory concerning this was stimulusresponse psychology I This dealt with sneezing blinking etc I Reflexes are a result of natural selection I More complex patterns of behavior can become fixed to environmental events and become a characteristic of a species I Examples ofthis include baby birds asking for food and migration patterns I These are called fixed action patterns I The environmental events that lead to FAPs are known as sign stimuli or releasers I FAPs are important to fitness and are therefore the products of natural selection I There is no clear division between FAPsreleasers and stimuliresponses in reflexes I the capacity for respondent conditioning I ClassicalRespondent conditioning is a simple type of learning that occurs with reflexes and FAPs I Pavlov is best known for his research in reflexes concerning responses to food I The same conditioning that governs simple reflex reactions also governs F s I When concerned with conditional reflexes responses are elicited by stimuli I To talk about the cluster of foodrelated behavior by using the word induce I Learned helplessness when a situation includes pain that in the past has been inescapable the signs of danger induce extreme passivity I Conclusion I The history of natural selection can have at least two sorts of results I It can ensure that events important to fitness reliably produce behavioral reactions both simple reflexes and FAPs I It can ensure the susceptibility of a species to respondent conditioning I the capacity for operant learning I Operant learning the tendency of consequences to shape behavior I Reinforcer Anything that increases a behavior I Punisher Anything that decreases a behavior I Operant learning occurs as a result ofthe relationship between a stimulus and an activity I Positive adding a stimulus to the environment I Negative removing a stimulus from the environment I Positive Reinforcement Adding a stimulus to increase a behavior I Negative Reinforcement Removing a stimulus to increase a behavior I Positive Punishment Adding a stimulus to decrease a behavior I Negative Punishment Removing a stimulus to decrease a behavior I I reinforcers and punishers that change in power with time and context and I biases that favor certain types of respondent conditioning and operant learning 0 Second the theory of evolution provides an example of historical explanation I the type of explanation that applies to operant behavior
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