Class notes Biology 1006
Popular in Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Pacicco on Friday January 23, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to Biology 1006 at George Washington University taught by Tara Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Ecology and the Evolution of Organisms in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
The Biological Hierarchy Human Flora o The organisms living on and in the human body 0 Includes over a 100 trillion individual cells from a thousand different species of microbes A majority of these organisms are bene cial Relevance Probiotics Biotic compounds foods 0 Disease Linnaean Classi cation 0 A rank based system of taxonomy o Grouping based solely on their physical characteristics 0 19th century Swedish naturalist before Darwin s theory of evolution 0 Scienti c name genus species 0 Capitalize rst name but not the second 0 taize both names 0 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 0 Kingdom inclusive 0 Species exclusive 6 kingdom system 0 Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animale Systematics Produces evolutionary trees Relatedness based upon common ancestry Formalized in 19605 by Willi Hennig o Systematists 0 Map out the Tree of Life 0 From the life s common universal ancestor to all the groups that exist today 0 Understand how organisms evolve Modern Classi cation 0 Family tree 0 Individual relationships Evolutionary tree 0 Relatedness of groups of organisms o Caed Cadogram Phylogeny Constructing evolutionary trees Taxon taxa group being studied normally species 0 Tips of trees 0 Node point of divergence between groups 0 Branching points of tree 0 Independent evolution 0 Lineage descendants of a common ancestor Shared derived features characters 0 Characters heritable traits that can be compared across organisms 0 Physical characteristics 0 Genetic molecular sequences 0 Behaviors Shared because the character is common to at least two Hneages Derived because the character evolved in the lineage leading up to a clade the character de nes that clade The clade in cladogram Clade a grouping that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants living and extinct Clades form a quotnested hierarchyquot Evolution 0 No living organism is any quotmore evolvedquot than any other living organism 0 We all came from the universal common ancestor Predict the Evolution of Organisms Evolutionary trees 0 Are hypotheses of evolution 0 Based on shared derived features DNA physical characteristics and or biochemical characteristics 0 Can be used to help make predictions of where groups t in and relationships 0 Prediction of characteristics and behaviors of related organisms 0 Useful for humans Prediction of Parental Care 0 A behavior characteristic may be predicted based on the evolutionary trees Oviraptor 0 Originally considered an egg thief hence the name 0 Then in the 19905 direct evidence to suggest parental case specimen exhibits bird like brooding posture Similarities between dinosaurs and birds 0 No teeth 0 Short front limbs 0 Direct comparison to what is found in birds Challenge to classic taxonomy Organisms don t always resemble organisms that they are related to Similarity in structure Convergent Features 0 Not from common ancestor o Evolved independently 0 Example opposable thumbs Vestigial features 0 Vestige of ancestry 0 Example third eye lid Extinction and quottransitional forms Extinction removes species and can thus remove living evidence of evolutionary relatedness So we must look at fossils o Preserved remains or impressions of organisms Consider the whale 0 Fossil whales reveal the evolution of modern whales from quadrupedal ancestors DNA data 0 Sequence comparison 0 Able to compare groups that have little apparent physical similarities 0 Compare bacteria 0 Limitations 0 Too much data Viruses 0 Like living organisms 0 Contain DNA 0 Reproduce o Evolve Classi ed by The type of genetic material they contain Their shape and structure The type of organism they infect o The disease they produce 0 Three types of in uenze o A sub classi ed according to surface glycoproteins HA and NA 0 8 less severe type of in uenza 0 C most mild type 0 2 to 3 days before being symptomatic and remains infective for 7 days 0 The virus can survive 0 Evolution of virus 0 Lack characteristics of life 0 Not made of cells 0 Lack homeostatis energy collection reproduction response and energy collection 0 Attacks organisms in every kingdom of life 000 Pandemic 0 3 major recorded in uenza pandemics o 1918 Spanish Flu at least 40 50 million 3 o 1957 Asian Flu 2 million 0 1968 Hong Kong Flu 1 million 0 Treatment 0 Vaccinations o Antivirals How does this relate to you and evolutionary trees STls In summary 0 Classic Linnaean classi cation is based on similarity and is non Darwinian it ignores ancestry Modern Classi cation is cladistic Evolutionary trees 0 Are hypotheses tested each time a new taxon is added 0 Are based on shared derived characters 0 Provide predictions about organisms and their characteristics 0 Inform how organisms and their characteristics evolve o Contextualize mankind s place in the Tree of Life
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