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Class notes

by: Jennifer Pacicco

Class notes American Studies/ History 2410- 80

Jennifer Pacicco
GPA 3.74
Modern U.S. Immigration History
Professor Tom Guglielmo

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About this Document

Modern U.S. Immigration History
Professor Tom Guglielmo
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Pacicco on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to American Studies/ History 2410- 80 at George Washington University taught by Professor Tom Guglielmo in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Modern U.S. Immigration History in American Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 01/23/15
Naturalization Becoming and not becoming an American Process by which immigrants become US citizens The process is extremely complicated The key that unlocked the golden door for immigrants 0 Right to vote education access all professions Who could and who couldn t Color was most important question on immigration form in order to become a citizen 0 One of the very rst aws congress passed was quotonly free white persons could become citizensquot 0 Had to be living here for 2 years 0 Couldn t be an indentured servant 0 During reconstruction some congressmen wanted the clause expunged New law for naturalization for Africans and African decent o No one thought they would actually immigrate 0 Where things stood in the latter part of the 19th century 52 court cases involved with people from all over the world Courts had to decide whether or not they were citizens Ah Yup 1878 o Is a person of the Mongolian race within this statute 0 Hard to de ne what quotwhitequot is o Ruled that he was not a white person and could not naturalize Roddguez1897 o Immigrated from Mexico and lived in US for 10 years 0 Wanted to become a citizen 0 His right to naturalize was challenged by local politicans because political domination would not last if they could vote 0 Court ruled in the favor of Rodriguez Rodriguez was the only exception told everyone else no Things got complicated because courts ruled differently 0 Changed from year to year with different races 0 Contradictory rulings Supreme Court cases Ozawa 1914 0 Wanted to become to citizen and was turned down in Hawaii because local officials said he was not white 0 Came to the US as a student 0 quotAt heart I am a true Americanquot 0 Court ruled that he was ineligible to naturalized because he was clearly of a race that was not Caucasian due to science white and Caucasian mean the same thing 0 Thind 1923 o Is he white and does he have the ability to naturalize 0 Born in India graduated from college and served in the army 0 Federal district court ruled in his favor pieces of the US government challenged this decision 0 Optimistic he was a veteran most scienti c authorities thought that South Asians were white 0 Court ruled against Thind because white and Caucasian were not the same thing did not rely on science because it too inconclusive and inclusive US government stripped South Asians of citizenship o Vaisho Das Baghai Most Japanese immigrants lived out west where they had Alien Land Laws o If you are an immigrant that cannot be naturalized you are ineligible for land 0 1924 immigration act excluded every Asian group except Japanese but after Ozawa and act sad they couldn t come 0 Japanese American internment during World War II Women and Naturalization 0 Women s citizenship rights were derivive derived from the citizenship status of their fathers or husbands 1855 Congress passed a law that said if you are an immigrant women who is a non citizen if you marry a citizen you become a citizen if you are racially eligible 1907 Law passed if a female US citizen married a non us citizen they lost their citizenship 1922 Cable Act said in most cases citizen status and marriage status are separate statuses o Racial catch if you lost your citizenship you could only regain it if your husband was eligible to naturalize o 1931 women could regain their citizenship regardless of their race or the race of their husband Chinese Exclusion and Its Consequences Restriction What and Why From Restriction to Exclusion More Exclusion Exclusion s Lasting Bureaucratic Effects Resistance Take Home Points P P FP NE Chinese started to come to the United States in the 18405 due to the gold discovery and continued to come due to job opportunities on things like railroads Never came in large numbers only 3 of total immigrants Concentrated in the west where discrimination began In California passed laws to try to exclude laws to restrict Chinese 0 1879 New Political party called the quotWorking Men s Partyquot formed on an anti Chinese platform 0 1879 California state referendum to bar Chinese immigration passed by a massive landslide 1880 Both political parties supported some form of Chinese exclusion 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act Bar all Chinese laborers coming for 10 years and Chinese immigrants could never become a citizen Why Chinese were targeted 1 Chinese were exceedingly vulnerable could not become citizens and vote 2 Intensity of anti Chinese sentiment all over the world 3 Class con ict turned into race con ict 0 Industrial capitalism was causing immense social strife Many people that used to be artisans and small scale farmers had to work in large scale jobs were the work was brutal Emergence of unions Socialist party AFL Bottom Up connection between class con ict and Chinese exclusion Many workers proudly de ned themselves as white workers and saw their biggest enemies were those they de ned as non white They were the true source of all of their biggest problems Many Western US workers demanded Chinese exclusion in order to solve their work problems Top down connection Some employers and politicians were happy to support workers in their ideas Saw Chinese exclusion as a relatively painless concession to workers Better then more pay or ability to organize The 1882 Law was exclusionary to Chinese laborers had many important loopholes Different ways to get to the US then by boat 0 Allowed reentry with no way of validating it was true 0 Enforcement officers were not paid a lot Over time these loopholes were eliminated The 1888 Law says you cannot come in unless you were apart of a protected status students teachers merchants travelers o More money into enforcement of laws 0 Did not allow reentry 1892 Chinese exclusion extended 10 years 1902 Chinese exclusion renewed and extended to all US possessions around the world Exclusion expands to other groups 0 1882 Convicts lunatics idiots and those likely to become a public charge 0 1885 Contract Laborers o 1891 Polygamists o 1903 Anarchists 1917 All Asians except Japanese and Filipinos 1924 Japanese excluded Spread to other countries 0 19205 Brazil Canada New Zealand placed some kind of restriction on Chinese exclusion Bureaucratic Effects the government had to grow in order to control these restrictions 1 Angel Island in San Francisco Bay quotwest coast version of Ellis Islandquot a Set up to restrict immigration into the US b Many people spent weeks and months there in order to make sure they could be let in c Rejection rate was 18x higher then Ellis Islands 2 Green cards a All immigrants needed to have some form of identi cation 3 Unauthorized documentation and immigration a Became a criminal offense b Any person who had fraudulant certi cates could be guilty of misdemeanor ne of 1000 and be in prison for 5 years Many Chinese immigrants fought back with lasting impacts 1 Unauthorized and undocumented immigration a Around 17000 Chinese between 1882 1920 2 Courts Chinese were called unAmerican a Some 20 cases reached the US supreme Court b Wong Kim Ark Parents were Chinese immigrant that would not allow him to reenter after a trip to China because he wasn t a citizen Supreme Court in favor of Wong because he was born here Summarize 1 Nation by design US federal government decided who could come to the United States and who couldn t 2 Monumental signi cance of Chinese exclusion 3 Chinese immigrants responded to these policies in any way they could


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