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by: Demond Hoppe
Demond Hoppe

GPA 3.79


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Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demond Hoppe on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AE 4803 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/234314/ae-4803-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.

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Date Created: 11/02/15
Ai ricity The Natural Progression Wind in the USA Martin McAdam Alternative Energy Technology Innovation The Coming Economic Boom May 12 13 2005 Airtricity V nd Technology Offshore Why the US needs wind Ai ricim gy The Natural Frngre Who is Airtricity Founded in 1997 160 Employees 35000 SME Customers 2004 Revenue 190 million Ai ricijgy The Natural Frngre Airtricity Overview Airtricity has a unique vertically integrated business model based on three activities Wind farm development amp construction Electricity generation Renewable electricity trading and supply Ai rici y The Natural Progression 1000 MWs39 of consented sites in UK Ireland and US Phase 1 of the world s largest offshore wind farm in initial operational stage 25MWs Completed an 110m equity placing in 2004 valuing Group at 330m Ai ricim gy The Natural Frngre a Brae of Dauna f vKilpam39ck Hills Greenock fmasguw Edinburgh Arnncrty wmd farms iArdrossan In Operation Bin Mountain Dalswmmquot Mmsca I Memycat Bessy Bequot m T In Construction uuiagh I e Tappaghan Shabh Beagh Belfast Full Planning 90 urneen Permissiun Granted Dunne ngsmounlain Dundalk In Planning san Westpart Gannaneane y Teevurcher br Crown Estate Galway Dquot 39 r Round Two Award fhann Tarben Knockasranna f Tnurnafuila y Rim em Greamr Gabbard Waterford Coomacheo Cork oomataliin n pe 81ch EVE Electr39tclty that does t cost ve earth ISSO 4040 7C UAM MOREW BAKER AND aingtrioty Eimtri ky nd 199 cost the mh Wind Technology Technology V Gearbox v Direct Drive Ai ricijgy The Natural Frngre renewable energy renew e I l l y iinegc39t Dri ye A LA AVA L The aaaaaaaaaaaaaa Sign t Size of Turbines 6 Rotor Diameter 5000 kW 2 124m 1980 1935 1990 1995 2000 2003 wwwewea orgdocumentsFactsSum marypdf A1 rIClty The Natural Frngression Turbine Size Growth Latest technomogies I NM110 42MW h V90 3 0MW h NM92 275MW b V90 20MW I NM82 165MW pmdggjgpggrdiamrm v15 m m vgg v2 V21 V39 V44 V47 v52 was van vso Yarn ImIhllnn mm 1534 net 1937 199 mile mix 1995 m 39r mi 193933 260 2661 Impzit m 55 75 an inn 200 m sat sun Gan am 17511 1am Jana mhmu m 255 30 m 491 547 1304 1551 1w 1531 4705 5759 NEG Micun History M55 M108 M225 M400 quot444 quotquot48 NM54 NM72C NMTZ IBZ quotquot92 NM110 Capacity 55 108 225 400 600 750 950 1500 1650 2750 42011 EV Offshore Why Offshore I Construction Risk 39 Operational Risk 39 Insurance Environment hostile and corrosive Finance Leading Edge Why Not Offshore 0 Unlimited resource Scale 0 Wind quality speed and turbulence 0 Low Visible impact Airtricity and Offshore f Offshore will be critical to achieving targets of renewable energy in a number of markets Europe is running out of land Airtricity has competitive advantage by being an early adopter in this critical renewable energy space Arklow is strategic to our plans for international development BTM 22 of new European capacity in 2007 Crossover in 2012 to 2015 gt50 will be offshore Develop Offshore in Ireland Develop Offshore in Europe and USA Ai ricei jgy The Natural Frngr Why Arklow Good wind resource Ireland has some of the best wind in Europe Arklow has average winds of 85ms Shallow water 520m Ground conditions Dense Sand Strong grid node Local connection to both Distribution and Transmission systems Environmental constraints minimal FaunaAesthetic PPA Provide our own PPA to allow financing of the windfar The Natural Frngr Arklow Bank Site Details quot LomTIONOFA n RKLOW B 60 km south of Dublin 1 o 7 12 km from coast 0 24 km long 25 km wide Ai riceim gy The Nzlmal Frngr Strata Record Core Sample 4 Medium to dense sand Very dense sand v lt Stiff firm dark grey silty Clay lt Very dense sand osvuLmvsvamp mm SURE PARTN ERS Ltd an m m cm Wm A mm Mm a 3 mm san Amaw Bank vwm Park Stage I 25 MW Tubing Incancnzoozn Ia 5 1 Om water depth v 2 Borings over the area 7 Cone Penetration Tests one at each turbine location Shallow geology several tens of metres of sand overlying tens of metres of sandy gravel or gravel At the base of the western slope a series of sand waves extend out from the bank in a EN EWSW orientation Ai ricigy The Natural Pmng Turbine location Arklow Bank Timeline Sum WOrk commenced with civil servants in 1999 Foreshore License granted Q3 2000 Meteorological Mast installed Q4 2000 Project EIS completed June 2001 Application for Foreshore Lease June 2001 One month of public display July 2001 Foreshore Lease granted January 2002 Ai ricim gy The Natural Frngre Arklow Bank Timeline contf Networks Connection Offer October 2002 CER licenses generate amp construct March 2003 GE agreements for construction of Phase 1 June 2003 Construction of Phase 1 Summer 2003 First Turbine 4th September 2003 First power off January 2004 Ai ricim gy The Natural Frngre Project Statistics Turbines 36MWX 7 Dept of piles 3545m Weight of piles 280tonne 5m diameter Weight of turbines 290tonne Blades 505m 15tonne each NacelleHub height 735M Rotational speed 85 15 rpm Distance offshore 10km Onshore cable 5km Voltage 38kV distribution connected Rotor diameter 104m gt soccer pitch area 25MW serves 16000 households Irish Sandbank 24 miles long amp 25 wide depths 3 20 m Largest commercially operating turbines installed to date Largest consented offshore site todate ricity The Natural Frngr Lower tower section Platform Grouted area Founda on I Installation Foundation Transition Piece and Platform Foundations driven approx 35m into the sea bed During the driving process constant checks are made to ensure the necessary degree of verticality is maintained Transition pieces and platform then installed Tower and Turbine The wind turbine tower installed in two sections The fully assembled nacelle then lifted into place The rotor and blades then lifted into place Scour Protection A layer of stone placed in the area of each turbine to protect against seabed erosion caused by local hydraulic action around the foundations Ai ricity The Natural Progression aliamu 3mm Ar 1 gmm thWlMWSs A A V VA 43V 42 4 r 4N4 guri m vm mms WisN w EVA 7 N in Blades Nzlulal Frugre Future Phases Phase II 110kV connection secure Further phases may be connected to the UK via interconnector Connecting large wind farms to the grid Transmission investment Grid compliance n System support Forecasting Need to bene t from offshore industry experience Construction techniques 0 amp M Educate the funders Ai rici y The Natural Progression Future Offshore Greater Gabbard site awarded to Airtricity and Fluorjoint venture SOOMW site in Thames Estuary Construct in 20072008 Supportive ROCs market 0 Spain Option on 350MWsite USA Under investigation Ai ricijgy The Natural Frngr Wind in the USA Why does the US need wind I Its not about C02 President Bush says his administration will not require US power plants to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas believed by many scientists to be a key contributor to global warming In a March 13 2001 letterto four Republican senators Bush said he did not believe quotthat the government should impose on power plants mandatory emissions reductions for carbon dioxide which is not a 39pollutant39 under the Clean Air Actquot Friday August 29 2003 Bush Administration Carbon Dioxide Not a Pollutant Ai rici y The Natural Progression Some of it is about Gas MEX Natural Gas Future Hear Hunth Contract Settlement Price West Ta Intermedi e Crude Uil Spot Price and 10 Henry Hub Natural that Spot Price a quot I I 9 d h J at 39 I a 8 39i Errr 5 W 39 x I W E 335 w E 5 39 NYMEK Nat 39 u ural Gas Settlement Price a 4 V I 39SpotPrIce I 9 Henry Hub Spot Prlce a 3 5 2 Hum oating Dates a 1 1225 our 19 was 224 nus 1mm l er er Et 1 LO LO LO In ln Ln Ln Ln LO L0 L0 L0 Ln D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q m E Q Q E E Q Q N E Q Q m E Q Q 1 1 N N N r 1 1 1 N N W 039 0 TI NotezThe West Texas Intermediate crude oil price in dollars per barrel is converted to I39MMEttu using a conversion factor of 580 MMBtu per barrel The dates marked by vertical lines are the NYMEX nearmonth contract settlement dates Source NGI39s Daily Gas Price Index nttpLilntelligenoepresscom LSlEY zNunina lmMEw if I I h 03 III B 1 D 3 239 II D quot1 ED III B 1 N m if In D D a D 5 D 1 1 1 3 x m m n w m n Cr C a D Ci 1 o e a D 1 1 n a D D a CI 1 D a N BI lquot m m m w m m w 91 m an E5 N quotI 170 N m w 94 N US demand is expected to rise from 228 trillion cubic feet tcf in 2003 to about 338 tcf by 2020 US Department of Energy figures paint a bleak picture for US dependence on imported energy in the coming decades Imports from Canada whose own energy demand is increasing are projected to pick up some of the burden Major other sources are LNG imports from Nigeria Sao Tome Trinidad Venezuela and Qatar A1 muggy The Namai Fro re US Natural Gas Spot Pricgs Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet Jul04 c o x x N N m n 1 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 3 Sources History EIA Projections ShortTerm Energy Outlook February 2005 Jan05 Jul05 Jan06 Jul06 Aif tricity he Nzlmal Progression 39 c 39 1190 15 2CD 310 EDIE ECHO 3325 Sam Enmy Hmm m mmum aw Ai ricmi gy The Natural ng The US needs wind Reduces dependency on Natural Gas Smoothes gas price volatility It is now competitive t cleans the air by reducing fossil fuel usage It cleans the water by reducing fossil fuel usage It does not need cooling water It is not a terrorist target Dispersed generation is good for electricity grids There are no waste products I 9 9 N9quotU39quot 3 Ai rici y The Natural Progression Natural gas red generation frequently sets the regional wholesale electric ppriu1 slum3 NV Irav1 Fraquan y 9 ma Ith Dawn gm wr 39 mammal kml D M 115 Esauy 131k 1 3255 Mi 575 mm rm Mum mm 311 mupmmmbn u m 5mm DuhL3 ling hm um um an m 1 MELT ul39 Marlin J39I39Enigll lnud lnlutigntimu Ln United States Wind Resource Map SOLIDBI 39Wmd Enemy vsoumu w of the Unimd Statesquot 198 Wind Power Classification mu Heznurcn Wind Power Wind Spoof Wind spmd Fewer Polminl Downy at so In at 50 m a 50 m Chm WI ms mph 2 Mammal 200 300 125 43 3 Fair 300 den 14 57 USDapanmantol Enwgy 4 Good 400 5110 157 National Renewable Enemy Laborath 3 Emma 3339 3 3 1 x 1 Illll 7 Sunam 300 I600 19 245 39 Wind mm are mm on a minu R value MMJDODIJ 5 39 Deregulation Crucial t Support Mechanisms Federal Production Tax Credit PTC State Renewable Portfolio Standard RPS US Wind Puwertapacity Additions 19992095 330 Pm Expin s Phi mphs menpins N3Elv3999exl 1d l 12mm1mmm 121mm Minivied 2395001 in 12199 39 n 1 25m 2000 g I 1 114 1533 E 1500 E 1000 575 EDD 41 4 J 1599 2000 2001 2002 2003 20M 2005 Data for 2004 and 2005 are based on lnduslwy estimates Source Amie Wm Enemy Associalion 2004 A1 T y Production Tax Credit Federal support mechanism 0 Every kWh gets a U3180 as a tax credit To use it you must have a tax appetite Most Wind developers do not have a tax appetite so this results in complex structured finance deals where the majority of the project equity is sold to a tax investor for 10 years and the developer has rights to acquire the asset after 10 years Its good Its better than nothing Its 180 aftertax Its bad It comes and goes It suppresses power prices Its addictive Ai riceim gy The Natural Frngr Challenges ATLANTIC Hummus mum comm Exis ng Annoynoad Experience Prujems Seawest A AES I us Wind Fume I o I 36 0 PPM O C AREC I Source PPM Energy ARES AES Seawest Emerging Energy Research


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