Research Seminar PUBP 8500
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Determinants of Job Satisfaction Among Federal Employees Table of Contents Introduction Importance of Job Satisfaction Literature Review Determinants of Job Satisfaction 1 Individual Attributes 2 Job Characteristics 3 Organizational Characteristics 4 Public Service Motivation PSM 5 Government Reinvention Data amp Methods 1996 Merit Principles Survey Data MSPB Survey Methodology Model Specification Dependent Variable Independent Variables Measuring Public Service Motivation Measuring Attitudes Towards Government Reinvention Multicollinearity Diagnostics Empirical Results Multivariate Regression Models Model 1 Traditional model including individual attributes job amp organizational characteristics Model 2 Traditional model plus PSM Model 3 Traditional model plus PSM and Government Reinvention Conclusion and Discussion Table 1 Levels of Job Satisfaction by Demographic Characteristics In general I am satis ed with my job All Employees Gender Men Women Race Whites Minorities Years of Service 10 Years or Less 11 to 15 Years 16 to 20 Years 21 to 25 Years 26 Years and Above Education HS Graduate Some College Bachelor s Degree Graduate Degree Pay Grade GS 1 8 GS 9 11 GS 12 and Above Age Age 39 and Below Age 40 49 Age 50 and Above Percent Responding Satis ed Dissatis ed 71 14 74 13 71 17 73 15 71 15 71 16 75 13 72 15 71 15 76 14 76 13 73 13 71 16 71 16 67 18 74 13 74 14 70 15 72 15 75 13 9545 5808 3530 6846 2699 2498 1557 1895 1805 1749 821 3606 1821 1982 2274 2314 4835 2145 3981 3354 Table 2 Federal Employee Views on the Effects of NPR s Reinvention Efforts and Downsizing 1996 Merit Principles Survey Percent Responding Survey Question Agree Disagree NPR efforts have had a positive impact 23 47 in bringing change to government NPR has had a positive impact on improving 24 40 customer service to the public My organization has made the goals of NPR 46 2l an important priority Downsizing has helped my organization to lO 73 accomplish its mission more effectively Downsizing has seriously eroded the 52 22 institutional memory in my organization As a result of downsizing or reinvention initiatives since l993 The type of work I perform in my current job has changed In a positive manner l6 In a negative manner 32 The amount of work I perform in my current job has changed in a substantial way Work has increased 64 Work has decreased 5 Table 3 Determinants of Job Satisfaction Among Federal Employees Model Design Most of the questionnaire responses are measured on a 5point Likert scale using the following coding 0 STRONGLY DISAGREE 1 DISAGREE 2 NEITHER 3 AGREE 4 STRONGLY AGREE DON T KNOWCAN T JUDGE SYSTEM MISSING Dependent Variable Job Satisfaction In general I am satis ed with my job Independent Variables A Individual Attributes Gender Age Education Race Tenure Pay Grade Job Characteristics My organization makes good use of my knowledge and skills I have been given greater exibility in how I do my job Overall I am satis ed with my current pay The work I do in government is meaningful to me My work provides the public a worthwhile return on their tax dollars Organizational Characteristics A spirit of cooperation and teamwork exists in my work unit My opinions seem to count where I work Overall I am satisfied with my supervisor Public Service Motivation Meaningful public service is very important to me I am not afraid to go to bat for the rights of others even if it means I will be ridiculed Making a difference in society means more to me than personal achievements I am prepared to make enormous sacrifices for the good of society I am often reminded by daily events how dependent we are on one another Government Reinvention NPR Question 1 The efforts of the National Performance Review NPR which has been working on reinventing government have had a positive impact in bringing change to government NPR Question 2 The National Performance Review has had a positive impact on improving customer service to the public DOWNSIZING Question 1 Downsizing has helped my organization to accomplish its mission more effectively DOWNSIZING Question 2 Downsizing has seriously eroded the institutional memory in my agency Reversed Table 4 Bivariate Correlations with Job Satisfaction Individual Attributes Tenure Gender Age Education Grade of Pay Race Job Characteristics Skill Utilization Job Flexibility Satisfied with Pay Meaningful Job Worthwhile Return on TaX Dollars Organizational Characteristics Satisfied with Supervisor Cooperative Work Unit My Opinions Count at Work Public Service Motivation Public Policy Doesn t Appeal to Me Meaningful Public Service is Important Not Afraid to G0 to Bat for Rights of Others 15 Making a Difference in Society Means More I m Prepared to Make Sacri ces for Society I m Reminded How Dependent We Are Government Reinvention Positive Impact of NPR s Reinvention Positive Impact on Customer Service Downsizing Helped My Agency Downsizing Hasn t Eroded Agency Memory Rank Coef cient Signi cance 21 0268 p 000 18 0454 p 000 16 0606 p 000 20 0310 p 003 14 0761 p 000 22 0090 p 378 Rank Coef cient Signi cance 2 4686 p 000 5 3601 p 000 7 2955 p 000 1 5429 p 000 8 2853 p 000 Rank Coef cient Signi cance 4 3791 p 000 6 3563 p 000 3 4415 p 000 Rank Coef cient Signi cance 19 0419 p 000 12 1473 p 000 0733 p 000 17 0509 p 000 13 0801 p 000 11 1571 p 000 Rank Coef cient Signi cance 9 2162 p 000 10 2104 p 000 14 1019 p 000 13 1060 p 000 N 9545 2Tailed Signi cance Variable was dropped from my analysis Table 5 Comparison of Regression Models 1 3 Assessing the Impact of Individual Attributes Job and Organizational Characteristics Public Service Motivation PSM and Government Reinvention on Job Satisfaction Among Federal Employees Regression Coef cients Expected Variables Sign Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Tenure 0236 0229 0214 Male 0686 0696 0673 Age 0378 0370 0355 Education 0391 0399 0417 Pay Grade 0017 0017 0010 Satisfied w Supervisor 0718 0728 073 5 Cooperative Work Unit 0713 0707 0692 My Opinions Count 0930 0931 0901 Job Flexibility 0876 0865 0761 Skill Utilization 1487 1480 1403 Satisfied with Pay 1462 1454 1417 Worthwhile Return 0763 0696 0775 Meaningful Job 9672 9609 9412 Public Service Motivation 0542 0560 NPR Reinvention 0462 Downsizing 0446 Adjusted RSquare 44060 44147 44353 Standard Error 74645 74587 74465 FValue 497 463 411 FSignificance 0000 0000 0000 Sum of Squares SSR 3597 3605 3650 Mean Square MSE 55719 55632 55450 Coefficients were statistically significant at the 01 level Table 6 FTest Comparison of Model 2 and Model 1 Model 2 Added Public Service Motivation PSM PSM computed as q35 q36 q37 q38 q395 Dependent Variable JOBSAT 1 am satisfied with my job Block Number 1 Method Enter Q93 Q95A Q96 Q97 Q99 Q16A Q19A Q32A Q22A Q13A 04A Q33A Q18 PSM Multiple R 66515 R Square 44243 Adjusted R Square 44147 Standard Error 74587 Analysis of Variance DF Sum of Squares Mean Square Regression 14 SSR 360472592 25748042 Residual 8166 454291324 55632 MSE F 46282749 Signif F 0000 Comparison of Model 2 and Model 1 To see which model is best 1 performed a special Ftest using the following formula SSR Full Model 2 SSR Reduced Model 1 MSE Full Model 2 Change in DF F 3605 3597 55632 1438 F of 1438 gt 204 FTable Critical Value Conclusion Looking at the Fdistribution table with 14 independent variables as the numerator df used 15 on table and infinity as the denominator df nk1 at 01 alpha the critical Fvalue is 204 Since my F of 1438 is greater than the critical Fvalue of 204 1 concluded that adding my PSM index significantly improves my regression model and helps to explain greater variation in job satisfaction with a lower standard error Table 7 FTest Comparison of Model 3 and Model 2 Model 3 Added Government Reinvention Variables NPR qIO qII2 quotPositive Impact of NPR Reinvention Effortsquot DOWNSIZE q27 q3O reversed2 quotPositive Impact of Downsizingquot Dependent Variable JOBSAT I am satisfied with my job Block Number I Method Enter Q93 Q95A Q96 Q97 Q99 QI6A QI9A Q32A Q22A QI3A Q4A Q33A QIB PSM NPR DOWNSIZE Multiple R 66784 R Square 44602 Adjusted R Square 44493 Standard Error 74355 Analysis of Variance DF Sum of Squares Mean Square Regression I6 SSR 363397562 22712348 Residual 8164 451366354 55287 MSE F 41080511 Signif F 0000 Comparison of Model 3 and Model 2 To see which model is best I performed a special Ftest using the following formula SSR Full Model 3 SSR Reduced Model 2 MSE Full Model 3 Change in DF 55287 2532 F of 2532 gt 204 FTable Critical Value Conclusion Looking at the Fdistribution table with I6 independent variables as the numerator df used 15 on table and infinity as the denominator df nkI at 01 alpha the critical Fvalue is 204 Since my F of 2532 is greater than the critical Fvalue of 204 I concluded that adding the government reinvention variables significantly improves my regression model and helps to explain greater variation in job satisfaction with a lower standard error References Berry William D and Stanley Feldman 1985 Multiple Regression in Practice A SAGE University Paper Newbury Park CA Sage Publications Inc Blackburn JW and W Bruce 1989 Rethinking Concepts of Job Satisfaction The Case of Nebraska Municipal Clerks Review of Public PersonnelAalministration 10 Fall 1 128 Brass Daniel J 1981 Structural Relationships Job Characteristics Worker Satisfaction and Performance Administrative Science Quarterly 26331348 Bruce Willa M and J Walton Blackburn 1992 Balancing Job Satisfaction anal Performance A Guiale for Human Resource Professionals Westport CT Quorum Books Carmines Edward G and Richard A Zeller 1979 Reliability anal ValialityAssessment A SAGE University Paper Newbury Park CA Sage Publications Inc Carroll James D 1995 The Rhetoric of Reform and Political Reality in the National Performance Review Public Administration Review 55 3MayJune302312 Cranny CJ PC Smith and Eugene F Stone Editors 1992 Job Satisfaction How People FeelAbout Their Jobs anal How itAffects Their Performance NY Lexington Books Daley D 1988 Performance Appraisal in a Public Agency Multiple Measurements Supporting Common Conclusions Review of Public Personnel Aalministration 9Fall1128 Daley Dennis M 1986 Humanistic Management and Organizational Success The Effect of Job and Work Environment Characteristics on Organizational Effectiveness Public Responsiveness and Job Satisfaction Public Personnel Management 15131142 Dewar Robert and James Werbel 1979 Universalistic and Contingency Predictions of Employee Satisfaction and Con ic Aalministrative Science Quarterly 24426448 Emmert Mark A and WA Taher 1992 Public Sector Professionals The Effects of Public Sector Jobs on Motivation Job Satisfaction and Work Involvement American Review ofPublic Aalministration 223748 Hackman JR and E Lawler 1971 Employee Reactions to Job Characteristics Journal oprpliealPsychology 55259286 Hackman JR and G Oldham 1975 Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey Journal oprplieal Psychology 60April 159 170 References Hackman J R and G Oldham 1976 Motivation through the design of work Test of a theory Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16 250279 Hackman JR and G Oldham 1980 Work Redesign Reading MA AddisonWesley Hamilton R and J Wright 1986 The State of the Masses New York Aldine Publishing Company Herzberg Frederick 1966 Work and the Nature of Man Cleveland World Publishing Company Herzberg Frederick 1968 One More Time How Do You Motivate Employees Harvard Business Review p 5362 Herzberg F B Mausner and B Snyderman 1959 The motivation to work New York John Wiley and Sons Jayaratne S T 1993 The antecedents consequences and correlates of job satisfaction In R T Golembiewski Ed Handbook of organizational behavior pp 1 1 1134 New York Marcel Dekker Kalleberg A 1977 Work Values and Job Rewards A Theory of Job Satisfaction American Sociological Review 42 February 124143 Katz Ralph 1978 Job Longevity as a Situational Factor in Job Satisfaction Administrative Science Quarterly 23204223 Katzell R and D Yankelovich 1975 Improving Productivity and Job Satisfaction Organizational Dynamics 4Summer6980 Kettl Donald F 1994 Reinventing Government7 Appraising the National Performance Review A report of the Brookings Institution s Center for Public Management CPM Report 942 August Washington DC The Brookings Institution Kettl Donald F and John J DiIulio Jr Editors 1995 Inside the Reinvention Machine Appraising Governmental Reform Washington DC The Brookings Institution Lewis Gregory B 1991 Turnover and the Quiet Crisis in the Federal Civil Service Public Administration Review 51 145155 Light Paul C 2000 The Empty Government Talent Pool The New Public Service Arrives Brookings Review 18 1 Winter 2023 References Maslow Abraham 1943 A theory of human motivation Psychological Review 50370396 Maslow Abraham 1954 Motivation and Personality New York Harper and Row Moe Ronald C 1994 The Reinventing Government Exercise Misinterpreting the Problem Misjudging the Consequences Public Administration Review 54 2MarchApril 1 1 1 122 Mowday Richard Lyman Porter and Richard Steeers 1982 Employee Organizational Linkages The Psychology of Committment Absenteeism and Turnover New York Academic Nachmias David 1988 The Quality of Work Life in the Federal Bureaucracy Conceptualization and Measurement American Review ofPublic Administration 18 165173 Naff Katherine C and John Crum 1999 Working for America Does Public Service Motivation Make a Difference Review ofPublic Personnel Administration 194Fall516 National Performance Review 1993 September 7 From Red Tape to Results Creating a Government That Works Better and Costs Less Washington DC US Government Printing Office Osborne David and Ted Gaebler 1992 Reinventing Government Reading MA AddisonWesley Perry James L 1996 Measuring Public Service Motivation An Assessment of Construct Reliability and Validity Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 6 1 522 Perry James L 1997 Antecedents of Public Service Motivation Journal ofPublic Administration Research and Theory 72April 181 197 Perry James L and Lyman W Porter 1982 Factors Affecting the Context for Motivation in Public Organizations Academy of ManagementReview 718998 Perry James L and Lois R Wise 1990 The Motivational Bases of Public Service PublicAdministrationReview 503367373 Salancik GR and J Pfeffer 1977 An examination of needsatisfaction models of job attitudes Administrative Science Quarterly 22427456 Spector Paul E 1997 Job Satisfaction Application Assessment Cause and Consequences Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications
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