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World History II: The Cold War and Indian Nationalism

by: Morgan Holt

World History II: The Cold War and Indian Nationalism HIST 1020 -012

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 -012 > World History II The Cold War and Indian Nationalism
Morgan Holt
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Covers the Cold war and nationalism in India.
World History II
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/27/16
The Cold War, I I. Origins A. Yalta: Identified as beginning of Cold War; Big 3 (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) met  to discuss what they were going to do when the war ended. Stalin was in a place of power because the Soviet Union had already almost met its wartime goals, while Britain and the  U.S. had fallen behind. Stalin wanted a buffer zone between Germany and the Soviet  Union, and he wanted it to be pro­Soviet Union. Britain and the U.S. wanted democracy,  and they wanted these new nations to have freely elected governments. Stalin knew no  freely elected government would be pro­Soviet Union. a. It was agreed that the Soviet Union could take reparations from Germany. As they  oved in, they started to take their reparations in industrial equipment, stripping away  everything from Eastern Germany as they passed through. B. Potsdam (July 1945): New President Truman is very adamant about the Free Elections  issue. Formulates the Doctrine of Containment. Argues that he will “Get tough” with the  soviets and prevent the spread of communism. Tried to make other places less susceptible to communism. C. Truman Doctrine (1947): The doctrine created by Truman that was designed to make  places less susceptible to communism. Started with Greece and Turkey. Gave a great deal of foreign aid. D. Marshal Plan: Truman had his secretary, George Marshal, announce the Marshal plan.  The U.S. would give huge amounts of money (150 billion in today’s money) to 16  nations to help them recover from the war. Economic miracle; by 1951, all of the  countries had almost fully recovered, only four years after the plan went into effect. E. Truman, in 1946, had Winston Churchill come to a small college in America and there,  he gave the Iron Curtain speech, where he spoke about how the Soviet Union controlled  all of Eastern Europe (which would last until 1989). The effect was powerful. Turned the  tide in support for Truman’s policies. F. NATO: Alliance between America and most of Europe II. Cold War Conflicts A. Division of Berlin: Germany was split into East Germany (controlled by the soviets) and  West Germany (controlled by the other Allies). Berlin was in East Germany, but was also split because it was the capital. West Germany recovered much faster than East Germany  because it hadn’t been stripped of industrial equipment and had aid from the Allies. The  people in East Germany could see that the Western area was recovered so much better  and so they wanted to go there. B. Problem of Refugees: People started flooding from East to West Germany by getting into West Berlin and, from there, escaping to West Germany. C. Berlin Airlift (1949): In retaliation, the soviets closed off Berlin, sealing it off from  everything. In reaction, Britain and the U.S. organized the Berlin Airlift. For 10 ½  months, they flew in planes from the outside with food and other basic materials. Western allies saved Berlin. Showed Berlin that the western allies were on their side. Allied  victory without open military conflict. III. Korean War: In WWII, Korea was occupied by Japan. After the war, it was divided into  zones of occupation. North Korea was controlled by the Soviet Union, while South Korea  was controlled by America and her allies. Both halves wanted to be united again, but they  hated each other and didn’t want the other to be the one that united them. A. For this reason, in 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. Because North Korea was  communist, America, along with other members of the United Nations, decided to get  involved on the side of South Korea. th B. They pushed the Northerners out of South Korea, crossed the 38  parallel (the dividing  line between North and South Korea), and made it almost to China. China had declared  that if they crossed the 38  parallel, China would protect North Korea. MacArthur  wanted to invade China, and was eventually fired for disobeying orders. The war became  a stalemate until 1951, when there was an armistice and Korea was divided permanently. Cold War, II I. McCarthyism A. Idea of communist subversion: there was a feeling among the American people that there  were communist spies inside the country who worked to destroy capitalism and the  American way of life. a. Los Alamos: where the first atomic bomb was created. America had an advantage in  the Cold War from 1945 to 1949, when the USSR developed their own atomic bomb. i. Fed McCarthyism because people were convinced that spies had turned over the  secret to the atomic bomb, which was only made worse when people like Julius  and Ethel Rosenburg admitted to that very thing and were executed. B. McCarthy’s speech: McCarthy gave a speech where he said that he had a list of 205  names of communist subversives in the state department that the government knew about  but had done nothing to stop. Began the phenomenon of McCarthyism. Was a complete  lie. C. Investigations: Anyone whose political views were too leftward­leaning (or liberal) were  investigated, many over them losing their jobs and/or had their names dragged through  the dirt. Included everyone from politicians to Hollywood directors.  II. Changing Attitudes in the 1950s A. Russia (Soviet Union, USSR): became less aggressive a. European Recovery: many areas of Europe recovered economically, going from  living in rubble to having producing economies. Easter Europe, however, was not  recovering at nearly the same rate. b. U.S. willingness to fight in Korea: sent a message to the Soviet Union that the U.S.  and her allies were more than willing to go to war to prevent the spread of  communism. c. Food shortages: Eastern European countries under the control of the Soviet Union  didn’t have enough food. d. Hold over Satellites weakens: still had control, but not to the same degree that they  used to. B. U.S. a. Eisenhower elected: said he would be even harder on communism, but that’s not what happened.  b. Hungary (1956): Soviet satellite; rose up, tried to overthrow soviet control. This had  been the moment the allies had been waiting for, their opening to start the downfall of communism, but Eisenhower did nothing to aid the rebels, and the uprising was  ruthlessly put down by the USSR.  c. North Vietnam goes communist: again, America does nothing. d. Russia’s atomic bomb: everyone knew that a two­sided nuclear war would mean  annihilation.  C. Relaxation: combined causes listed above resulted in a period that was characterized as  “Peaceful coexistence”. III. Berlin Wall A. Over 3 million people had fled East Germany by making their way into West Berlin and,  from there, into West Germany.  B. August 1961: Communists put up a wall, first of barbed wire and slowly fortified until it  was concrete and impassible. Blocked West Berlin from East Berlin. IV.Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) A. Castro: In 1959, Castro came to power as the result of a revolution where Batista was  overthrown. Cuba was very poor, and Castro wanted to carry out a communist revolution  to alleviate the poverty. Castro pursued closer relationships between Cuba and the Soviet  Union.  a. Cuba is only 90 miles from the U.S., so this was obviously a problem, having  communism so close to our borders.  b. Kennedy become president in 1961. Decided something needed to be done about this  new communist problem. Attacked Cuba in the Bay of Pigs. Took 100 Cuban  refugees, trained them, and sent them to the Bay of Pigs to attempt to overthrow the  communist Cuban government. Failed pretty epically. c. October 1962: the U.S. learned the Soviet Union was setting up missile sites in Cuba.  Kennedy set up a naval blockade around Cuba to turn back Soviet ships. Eventually  the soviets backed off.  V. Space Race A. Sputnik (1957): The first satellite sent into space; sent by the Soviet Union. Was alarming to the U.S., fast forwarded interest in space. B. Education: less than a month after Sputnik launched, the government decided that  American education was not on par with the soviets’. They poured money into education, and there were huge curriculum changed so that public education reflected the state of  modern science and math. Created a gap between children and their parents as the  children were privy to such an extended education that many of their parents lacked.  C. NASA: tried to step up the space race. Put together a team of 7 astronauts (the Mercury  team) who were to be the first men in space, but they were beat to it by Yuri Gagarin, a  soviet astronaut who orbited the earth on the first ever trip to space. Alan Shepherd was  the first American to reach space, but it wasn’t until John Glenn that an American orbited the earth.  Indian Nationalism I. British Rule A. India as a British colony: India was known as the “Jewel in the Crown”; very valuable to  Britain. There were very few positive consequences on India, and a great amount of  negative consequences, particularly involving poverty. B. Nationalism and World War I: India supported the British war effort. 900,000 Indians  served in British armies. Many people that weren’t soldiers supported the war effort in  other ways. WWI engendered nationalism. At first, India only wanted a part in their own  government, but Britain shut their requests down. C. Famine and Epidemic: 1918­1919; global flu epidemic, closely associated with famine in  many places, including India. D. Chelmsford Reforms: concessions made to Indian nationalistic wishes; gave over certain  roles in government to Indians. Problem was that all roles given were not particularly  important, further infuriating some Indians. E. Rawlatt Act: Clamped down on freedom of the press and gave British government the  power to put Indians in jail because they might commit crimes, even if they hadn’t done  anything yet. F. Amritsar Massacre: 1919; started as a nonviolent protest; British General Dyer ordered  his men to fire into an unarmed crowd to break up the protest. Killed 400 Indians and  injured 1200 more. British government rewarded General Dyer with knighthood,  enraging the Indian population. II. Gandhi A. Early Life: Sent to Britain by his parents for schooling in law. There, he learned about  Western political values. Came from a middle class family, and was deeply influenced by his mother, a very devout Hindu. B. Experience in South Africa: Gandhi’s first job as an attorney was in South Africa, where  there was a sizeable Indian population. He worked as an attorney to service those people.  Became an activist working to diminish the discrimination in the region.  C. Non­violent resistance: Gandhi becomes the leader of the resistance movement in India  upon his return. Hindus hated violence, and Gandhi personally though violence was  unnecessary for political upheavals. He wanted to take the moral high ground, and  thought that far more could be accomplished that way. Emphasized getting right  spiritually and particularly emphasized noncooperation. Wanted people to stop using the  judicial system, paying taxes, really anything that involved the British government.  Intentionally used protests to put many of his followers in jail, packing the facilities until  there was no space for any more, breaking the system.  D. March to the Sea (1930): British had a monopoly on the sale of salt, and it was heavily  taxed. Gandhi led thousands in a 240 mile march to the sea to make their own salt. A very symbolic moment in the Indian nationalist movement that brought international attention  to the movement. III. Indian National Congress: goal was to modernize India and to try to achieve a degree of self­ rule in India. A. Nehru: Gandhi protégée. Other face of Indian nationalism. Educated in England from a  young age. Attorney like Gandhi, but not as spiritual. Very pragmatic, somewhat  socialist; all about technology and modernizing. Led Indian National Congress. B. Muslim League: There was a sizeable Muslim minority in India led by Muhammad Ali  Jinnah, and were represented in the Indian National Congress. Were afraid of Gandhi,  and were afraid that if they succeeded in getting rid of the British, Gandhi would set up a  Hindu state, and the Muslims would be treated poorly. IV.Partition (1947) A. After WWII, Britain could no longer afford to fight India. In 1945 they announced that  they would begin the plans to give India their independence, and in 1947 they divided  India into sections. The main body was left as India, a Hindu nation, but several areas  where the Muslim population was particularly prominent were formed into Pakistan and  Bangladesh. 


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