Adv Manufacturing Processes
Adv Manufacturing Processes MET 127
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Farmingdale State College School of Engineering Technologies ADVANCED MACHINE TOOL LABORATORY MANUAL amp PROJECTS PREPA RED B Y Prof Dimitn39os Maltezos PE MechanicalManufacturing Department SUNY College of Technology Revised by students of Prof Maltezos Matthew J McLaughlin amp Steven Ellinghaus May 2005 Edition 32 May 2007 Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Required Items Text Required Reading Assignments Required Projects Special Instructions Chapter 2 Computer Numerical Control CNC Introduction Quick Reference Instructions Compumill Instructions Sample Part Program 1 Sample Part Program 2 Pocket Frame and Circle Milling for Dynapath Delta 20 Controller New Britain Machine Controller SCM4000 General Information Codes honored by the controller OmniTurn CNC Lathe Codes Honored by the OmniTurn Control Chapter 3 Gears Gear Types Indexing Head Spur Gear Terminology High Speed Gear Shaper Setup procedure for shaping external spur gears Change Gear Chart Checking external spur gear sizes Fellows Gear Shaper Bonus Projects cooocncncnanAoooooo Spur Gear Terminology Addendum The radial distance from the pitch circle to the outside diameter Backlash The amount by which the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth on the pitch circles Center Distance The distances between the centers ofthe pitch diameter Circular Thickness The distance ofthe arc along the pitch circle from one side of a gear tooth to the other Circular Pitch The length ofthe arc ofthe pitch circle from one point on a tooth to the same point on the adjacent tooth Clearance The amount by which the tooth space is cut deeper than the working depth Dedendum The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root diameter Diametral Pitch The number of gear teeth to each inch of pitch diameter Outside Diameter The major diameter of the gear Pitch Diameter The diameter of the pitch circle Pressure Angle The angle between a tooth profile and a radial line at the pitch circle Root Diameter The diameter ofthe root circle measured from the bottom ofthe tooth spaces Chordal Addendum The distance from the top ofthe tooth to the chord connecting the circular thickness Chordal Thickness The thickness of a tooth on a straight line or chord on the pitch circle Whole Depth The total depth of a tooth space equal to the sum ofthe addendum and dedendum Working Depth The depth ofengagement of two mating gears 47 Chapter 1 Introduction Required Items 6 scale Text Kibbe RR Machine Tool Practices 5th ed Safety Glasses with plastic lenses Titanium Frames Clean white apron or lab coat Looseleaf notebook standard 812 X 11 2 wide inexpensive paint brush NOTE Students without the required items will not be allowed to attend laboratory classes Most items can be purchased at the student bookstore Text Required Reading Assignments Week Section Pages Topic Milling Machines and Accessories Maintenance Milling Cutters Cutting Speeds Feeds and Depth ofCut Introduction to CNC CNC Programming COMPUMILL 2500 3Axis CNC Milling Operations Milling Machine Setups Milling Operations Mid term exam Indexing Dividing Head Gear Cutting Special Milling Operations Gear Shaper and Surface Grinder Introduction to Omniturn CNC Turning Center MasterCam Software FINAL EXAM NOTE The above required reading is a minimum Additional reading would be assigned during lectures Required Projects Mill two 2 aluminum plates to size using the Bridgeport vertical milling machine 2 Machine an aluminum block using handcontrolled vertical milling machine 3 Machine aluminum plate with student39s initials using CNC milling machine 4 Machine aluminum plate with the number 43 using CNC milling machine 5 Pocket milling ofan aluminum plate using CNC milling machine 6 Machine aluminum plate open assignment using CNC milling machine 7 Cut a spur gear with indexing head using the Cincinnati Universal milling machine 8 Cut a spur gear using gear shaper 9 Grinding a parallel surface 1f Turn several diameters and lengths on an aluminum shaft using Omni CNC Lathe Machine Special Instructions Each student is responsible for his or her projects All projects shall be rst drawn on an 8 12 X 11 inch size A paper using either AutoCAD or by hand At the completion of each project the student will submit hisher project to the instructor for evaluation and grading In order to emphasize the engineering aspects of the course a typed report containing the following items is also required to be submitted by the student at the same time 1 Drawing 2 Sheet with calculations such as RPM feed machining time 3 Numerical control program G codes ifany 4 Route Sheet See sample reports for details and report format Chapter 2 Computer Numerical Control CNC Introduction While the following NC program commands are used with the Dynapath Delta 20 controller they are common to most machines to control functions including slide positioning slide feed rate selection of the direction speed starting and stopping ofthe spindle and tool changing etc The program consists of a series of blocks Generally each block contains the commands required to perform a single step in the machining operation such as feeding the tool at the specified feed rate from one point to another The workpiece is machined by executing one block after another in sequence until the entire workpiece is complete To minimize programming effort a single block or line may cause execution ofa series of events In addition to writing programs at the machine a program can be generated on any PC using a standard text editor such as Notepad and then downloaded to the controller through a cable or with a 35 inch oppy disk Programs must use the DOS naming format with eight letters followed by a decimal point and the letters PGM Quick Reference Instructions Preparation of the NC Program EIA Codes N Code N Line sequence numbers G Codes Preparatory Functions G00 Rapid traverse G01 Linear mill G02 Clockwise circular mill G03 Counterclockwise circular mill G40 Cancel cutter radius compensation G41 Cutter compensation on the right G42 Cutter compensation on the left G70 Inch mode G71 Metric mode G80 Cancel fixed cycles G81 Drill cycle G90 Absolute mode G91 Incremental mode M Codes Miscellaneous Functions M00 Machine stop M02 End of program rapid home spindle off and stop M03 Spindle on clockwise M05 Spindle stop M06 Rapid to tool change spindle off and stop X Y Z land J Codes X X motion dimension Y Y motion dimension Z Z motion dimension l X arc center for circular mill absolute J Y arc center for circular mill absolute Tool Code and Feedrate Tn Tool number Fn Feedrate number IPM N G X Y Z l J and F codes may appeartogether in one line N M and T codes may appeartogether in one line Compumill Instructions NOTE This is a quick list of basic setup procedures for the Compumill Please referto the Compumill handout for more detailed instruction Step 1 Turn Machine On 1 Main power switch at right rear of machine 2 Control switch at right side ofthe CNC control 3 Correct any fault status errors if any then press Reset Button twice Step 2 Reference Machine 1 Select Mode Select gt Select 0 Jog Mode gt Select a speed gt Use XYZ Jog switches to move table stops close to micro switches 2quot approximately 2 Select R Reference zero gt Turn XYZ Jog switch in direction X Y rst then Z Step 3 Go to home position 1 Select H Home gt Turn XYZ Jog switches to direction Step 4 Set Part Zero X and Y only 1 Load Work in xture gt Load indicator in spindle 2 Use Mode Select and Select R for Reference 3 Select a speed gt Use XYZ Jog switchesto move in direction until indicator in spindle aligned with part zero 00 Coordinates 4 Select 9 Zero Set gt Turn XY Jog switches in direction 5 Select H Home gt Turn XYZ Jog switches to direction Step 5 Calibrate all necessary tools 1 Load tool1 in spindle 2 Select a speed gt Use XYZ Jog switches to move tool to surface of work using paper as a feeler Spindle On A Select Mode Select gt Select 6 Tool Tables gt Select T Tool lengthCutter diameter gt Push soft key Tool Calibrate Select Mode Select gt Select 0 Jog Mode gt Select H Home gt Turn XYZ Jog switches to direction Z axis First A Repeat Steps if other tools are required NOTE Make sure proper tool number is highlighted in tool lengthcutter diameter menu If not just type in T and number oftool to be calibrated then hit Enter key Step 6 Load Program 1 Select Mode Select gt Select 9 Load Program gt Push Soft key Load Program NOTE Screen should display busy loading 2 On computer Select 6 Setup gt Select A or B for drive being used gt Select 1 Select program gt Choose number of program to be loaded Select 2 Load Program gt Hit space bar Step 7 Run Graphics 1 Select Mode Select Select G Graphics gt Select Reset gt Push Green Cycle Start button NOTE The Cycle Start button may have to be pushed more than once Run Program 1 Select Mode Select gt Select 1 Auto gt Select Reset gt Push soft key View Graph gt Push Green Cycle Start button gt Load rst tool gt Push Blue Tool Change Cycle Start button on front panel gt Set Spindle speed gt Push Green Cycle Start button To select from loaded programs Select Mode Select gt Select C for Catalog Type selected program and enter Program is highlighted Select Mode Select gt Run Graphics Select Mode Select P4 to check Z coordinates Select Mode Select 1 for Auto Tlhook Samgle Part Program 1 Absolute Mode Linear and Circular Mill and Drill The drawing below is symmetric about the X and y axes 7500 707500 TOOLS DEPTHS T1 250 END MILL 050 T2 250 DRILL 100 03750 11850 30000 7 10000 002500 4 HDLES 15000 40630 LINE NO PROGRAM DATA COMMENTS NOIOO 390 ABSOLUTE MODE NOIIO G70 INCH MODE N0120 M06 RAPID TO TOOL CHANGE SPINDLE OEE STOP NOI3O TI LOAD END MILL NOI4O M03 SPINDLE ON CLOCKWISE NOlSO MOO STOP SET RPM NOl6O GOOX750Y 375 RAPID TO IST POSITION NOI7O GOlZlOOF3O LINEAR MILL APPROACH SUREACE NOlBO Z OSOF5 PLUNGE AT EEED N0190 Y375 2 POSITION N0200 GO3X 750Y37SIOJ375 CIRCULAR MILL 3 POSITION N0210 GOlY 375 LINEAR MILL 4 POSITION N0220 GO3X750Y 37510J 375 CIRCULAR MILL 5 POSITION N0230 GOlYO LINEAR MILL 6 POSITION N024O zIOOE3O RETRACT N0250 GOOY1125 RAPID TO 7 POSITION N0260 GOlZ OSOF5 LINEAR MILL PLUNGE N027O X 750Y l125 8 POSITION N0280 zIOOE3O RETRACT N0290 T2M06 LOAD DRILL NO3OO M03 SPINDLE ON CLOCKWISE NO3IO MOO STOP SET RPM NO320 G81X l5YlOOOZ 100RlOOFS DRILL CYCLE IST HOLE DEPTH RETRACT EEED N0330 Y lOOO 2ND HOLE N0340 XLSOO 3RD HOLE N0350 Y1000 4T HOLE NO360 G80 DRILL CYCLE OEE NO37O M02 SPINDLE OEE STOP END LINE N0100 N0110 N0120 N0130 N0140 N0150 N0160 N0170 N0180 N0190 N0200 N0210 N0220 N0230 N0240 N0250 N0260 N0270 N0280 N0290 N0300 N0310 N0320 N0330 N0340 N0350 N0360 N0370 N0380 Samgle Part Program 2 Incremental Mode Linear And Circular Mill And Drill The drawing below is symmetric about the X and y axes R07500 s DEPTHS 0250 7 07500 T1 250 END MILL 050 4 HDLEQ T2250 DRILL 100 g 7 44 EB 03750 8 11850 3 l i ii 4 30000 20000 7 7 7 7477 7 7 7 4 l l 1395 l 4 GB 8 l lt730000 40530 PROGRAM DATA COMMENTS G90 G70 T1M06 M03 M00 G00X750Y7375 G01Z100F30 Z7050F5 G91 INCREMENTAL MODE Y750 G03X71517750J0 G01Y7750 G03Xl5001750J0 G01Y375 Z150F30 GO0Yl125 G01Z7150F5 X1500Y72250 Z150F30 T2M06 M03 M00 G90 G81X715Yl000Z7100R100F5 G91X3000 Y72000 X73000 G80 M02 Example of studen Prog t s initials Project mod ram is listed on next pa eled in Inventor ge SRE NOlOG90 N020G7O N030M06 NO4OTl NOSOMOB NO6OMOO NO7OGOOX3212Y2650 NOBOGOlZlF30 N090GOlZ 05F5 NlOOGOlX2712 NllOG03X2712Yl512712J2075 NlllGOlX2712Yl5 N120G03X2712Y35012712J925 N125G01X2712Y350 N130G01X3712 Nl4OGOlZlF30 NlSOGOOX350Y350 Nl6OGOlZlF30 Nl7OGOlZ 05F5 N180G01X1419Y2078 N190G03X766Y207811100J2275 N195G01X766Y2078 N200GOle495Yl157 N210GOZX607Y766IllJ850 N250GOlX607Y766 N26OGOlZlF30 N270GOOX350Y15 N280GOlZlF30 N29OGOlZ 05F5 N300GOlX594 N310GOlZlF30 N320GOOX162Y15 N330GOlZlF30 N34OGOlZ 05F5 N350GOle956 N36OGOlZlF30 N37OGOOX3044Y15 N380GOlZlF30 N39OGOlZ 05F5 N4OOGOlX3712 N4lOZlF30 N420M02 END paIOJd edUJEX3 1 V1 STEVEN mmewzus mm s STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK FARMINGDALE 7 V ROUTE SHEET NAME OF PART INITIALS DATE 91097 DRAWING NUMBER 1 PART NUMBER 1 NUMBER OF PARTS 1 ORDER NUMBER SHEET WRITER Ron Gallo COMMENTS FRSTPROJECT APPROVED BY D Maltezos OPERATION NUMBER OPERATION TOOLS USED MACHINES 100 DESIGN INTIAL ON COMPUTER AUTOCAD Pc COMPUTER 200 WRITE UP NC PROGRAM DNC SOFTWARE PC COMPUTER ROUGH CUT ALUMINUM STOCK 300 To 3 X 425 BANDSAW BANDSAW 400 MILL BOTH SIDES TO 4062 INCHES ENDMILL VERTICAL MILL DOWNLOAD TRANSFER NC PROGRAM IBM5531 PC 500 TO DYNAPATH CONTROLLER VIA PC COMPUTER COMPUM39LL M39LL DYNAPATH 600 USE GRAPHICS TO CHECK COMTROLLER COMPUMILL MILL 700 RUN PROGRAM TO MACHINE THE PART TWO FLUTE COMPUMILL MILL ENDMILL 300 REMOVE PART 900 CLEAN UP COMPUMILL 4 I 3 2 1 SUNYFAZKMZZNGDAZLE PRQMZ MAUL TEZS D 4062 w 0187 I w 2570 2350 39 1720 1500 1280 3000 650 430 Example Project 390050 430 f v 3492 UNLESS mugwxsc SPECinED mmm m m mm MMWMEMMMJ lOlERANCES AWE APPR0vAL DATE g N H A LS A xx rmcnous my R CALLO 98 0quot SlZi CAGE CODE DRAWING NUMBER l REV A5535 R GALLO 9897 A 1 3 PROJECT 1 A 4mm 85 GALLO 9897 NA SCALE 1 2 lSHEEI1u 1 ALUMINUM 5 R GALLO 9597 F 1 TIILE FINAL PROWCCHVE TIN H N A 4 3 14 loefmd eldwexa 4 l 3 2 1 SWEARWNGDAZLE PIRWE WLTYEZS D MAL PRWDUCT ACTUAL SIZE g sfsugl s rx39zxms gf gu Mmazz immmmg 39ULERANCES quotNquot APPRO VAL o ATE S Mews 3 5 m fy isi 0W R GALLO 9597 y x A K mu A GALLo 9897 I A 55550 R GALLO 9897 ALUMINUM nNAL Pmmmvt HNISH39 91 Inc mm MING NUMBER REV 39 gsb R GALLO 9897 A 39l 1 Em NA SCALE 1 1 i 19 1 39 1 4 3 I 2 1 STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK FARMINGDALE PART PROGRAM PREPARATION SHEET PART NAME INITIALS DATE 9397 PART NUMBER 1 PROGRAMMER RON GALLO NUL39LNBER PROGRAM DATA COMMENTS N0100 G90 ABSOLUTE MODE N0101 G70 INCH MODE N0102 M06 TOOL CHANGE SPINDLE OFF N0103 T1 LOAD TOOL 1 N0104 M03 SPINDLE ON CLOCKWISE NO105 M00 SET RPM N0106 GO0X430Y430 RAPID TO FIRST POSITION N01 07 GOIZ100F30 STOP 100 ABOVE THE FIRST POSITION N0108 Z050F5 PLUNGE INTO MATERIAL AT POSITION 1 N0109 Y2350 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 2 N011O X650Y2570 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 3 NO111 X1591 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 4 N0112 X1811Y2850 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 5 N0113 Y1720 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 6 N0114 X1591Y I500 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 7 NO115 YASO LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 8 N0116 X1 011Y1500 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 9 N0117 X1811Y430 LINEAR MILL TO POSITION 10 NO118 2100F30 RETRACT QUILL N0119 GOOX3632Y235O GOTO FIRST POINT ON SECOND INITIAL N0120 GOIZ100F3O RAPID TO 10039 ABOVE THE FIRST POINT Example Route Sheet 16 LL 1090Jd pngnbea 7 125 X 4539 CHAMFER 312d 005 L 1437i 005i H7 312l 005 1900i 005 L7 22503 005 A DATE 032805 SHEET 1 OF 1 FARMINGDALE STATE UNIVERSITY SCALE 11 T39TLE ALUMINUM AUTH DR STEVEN ELLIN GH AUS 139on pngnbea 4062 250 171781 1781 14 DR LLT 10 DEEP 250 f a9 69 69 4 A 3000 239 75 2 no 1 525 75 f a 1 125 625 1 43 STEVEN ELLKNGHEUS Pocket Frame and Circle Millin for D na ath Delta 20 Controller Introduction Pocket G0 removing all the material inside an arbitrarily designated area to a specified depth The shape can be irregular or regular Event type 3 Frame G7 removing material as wide as the tool As in pocket milling the shape can be irregular or regular Circle It is possible to mill a circle as either a frame or pocket Event type 4 Pocket Milling Event Type 3 Codes Honored by the Controller Parameter Description Entry N Sequence number Required X Frame width Required Y Frame height Required Z Frame depth Required W Z Reference plane Modal R Frame corner radius Required D Milling direction Default is D0 D0 Rough CW Finish CW D1 Rough CCW Finish CCW D2 Rough CW Finish CCW D3 Rough CCW Finish CW C Cutter radius compensation Required CO Off C1 Left CZ Right G G cycle Default is G0 G0 Circle G7 Pocket K Peck mi Optional P Plunge federate Default is F P P plunge P P plunge amp 1St feed G7 only J Corner roughing width G7 only Optional F Feedrate Modal L Finish dimension Optional L Finish bottom and sides L Finish sides only Finish feedrate Default is F Ends event Required eelt Cutter Compensation Since the machine s home position is set to the middle ofthe cutting tool it is necessary to specify a value to compensate for the tool s radius In essence this value is the direction used to enlarge or reduce the cut path so the feature comes out to the proper size 20 CUTTER COM P A Q W m CENTER 2 CENTER co co GD FRAME OUTSIDE G7 FRAMEPOCKET Rua uv w I EV V V STARTEND y J MARYEMU l mm 9mm x w EmeLEmDE swag muE NW GvaTzW mwmsms NTnmwaZTWI Rumme ZZ mood 5UN00J em W qdwexg SSVd LENQDd AX TVILINI 4 Z j dB d A M aw ldva HELNEQ UL DNINDILISDd L3gt4C1Dd AD 13 IU X NDILISDd ENELav HdVd A LHDIHH Nmmgmd M EDN Td S mva a3Nam3 lt7 X HLGIM 4063 Program POCKET weloocgo N0110G70 N0120M06 N0130T01 3 no PEI375 N0140M03 TvP 0150M00 N0160GO0X531Y500 7 N0170G01Z200F30 DSDDJ 085W200R375D202G7P5F8L020V5 N0190M02 A 0531 ODBS j Elr 0250 Circle M ng Event 4 can mill or pocket in the XY plane It is not necessary to position to the circle prior to this event unless the W reference plane I arance ca ot be assured along a direct path between the start position and the circle This clearance must be observed since the cutter returns its tip to the W plane and then rapids in a direct path to the starting XY coordinate at the event39s conclusion Parameter Description Entry N equence number Required X Circle center X Required Y Circle center Y Required Z Required W Z Reference plane dal R Radius Required D Milling direction Default is D0 D0 Rough CW Finish CW C Required G Default is G0 K Optional P Plunge federate Default is F J Roughing width G7 only Optional F Feedrate Modal L Finish dimension Optional L Finish bottom and sides L Finish sides only Finish feedrate Default is F Ends event Required eelt Required Entries To program the circle enter the center s X and Y coordinates the circle radius R Z depth W reference plane F federate C cutter radius compensation and choose the G0 cycle to mill around the circle s circumference or G7 to mill outward from the center to the circumference removing all pocket material Optional Entries Add these entries to modify the event Plunge rate P chooses an independent plunge rate Peck K programs incremental depth and invokes a depth milling cycle L speci es a nish dimension which can choose whether to select a bottom pass before nishing the side Y adds an independent finish pass federate D picks the milling direction and can reverse the directions when a nish is programmed J may be programmed with the G7 cycle to limit the corner roughing width 24 GO CIRCLE DUTSIDE START RDSITIDN EXAMPLE RLUNGEEXIT RDSITIDN E7 CIRCLE RDCKET RLUNGE RDSITIDN RETURN RDSITIDN STARTSTEP RDSITIDN 5 EXAMPLE Example of program line for circle milling N01234Xl125Y3150Z 035W250R375DOC2GOP5F8L015V5 25 Reqweu Prmem 25a nsnrw jams STATE umvmswv or NEW vow AT mammong mmwmczs Mszn W4 m5 mmst POCKET mum A New Britain Machine Controller SCM4000 General Information Starts the machine cycle Stops the machine cycle Stops spindle Turns spindle on in the counterclockwise direction Turns spindle on in the counterclockwise direction Coolant onoff Axis jog Control Function Keypad F3 Jog Menu F1 Drives Turn drives onoff F2 Go To Command a position move F3 Jog X Jog the Xaxis F4 Jog Y Jog the Yaxis F5 Jog Z Jog the Zaxis F6 Comp Enter the work shift and tool compensation menu F2 Ed WS Edit Work Shifts Set offsets for work shifts F3 Ed Tool Edit Tool Diameters Save and name tools F4 Act WS Activate Work Shifts Activate G54 G59 work shifts F5 Tool Chg Tool Change Activate a new tool F7 Set F1 Drives F2 Set All Save desired tool offsets in X Y and Z axes F3 Set X0 F4 Set YO F5 Set 20 F6 Set X Save a desired tool offset in Xaxis F7 Set Y Save a desired tool offset in Yaxis F8 Set Z Save a desired tool offset in Zaxis F9 Set Clrpt Save a clearance point F8 Coord Jog Jog 2 axes simultaneously to mill chamfer or arc F9 Teach Save moves position linear drill to write to a le Using the Directory V ndow F8 Prog Step 1 Creating a new le or directory Renaming an existing le or directory Choosing an existing le to edit Copying les and directories Moving les and directories Deleting and undeleting les and directories 28 CreatingEditing files F8 Prog Step 2 F1 Cycle Activate Gcode help list for conversational programming F2 Rev Cycle Reverse lines in conversational format F3 Fnd Nxt Locate a line in the le F4 Calc Calculator F5 Run Enters Run Menu F6 DXF Create a TXT le from DXF F7 M Prms Machine parameters F8 Prog Enters file directory menu Editor Help Keys DXF Import Example Loading a le F4 Load F6 DXF View files with DXF extension on C drive of directory page F8 Prog View files with TXT extension on C drive of directory page Using Run Mode F5 Run F1 Drives F2 Opts Turn functions on and off F3 Search Search to a line or tool number F4 Jog Enters the Jog menu F5 Block View the part shape one block at a time F6 Auto View the part shape continuously to the end of the file F7 MDI Commanding a single G or Mcode for immediate execution F8 View Preview the part shape F9 Reset Reset the program to the beginning F10 DRO Set machine mode Utilities Menu F1 0 Utilities F2 About Machine speci c information F3 GHelp Gcode Mcode help list F4 Calc Activates the calculator window F5 Comm Activates the RS232 window F7 View lO Activates inputsoutputs window F8 Fanuc Exports an SC4000M le to a Fanuc Gcode leimports a Fanuc G code le to an SC4000M Gcode le F9 PGM Import Bridgeport conversational le PGM to SC4000M Gcode le 29 Codes honored by the controller GCodes G00 Positioning move G01 Linear move G02 Circular CW move G03 Circular CCW move G021 Helical CW move GO31 Helical CCW move G04 Dwell G08 High speed machining off G09 High speed machining on G10 End repeat G11 Repeat G17 XY plane selection G18 XZ plane selection G19 YZ plane selection G20 Input in inch G21 Input in mm G22 Blend a line G23 Blend an arc G30 Mirror image off G31 Mirror image X axis G32 Mirror image Y axis G40 Cutter comp off G41 Cutter comp left G42 Cutter comp right G43 Skip holes G49 Island pocketing G50 End path G51 Irregular pocketing G52 Start CW path G53 Start CCW path G54 Activate work shift 1 G55 Activate work shift 2 G56 Activate work shift 3 G57 Activate work shift 4 G58 Activate work shift 5 G59 Activate work shift 6 G60 Engrave text G601 Engrave text on are G62 Elliptical are C W G63 Elliptical arc CCW G65 Subroutine call G70 Mill outside rectangle Mill inside rectangle Mill rectangle pocket Outside facing cycle Inside facing cycle Mill outside circle Mill outside ellipse Mill inside circle Mill inside ellipse Mill circular pocket Mill elliptical pocket facing cycle incremental XY Mill rectangle pocket Mill slot Arc slot Mill circle Drill 1 hole Spot drill 1 hole Peck drill 1 hole Tap drill 1 hole Bore drill 1 hole feed in feed out Peck drill 1 hole ser chip break clearance Bore drill 1 hole feed in feed out Drill row of holes Drill row of holes X axis Drill row of holes Y axis Drill frame pattern Drill bolt circle pattern of holes Drill bolt circle incremental angle Absolute programming Incremental programming Preset work coordinates Temporary work shift Rotate coordinates Scale coordinates G100G109 Userdefinable 30 MCodes M00 Program stop M01 Optional stop M02 Rewind program M03 Enable spindle CW M04 Enable spindle CCW M05 Spindle off M06 Tool change Word descriptions Arc center coordinate X axis Arc center coordinate Y axis Arc center coordinate Z axis Not used Miscellaneous function A Polar angular motion B Incremental polar angular motion C Caxis coordinate D Tool diameter E Not used F Feed rate G Preparatory function H Not used I J K L M NltX ltC mmOUOZ Coolant on Coolant off Rewind program amp move to clearance point Tool change at clearance point Quill up Continuous run Sequence number Not used Canned cycle parameter Dwell time Arc corner radius Spindle speed Tool number Incremental move X axis Incremental move Y axis Incremental move Z axis X axis coordinate Y axis coordinate Z axis coordinate 31 G72 Mill rectangular pocket This command mills a rectangular pocket The size of the pocket is determined by the values entered in the X width and Y height elds MILL RECTANGULAR POCKET TOOL DIA X CENTER Y CENTER Y HEIGHT Z CLEARANCE Z DEPTH I I I I I x WIDTH I I I I I CORNER RADIUS I STEP OVER I APPROACH FINISH ALLOWANCE PLUNGE FEED MILL FEED FINISH FEED I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2 STEP I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I EDGE I I QALC I I ESCCANCEL I The start point for the command and the tool offset are automatically calculated by the control In the lower left corner of the window is an EDGE button The Edge reference allows values to be entered for the left edge in the XaXis and bottom edge in the YaXis to be entered in place ofthe X and Y centers TOOL DIA The tool diameter X CENTER The center of the rectangle in the XaXis Y CENTER The center of the rectangle in the YaXis X WIDTH The nished width of pocket in the XaXis Y HEIGHT The nished height of the pocket in the Y axis Z CLEARANCE The tool rapids to this safe distance above the work piece and starts to feed from this point Z DEPTH The total depth of cut from the ZaXis zero point Z STEP The amount of material to be removed for each full pass in the ZaXis before reaching the end depth FlLLET RADIUS The desired corner radii for the inside of the pocket An inside corner radius must be equal to or larger than the tool radius pass APPROACH The point at which the tool begins feeding into the part and will move to at the end of the command FINISH ALLOWANCE The amount of material to be removed on the nish PLUNGE FEED The approach feed or feed rate from the clearance point MlLL FEED The programmed feed rate FINISH FEED The feed rate forthe nish pass 32 The format for entering a G72 Mill Rectangular Pocket directly onto the edit screen is Circles G75 G76 G77 G791 This command mills a circle where the tool moves along its outside perimeter The size ofthe circle is determined by the value entered in the circle radius eld The start point for the command and the tool offset are automatically calculated by the control MILL OUTSIDE CIRCLE I TOOL DIA X CENTER Z CLEARANCE Z DEPTH I I I I Y CENTER I I I 2 STEP I CIRCLE RADIUS I APPROACH FINISH ALLOWANCE PLUNGE FEED MILL FEED FINISH FEED pass MlLL FEED The programmed feed rate FINISH FEED The feed rate forthe nish pass TOOL DIA The tool diameter X CENTER The center of the rectangle in the Xaxis Y CENTER The center of the rectangle in the Yaxis Z CLEARANCE The tool rapids to this safe distance above the work piece and starts to feed from this point Z DEPTH The total depth of cut from the ZaXis zero point Z STEP The amount of material to be removed for each full pass in the ZaXis before reaching the end depth CIRCLE RADIUS The nished radius ofthe circle APPROACH The point at which the tool begins feeding into the part and will move to at the end of the command FINISH ALLOWANCE The amount of material to be removed on the nish PLUNGE FEED The approach feed or feed rate from the clearance point The format for entering a G75 Mill Outside Circle directly onto the edit screen is 33 Drilling and Pecking Cycles G81 through G85 G87 G89 G81 Drill 1 Hole This command drills a single hole from a previously positioned Z point where the tool feeds down in the ZaXis and then rapids back up to that set X point X ABS The position ofthe hole in DRILL1 HOLE the Xaxis Y ABS The position ofthe hole in X ABS the YaXiS Z DEPTH The depth ofthe hole Y ABS from the Z zero position Z FEED The programmed feed rate Z DEPTH The format for entering a G81 Drill 1 Hole directly onto the edit screen is N 39I39l l39l39l l39l39l U G81 x YZF 1N0 QALC ESCCANCEL G82 Spot Drill 1 Hole This command drills a single hole from a previously positioned Z point where the tool feeds down in the ZaXis dwells and then rapids back up to the previously positioned Z point This command is suitable for spot facing and counter boring operations o X ABS The position of the SPOT DRILL 1 HOLE hole in the Xaxis 0 Y ABS The position of the X ABS hole in the YaXis 0 Z DEPTH The depth of the Y ABS hole from the Z zero position o BOTTOM DWELL The dwell Z DEPTH time in seconds when the tool reaches the bottom ofthe hole 0 Z FEED The programmed feed rate BOTTOM DWELL IlIII Z FEED lNC gALc ESCCANCEL The format for entering a G82 Spot Drill 1 Hole directly onto the edit screen is 34 G83 Peck Drill 1 Hole This command peck drills a single hole from a previously positioned Z clearance point to the programmed Z depth in multiple steps that are determined by the values entered in the rst and other peck elds After each peck the tool rapids up out of the hole to the previously positioned Z clearance point then rapids back into the hole to the predetermined peck clearance stopping 01 short of where it last finished drilling before feeding down in the ZaXis The ZaXis will peck in this manner until the full depth is reached The purpose of the peck clearance is to minimize excess wear and breakage ofthe tool normally associated with tool deflection andor swelling of the part The peck clearance of 01 is built into this command and should not be confused with the normal clearance point o X ABS The position ofthe 0 Y ABS The position ofthe hole in the Yaxis X ABS z DEPTH The total depth of Y ABS the hole from previously positioned Z point Z DEPTH o Z1 PECK The depth ofthe rst peck from the previously Z 1ST PECK positioned Z point 0 Z OTHER PECKS The depth Z OTHER PECKS of the second and each consecutive peck incremental I from the peck previous to it 0 Z FEED The programmed feed rate l NC gALc ESCCANCEL l The format for entering a G83 Peck Drill 1 Hole directly onto the edit screen is G84 Tap Drill 1 Hole This command taps a single hole where the tool feeds down from a previously set position to the programmed depth at the speci ed feed rate dwellsreverses and feeds back up in the ZaXis If the Z start point is above the workpiece that clearance amount needs to be added to the total depth value When using a 2 axis machine a tap holder is required for the execution of this command 35 o X ABS The position of the TAP DRILL 1 HOLE hole in the Xaxis 0 Y ABS The position of the hole in the Yaxis I X ABS I z DEPTH The total depth of I YABS I the hole from the previoust set Z posItIon ZDEPTH o BOTTOM DWELL The dwell time in seconds when BOTTOM DWELL the tool reaches the bottom of the hole I TOP DWELL TOP DWELL The dwell I time in seconds at the top of the hole after it has been drilled I o MODE OSTD 1RIGID Select the tapping mode where O is for standard tapping and 1 is for rigid 1N0 gALo ESCCANCEL tapping o THREADS PER INCH lfthe control is in inch mode G20 when G84 is selected enter the value for threads per inch 0 THREAD PITCH If the control is in metric mode G21 when G84 is selected enter the pitch of the threads MODE OSTD 1RIGID THREADS PER INCH The format for entering a G84 Tap Drill 1 Hole directly onto the edit screen is G84 x YZQ QP P 36 ommmm cvc Lame oogg vm mmtrrr 222 e an o m Fn o DIXannKnFn m o 2anan ncvemema spmme anme upuunah 175 my Ansmme spmme anme Umwunah 175 my Lamp 51 Lnup msh Wan 1m spmme encudev mavkev pmse Amman vamus a mevsecuun spmme Speed er uvPRM Tum mm cau cummand spmme Speed se ec mn um unau er uvR39PM E uckde ete SubmmmEAumMu Rama muve Feed muve Aver C uckwwse G03 G04 G10 G33 G34 G35 G36 G40 G41 G42 G70 G71 G72 G73 G74 G75 G78 G76 G77 G81 G83 G90 G91 G92 G94 G95 G96 G97 M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M08 M09 M12 M13 M19 M25 M26 M30 M98 M99 GOSXnannKnFn or G03XnZan G04Fn G1 OXnZn G33XnZnnKnPOCn G34ZnnKnP G35n G36 G40 G41 G42 G70 G71 G72 G73 G74XnZnnUnFn G75nUnFnPn G78UnFnPn G76Sn G77Sn G81 Zn Fn G83ZnKnFn RnLnCn G90 G91 G92XnZn G94Fn G95Fn G96Sn G97 M00 M01 M02 MO3Sn MO4Sn M05 M08 M09 M12 M13 M19 M25 M26 M30 M98Pn M99 Arc Counter Clockwise Dwell Work Shift Threading cycle Threading cycle special single pass for course pitch Extra Course feeds in lPR Cancels G35 Cancel Tool Nose Radius Compensation Left hand Tool Nose Radius Compensation Right hand Tool Nose Radius Compensation lnch mode Metric mode Diameter programming mode Radius programming mode Box Roughing cycle Box Contour Roughing cycle Rough Contour Cycle Minimum spindle speed for constant surface feet Maximum spindle speed for constant surface feet Drill cycle Peck drill cycle Absolute mode selection Incremental mode selection Preset axis position lnches per minute mode lnches per revolution mode Spindle speed set as surface feet Spindle speed set as RPM Program stop cancels active quotMquot functions Optional stop End program does not cancel quotMquot functions Spindle on CW Spindle on CCW Spindle off stop Coolant on Coolant off Collet clamp Collet unclamp Spindle Positioning optional GT75 only User assigned on User assigned off End of program cancels all active quotMquot functions Jump to subroutine Return at end of subroutine 38 Example Program Box Contour Roughing Cycle with finish cut using one tool G90G94F300G72 M08 MOBSZSOO Tl LEFT HAND TURNING TOOL X525Zl Z0 G95F003X l GOOZ03 X525 G95FOO4 G75105U01F004Pl Z03 X0 G95F003 M98Pl GOOZZ M30 l XOZO X125R625 Z 5 X1875Z 6 X375C03 Z 75 X5 Z l0 X525 GOOZ03 39 Eunus Prujem mm was mm STATE uwswswor NEW vow AT FARMWGDALE MEHZY Warnmums srorrER chapters Gears Gear Types Spuerasshammteem Thageavpvmect mums mass s u macmne a sum gee Hehca andHenmgbunerHehcameavshave mewcutatananmemmeueav sast 252mm pus eachmhevsw 2an Henmubune ueavs sumeumes Maven m as duume hehcab havelwu sasumemesma cuumevac msmmue mema GeavsrA geavmamasmem out my me msme auan 1m Mannquot amund me umsme uHamev mametev 92a Thev mav 5pm m heucax c1 ulngeavs mm c qmgears mm c umgeavs mm Ln mageavs cum Beve e ednnem shafts at an ang e m the same mane Mder gears are WEI ufthe same sued beve gearsthat ednnem shafts at a BEL degree ang e Wurmr ednnem shafts at BENEng make but nut m the same mane The Warm sthe drwmg edmpdnemvmde the Whee ur gear 5 drwen c qlcgezvsmm Hypmd 7 used m Emmett shafts are BEL d gree ang es m dwerem mane 1 Brother USA Rack and F39mmn 7 used m nnven rutary mummy El hnear munun ur WEE versa dependmg un mm s the drwmg edmpdnem Cunsws ts uf a ruund gear and a at barthh gearteeth swde by swde c q cgsars cam Indexing Head The Indexing Head sometimes referred to as Dividing Head is used to precisely divide the workpiece s circumference into any number of equal divisions There are four methods for obtaining this Direct Index plates contain 24 30 and 36 hole circles The following formula is used for index calculations the result must be a whole number Number of holes in indexing circle Number of holes per dIVIsIon Required number of dIVIsIons When cutting gears using this method the hole that the index pin is currently engaged is never coun e Chuck Index plate Sector arm Simple sometimes referred to as Plain Indexing utilizes the gear ratio between the dividing head s crank and spindle The most common ration is 401 meaning 40 turns of the crank produces one turn of the spindle The formula below is used for calculating required numbers for less than one complete spindle revolution 43 Index crank turns 4 Acl where N is the required number of divisions Index plates with the following hole circles are fairly common 25 25 28 30 34 37 39 4142 43 4647 4951 53 5457 5859 62 66 Angular Index plate hole spacings are equivalent to angular degrees Since the index plate has equally spaced holes about its circumference the indexing calculations can be performed by the following formula Interval in degrees Number of holesto Index A Number of holes in the index plate Differential Used when the simple indexing method is not useable This method requires the index plate to be revolved a fraction of a turn either fonNards or backwards Examples Cutting 8 utes 4O 4O N 8 5 full turns of the Index crank Cutting 7 utes 40 5 N 7 5 7 turns Since there is a fractional remainder use of the index plate and sector arms are now required Using the Index Plate and Sector Arms In the example above we need to turn the index crank 57 ofa turn To accomplish this use the following table to nd any hole circle that is divisible by 7 Brown and Sharpe Plate 1 15 16 17 18 19 20 Plate 2 21 23 27 29 31 33 Plate 3 37 39 41 43 47 49 44 Cincinnati Standard Plate One side 24 25 28 30 34 37 38 39 41 42 43 Reverse side 46 47 49 51 53 54 57 58 59 62 66 We find that 21 is divisible by 7 on Brown and Sharpe s Plate 2 Next we take 57 of21 which yields us 15 holes on the 21hole circle We now can index for 7 utes by turning the index crank 5 complete turns plus 15 holes on the 21 hole circle 45 Required Project A Wi 1 m V a mm W w W aw WM maggg mmmus mm TIM RESIG ME 127 W 050205 Legend far all three loom larms 1 Whale death a h 6 Toolh Ihlckness 7 Clearance Easm rack 25 pressure angle 39 1 i Pressure I anz Walkmg unam Tumh 7 mm Than Churdzl chum Md aananaum Dunn Radial 39 x m Circular C wam Dedlndum quot quot Fum I Auanndum Charm 5 hchness n Mame W uyam 39 39 0mm any 39NImammv 4s Spur Gear Formulas for 14 12 degree pressure angle Outside Diameter D0 N 2 Pitch Diameter D I Addendum a 150 Dedendum b E P Number of Teeth N D X P Tooth thickness T 139508 Whole depth ht LPN 157 Clearance 0 P N1 N2 D1 D2 Center distance C 2 X P or 2 2 Working depth hk 90 Chordal tooth thickness to D sin Chordal addendum a a t2 5 4D Diametra pitch P 49 High Speed Gear Shaper DEPTHltFEED SHAFT CUTTING COMFOUND SUPPLY PIPE SADDLE ADVANCING PINXON SHAFT COUNTEREALANCE OIL RESERVOIR 59mm AUXILIA RV CAMSHAH PUSH BUTTON ATIOH CRANK ARM 3 sag4 I I2 ft 54 APRON I N i ROTA I E CUTIER LOCKING FLUNGER CUTTER CHANGE GIL RESERVOIR APRDN COVER CLAMFING SCREW LOWER WORM SHAFT CHANGE GEAR GUARD Schematic of Gear Shaper Setup procedure for shaping external spur dears 1 Select correct diametral pitch cutter and mount on arbor 2 Check stud for concentricity a Disengage worm and worm wheel by rotating screw on lower right hand side of machine using crank wrench b While this is rotating the center shaft will move off the white line and disengage the worm wheel Now the work spindle can be rotated by hand lf work spindle has a run out of more than 001 adjust the 4 screws on top of arbor 5 Engage worm and worm wheel being careful to line up teeth This is accomplished by carefully moving the work spindle and carefully rotating the screw as the worm and worm wheel are engaged Make sure spindle is directly under white line Carefully mount the workpiece on stud and tighten securely number down Set change gears according to gear sheet gear change chart and mount gears using paper as a feeler to obtain correct backlash A00 GINO Example Given Outside diameter D 3400 Diametral Pitch P 20 Pressure angle 1412 N2 D0 P N 2 3400 20 N 66 9 Bring cutter edge above gear blank by rotating hand wheel in proper direction Note Arrow cast in hand wheel 10 Rotate feed cam to high spot using crank on top screw 11Move cutter head back by loosening the 3 lock screws and carefully rotate the feed screw 18quot clearance 12 Rotate hand wheel in the direction ofthe arrow several revolutions stopping when cutter is 12 the way down on the downward stroke 13 Check cutter and gear blank and align cutting edge with periphery of blank 14 Loosen knurled nut and disengage clutch By using crank rotate cutterto align cutter and work Tighten knurled screw and engage clutch 15 Using crank rotate feed screw vertical and move cutter into work using paper as a feeler gage 16Set dial on 17Tighten lock nuts lightly 18 Rotate cam to its starting location carefully 19 Compute whole depth 20 Loosen 3 lock nuts and set cutter in desired amount by rotating vertical feed screw Securely tighten 3 lock nuts 51 21 Set length and position of stroke so that there is about 18 clearance on top and 116 on bottom of gear blank 22Things to check before starting Knurled nut is engaged Worm and worm wheel are engaged Work is moving back on the upward stroke Oil spout is pointed in correct position Feed lock nuts are tight Cutter and blank are tight 23 Check pitch diameter with Van Keuren Gear V res meom v Van Keuren Constant Measurement over Wires f 52 Change Gear Chart Type 7 HighSpeed Fellows Gear Shapers Number Of Teeth In Work G Number Of 11 TO 20 21 TO 40 41 T0120 Teeth In Cutter N Number Of Teeth In Change Gears A B o D A B o D A B o D 11 TO 20 4G 4N 6o 60 2G 4N 80 40 G 4N 96 24 21 TO 40 4G 2N 4o 80 2G 2N 6o 60 G 2N 80 4o 41 TO 96 4G N 24 96 2G N 40 80 G N 60 6o Example No1 11tooth pinion 32 pitch cut 1inch tapershank cutter 32 teeth A4G44 B2N64 C4O D80 Maximum Number Of Teeth A B 216 Minimum Number Of Teeth A B 79 In All Cases Number Of Teeth C D 120 Maximum Number Of Teeth A 124 Maximum Number Of Teeth B C Or D 96 Minimum Number Of Teeth B C Or D 24 All Gears 16 DP N A C Gear Change Formula x x 1 G B D Change Gears Having Number Of Teeth Beyond These Restrictions Are Available In Finer Pitches As Special Equipment Available Change Gears 24 30 36 37 238 39 4041 42 43 44 45 46 47248 4950 51 5254 56 68460262 6466 68 7072 80 8490 96 53 Checking external spur gear sizes Measurement over wires Using Van Keuren Standard Wire Sizes 1728 constant the dimensions in this table are for 1 diametral pitch For any other diametral pitch divide the dimension by the diametral pitch 145 20 145 20 54 mmzo m Qmmw mambmw mcaamm 01gt20m 0mgtmm mam lt22 H H w m 4 4 a H OIgtZOm Omgtm mom 9 mmpm wFDZX ltgtmgtwmm Um ugtmmgt uOI 2 29me Om mmI OU OCmum ugtmmm m0 uOI ugtmmm ltltUn ltltIOm UmmAI ltltn mgtmcmmm2 Oltmm ltltNmm mOmCgtm 2 n 00 x Um I N uu n 2uu ltltU n Nada u ltlt n ASA 002mgt2v Um 2 29me Om mmI 2 OCmm O 29me Om mmI 2 wrgt2A gt w 0 U 29me Om mmI 2 OIgtZOm Omgtmm mxmu ltgtCmn O U n 4M0 mm Bonus Projects Requirements 1 Printout of NC program 2 Route Sheet 500 END MILL 045 DEEP 50 BIA 13 HDLES 4 4063 3000 w 4 lt 9 wt L718 1881 1093 i lt gt 7 7 7 W i 0486 v f PART 0750 ZERD 1818 k1 437 4 lt7 1568 a lt7 8031 B468 2593 3845 3318 56 LS 199de snuog 1 0 5p L l 325 20 MATERIAL sum CDLLEGE Dr TECINULDGY STANDARD AT rAmHNnMLE gt quotNquot U WEH39 I TULERANCES SCALE DATE DRAWN m CHECKED BY PRDF SHEET 11