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General Biology

by: Winnifred Hegmann
Winnifred Hegmann
Cal Poly
GPA 3.98

Grace Goschke

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Grace Goschke
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Winnifred Hegmann on Monday November 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 111 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Grace Goschke in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see /class/234353/bio-111-california-polytechnic-state-university-san-luis-obispo in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 11/02/15
Bio Lab Outline Ecology Part of the biology that is concerned with the interactions of organisms with each other and with the physical and chemical features of the environment Environmental Factors which are important in determining what organisms occur are temperature available moisture and soil compositions San Luis Obispo gets 22 inches of rain on average The amount of water in environments depends on slope of land the exposure to the sun and wind the depth and kind of soil and drainage patterns Communities usually have one or more dominant species Riparian Community Community adjacent to a body of water such as a creek or river Enough soil water for plant growth all year long During rainy season soil becomes saturated which makes the soil lessen the amount of oxygen in the soil for root respiration Dominant Species are large trees including Arroyo Willow Black Cottonwood California Bay Sycamore Sycamore s and Cottonwoods have thin wide at leaves This results in a great deal of water loss through evaporation Native sycamore s are subject to a fungal disease This disease is worst during the spring and best during the summer Prevents growth and owering Most of the trees are deciduous Giant Horsetail Coastal Live Oak Woodland Chaparral 0 On some slopes where there is enough water and soil coast live oak is the dominant species The live oak has leathery leaves are more adapted for reducing water loss The oak is accompanied by California Bay and Toyon Shrubs are also present including California sagebrush poison oak and sticky monkey ower Word Chaparral is derived from a Spanish word meaning the place of scrub oaks Typically occurs in climates with mild winters and get 1525 inches of rain Typically shallow soil with deep cracks Sometimes chaparral communities are separated into two groups Hard Chaparral and Coastal Scrub Dominating shrubs have at leathery leaves which are heavily cutinized Underneath the plants there is virtually no plant life due to shading competition between roof systems grazing of seedlings by small mammals and allelopathy Dominant hard chaparral shrubs Chamise Mountain Mahogany Leather Oak Toyon Leaves of dominant plants in coastal scrub are soft usually not leathery Dominants of the coastal scrub California sagebrush Coyote bush California buckwheat Deerweed Sticky monkey ower Black sage Poison oak Grassland Community Grass plants typically have numerous much branched threadlike roots They have shallow roots which allows for a large surface area through which water is absorbed Most of the pasture grasses are annuals introduced from Europe and Asia The grasses are dominated by a mixture of native perennial bunch grasses and introduced annuals Rock Outcrops Steep Rocky slopes with very thin soil Serpentine rock green in color Soil from serpentine is higher in magnesium and lower calcium than soil from other materials Leather oak only grown in serpentine soils Much of the soil in PC is from Shale sedimentary rock Yucca This is pollinated by the yucca moth Club Moss dead during the dry season but turns green during wet times so it s called the resurrection plant Eucalyptus Grove Eucalyptus trees are introduced from Australia are dominant Due to allelopathy few plants grow underneath these trees Cites for large clusters of monarch butter ies and nests for great blue herons Process of Science Scienti c process Observations Hypothesis Prediction Experiment Conclusions and revisions Theory Tested previously in a whole bunch of experiments and formulated ideas Hypothesis When you do something for the rst time and have an idea about what the test will reveal Clinitest tablets Blue means no sugar green shows a little sugar tan has a moderate amount of sugar orange has a loud amount of sugar Practice Exam 1Goschke Spring 2011 1 After the Kreb Cycle all the carbon atoms from the original glucose are a Sent into the electron transport chain b Released into the cell membrane ic l d Sent into the phospholipid bilayer e Processed back into glycolysis 2 What is the smallest possible unit of life that can exist as a separate entity gt2 3 it all b a molecule c an atom of an element d a population e an ecosystem 3 These are the primary cellular sites for the production of proteins a Golgi Bodies c Mitochondria d Lysosomes e Endoplasmic Reticula 4 When light excites chlorophyll the chlorophyll molecule a Changes to carotene b Becomes agitated and moves rapidly c Becomes a radioactive isotope e Moves into the Kreb Cycle 5 The bond in table salt NaCl is a Polar c Covalent d Double e NonPolar 6 How do hydrophobic molecules react with water a Attracted to b Absorbed by d Mixed with e Polarized by 7 Amino acids are the building blocks for b Steroids c Lipids d Nucleic acids e Carbohydrates 8 What is formed when an atom loses or gains an electron a Mole c Bond d Molecule e Reaction 9 Essentially the first law of thermodynamics says that a One form of energy cannot be converted into another b Entropy is increasing in the universe d Enery cannot be converted into matter or matter into energy e All of these 10 The oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from a Carbon dioxide b Glucose c e Atmospheric oxygen 11 Prokaryotic cells do NOT have a Genetic Material c Cytoplasm d Plasma membrane e Ribosomes 12 Chlorophyll A reflects does not absorb which color of light a Red b Yellow c Orange e Blue 13 Plants need which of the following to carry on photosynthesis HT Cl b Nitrogen and hydrogen c Oxygen and carbon dioxide d Water and oxygen e Ribose and carbon dioxide 14 Complimentary base pairing occurs between a Cytosine and uracil b Adenine and guanine c Adenine and uracil d e Guanine and uracil 15 The end products of the llphoto reaction of photosynthesis are a Glucose and oxygen 1 T gm MAD P H c CO2 and H20 d Glucose and ATP e ADP and Oz 16 Four of the five answers listed below are degradation processes of carbon compounds Select the exception Krebs cycle b c Fermentation d Respiration e Glycolysis 17 Proteins can be denatured by El Che 39il39 b mical bonding c quotBasicquot pH 57 d ATP Synthase e Formation of peptide bonds 18 Cells use Active Transport a To create peptide bonds between sugars b To move par icles specially ions down a concentration gradient a 2 CD TML39Hlilquotllril3 i in H d Because using osmosis would reqUIre too much ATP 19 The byproduct of quotphotoquot reaction of photosynthesis is b Water c Carbon dioxide d Glucose e Helium 20 Most are that speed up reactions a enzymes nucleic acids b amino acids proteins c enzymes carbohydrates e nanfats phosphoipids 21 Which statement about membranes is false a They function in transport and cellular action ll c l 39m c They are dynamic in nature d They contain proteins which aid in selective permeability 22 The three steps in order of the Calvin Cycle are c u ar creation regeneration d ATP production the electron transport chain and fixation of NADPH e Regeneration fixation of NADP sugar creation 23 Where does the new mass of a plant come from as it grows a bsorbed b c capture of oxygen gas d chemicals in soil e photons from sunlight 24 Photosynthesizing plants rely on water a as high energy storage in its bonding hat are lost during photosynthesis b to replenish oxygen molecules t w v Wm lanul i n v rirf lacmlu to provide the proto e to concentrate the beams of light hitting a leaf focusing them on the reaction center 29 The electron transport chain in eukaryotic mitochondria results in all of the following EXCEPT 39 H h The production of ATP via ATP synthase A proton concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane The conversion of molecular oxygen to water The conversion of NADH to NAD as it gives up electrons Given that a cell39s structure reflects its function what function would you predict for a cell with a large Golgi apparatus A i 2i ma attachment to bone tissue movement rapid replication of genetic material and coordination of cell division detoxifying harmful chemicals Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle a my ll a b conversIon of NADPH to NADP c consumption of ATP d carbon fixation e consumption of carbon dioxide Which of the following BEST defines diffusion a net movement of particles from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration b net movement of fluids from the environment into and out of an organism c net movement of particles between cells d net movement of particles in the cell from the ER to t e 7 ilk 10 cm The rough ER is the site of protein synthesismodification and the smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis What is the third compartment of the endomembrane system and what is that compartment39s function a Ribosomes the place of protein transcription li39ni39iizl39ii iilquot mi c Vesicles packages of proteins surrounded by cell membranes that sort the proteins and lipids for packaging Peroxisomes vescicles that breakdown unwanted forms of lipids e None of the above is correct 53 30 A chemical compound that releases H or OH into a solution to balance pH is called b an aqueous solution c a base d an acid e a hydrogen ion 31 Large macromolecules are formed and broken down primarily through a Hydrogen bonding H7 D c Hydrophilia and Hydrophobia d Peptide Bonds e Carboxyl synthesis 32 These junctions are mainly between animal cells and fasten cells into sheets Gap Junction a b Tight Junction c Plasma Desmata e Loose Junction 33 Plants protists fungi and animals are all known to obtain energy through aerobic respiration Which of the following must be present in all these organisms for this to be true a ribosomes b hemoglobin c chlorophyll d cellular walls e 34 Biology is the study of a Your mother b The war between the College of Business and College of Engineering C kill d I don t know e Maybe U3 U1 f photosynthesis produces cellular energy ATP from sunlight why do plant cells also need to perform cellular respiration a process that produces ATP from sugar M lllll iu39 Hl W W W 0 RD 4 53 4 4 Iquot b Plant cells cannot make cellular energy at night therefore photosynthesis actually stores ATP energy as sugar which can be then converted back to ATP at night by cellular respiration c Plant cells need cellular respiration to convert the sugars they absorb through their roots into ATP Plant cells can39t produce enough sugar from photosynthesis cellular respiration is needed to produce the remaining sugar Two drugs called colchicine and cytochalasin are known to disrupt the cytoskeleton within a eukaryotic cell such as an amoeba Which cell function would be MOST affected by addition of these drugs to an amoeba a the ability of the amoeba to produce proteins b the ability of the amoeba to make new DNA c 53 the ability of enzymes to function inside the amoeba m l ioxel nm ii l i m Chm l Ha Different steps in cellular respiration occur in different locations in the mitochondria Which of the following does not properly match a step of respiration to its proper location molecule of CO2 released matrix a b c d All of the above The passive transport of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration is best described as a Facilitated diffusion b Active transport c Passive transport l H i e Simple diffusion Which of the following sequences accurately represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis My My Llal ml in u b NADPH 9 Oz 9 C02 c NADPH 9 chlorophyll 9 Calvin cycle d NADPH 9 electron transport chain 9 Oz Nuclear are specialized holes in the layered nuclear envelope that separates the nucleus from the b vesicles three endoplasmic reticulum c passageways one cytoplasm d pores one endoplasmic reticulum Which statement is true when comparing lemon juice to baking soda a Baking soda has less OH than lemon juice i c Baking soda has than lemon juice d Lemon juice has less H than baking soda MgCl separates in water into Mg 2 and Cl If you were able to look at the Mg 2 and Cl ions what would you see a Cl ions surrounded by H20 molecules with oxygen atoms facing the Cl ions b Mg 2 ions surrounded by H2O molecules with hydrogen atoms facing the Mg 2 ions H Slam um my uni 1 mt 7 n39wr lwu 3971 9 l quot iiiijirms 5 d The Mg 2 closest to the Cl molecule 43 The generation of ATP by the movement of protons down their concentration gradient occurs in a Mitochondria b Chloroplasts c Endoplasmic reticula 44 What major advantage does the presence of organelles offer eukaryotic cells a They help make eukaryotic cells larger b They help to blend together the chemicals throughout the cell he 39ClllEl39NllLHlf 39ucr u 239 w quot w Mi mir ii name l LllCll i d They greatly simplify eukaryotic cells making them less complex How are phospholipid molecules that make up the surface membrane of a cell organized a A twolayered structure is formed with the hydrophobic heads facing in to each other sandwic exterior environment 4 U1 c A single layered structure is formed with the hydrophobic tails facing in to the interior of the cell and the hydrophobic head on the outside facing the exterior environment d A single layered structure is formed with the hydrophobic heads facing in to the interior of the cell and the hydrophobic tails on the outside facing the exterior environment Which of the following cellular components contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with the digestion of macromolecules 4 m a la b Smooth ER c Vacuole d Peroxisomes 47 Which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis Respiration occurs only in animals and photosynthesis occurs only in plants Photosynthesis reverses the biochemical pathways of respiration Respiration stores energy in complex organic molecules while photosynthesis releases it a b c les to stick together called co A u m n t 1 il b the polarIty of water allows a hydrogen atom from one water molecule to form a hydrogen bond with the hydrogen atom of another water molecule c the polarity of water allows an oxygen atom from one water molecule to form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of another water molecule d the polarity of water allows a hydrogen atom from one water molecule to form an ionic bond with the oxygen atom of another water molecule 4 U1 U1 U1 U1 In contrast to the Just four elements make up more than 96 of the human body These include all of the following EXCEPT a Carbon b Hydrogen c Nitrogen d Oxygen umber 7 This means b nitrogen is a combination of hydrogen atomic number 1 and carbon atomic number 6 c nitrogen39s atomic weight is 7 d nitrogen has either 7 electrons that lead to ionic bonds covalent bonds hen form w J 39 b sharing of electrons there is a complete transfer of electrons c complete transfer of electrons two atoms share one or more pairs of innershell electrons d change in atomic number the atomic number remains unchanged During electron transport in photosynthesis the inner compartment of the thylakoid membrane becomes a less acidic than the stroma h i39c V fl39 im Lil39w g c more acidic than the cytoplasm d a site for the synthesis of NADPH The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is a Carbon Dioxide b c ron d


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